Table 2: Studies investigating the use of VLCDs followed by a maintenance phase.

StudyNNumber of malesInterventionDuration of VLCDTotal duration of
intervention
Weight at baseline (Kg)Weight at end of VLCD(Kg)Weight at end of study (Kg)HDL at baseline (mmol/L)HDL at end of VLCD (mmol/L)HDL at end of study
(mmol/L)

Apfelbaum et al. [25]7818220–800 kcal/d followed by maintenance (hypocaloric balanced diet + placebo).
4 (± 1 week)>12 month (4 ± 1 week of VLCD followed by 12 month double-blind treatment phase).105.1 (20.3)97.7 (19.7)*Δ 0.5 (5.7)Δ 0.09 (0.08)
Apfelbaum et al. [25]8215220–800 kcal/d followed by maintenance (hypocaloric balanced diet + sibutramine).
4 (± 1 week)>12 month (4 ± 1 week of VLCD followed by 12 month double-blind treatment phase).103.4 (17.5)95.7 (16.9)*Δ −5.2 (7.5)*†Δ 0.13 (0.09)*
Christiansen et al. [17]2915600 kcal/d followed by maintenance (hypocaloric balanced diet).
8 week12 weeks (8 weeks of VLCD followed by 4 weeks of maintenance).107.8 (12)Δ −11.2 kg*95.5 (11)*1.2 (0.3)1.2 (0.3)
Christiansen et al. [17]2513800 kcal/d + exercise followed by maintenance (hypocaloric balanced diet + exercise).
8 week12 weeks (8 weeks of VLCD followed by 4 weeks of maintenance). Exercise was performed over the 12 weeks.105.8 (15)Δ −12.1 kg*93.5 (13)*1.2 (0.3)1.3 (0.3)*
Delbridge et al. [27]7035~500–550 kcal/d followed by maintenance (high-carbohydrate diet).
12 weeks15 months (12 weeks VLCD; 12 months maintenance).109.4 (2.6)Δ −17.6 (0.8)*Δ −14.3 (2.0)* ( 𝑛 = 4 0 )1.2
(0.04)
( 𝑛 = 6 5 )
Δ −0.015 (0.02)
( 𝑛 = 6 2 )
Δ − 0.21 (0.03)*( 𝑛 = 3 3 )
Delbridge et al. [27]7135~500–550 kcal/d followed by maintenance (high-protein diet).
12 weeks15 months (12 weeks VLCD; 12 months maintenance).114.0 (3.0)Δ −17.4 (0.7)*Δ −14.8 (0.5)* ( 𝑛 = 4 2 ) 1.2 (0.03) ( 𝑛 = 5 9 ) Δ 0.003 (0.03) ( 𝑛 = 5 4 ) Δ 0.19 (0.04)*
( 𝑛 = 3 3 )
Erondu et al. [23]17632800 kcal/d followed by weight maintenance (hypocaloric diet + placebo).
6 weeks58 weeks (6 weeks VLCD followed by 52 weeks maintenance).101.5 (15.3)92.3 (13.9)*95.6 (15.7)*1.45 (0.34)1.26 (0.25)1.48 (0.37)
Erondu et al. [23]18137800 kcal/d followed by weight maintenance (hypocaloric diet + MK-0557).
6 weeks58 weeks (6 weeks VLCD followed by 52 weeks maintenance).98.4 (13.8)89.5 (12.7)*91.1 (14.5)*1.41 (0.36)1.22 (0.29)1.48 (0.40)
Fogelholm et al. [18]2801 week LCD + 8 weeks VLCD + 3 weeks LCD.
No increase in exercise.
8 weeks12 weeks weight loss + 40 weeks no increased exercise + 2 year followup.92.0 (9.8)80.0 (9.5)* 89.7 (9.6)
( 𝑛 = 2 7 )
1.22 (0.24)1.12 (0.18) 1.34 (0.28)
( 𝑛 = 2 7 )
Fogelholm et al. [18]250Same weight loss intervention as above + walking program targeted to expend 4.2 MJ/wk.
8 weeks12 weeks weight loss + 40 weeks walking program (1) + 2 year followup.92.0 (9.8)78.0 (8.8)*83.9
(12.2)
( 𝑛 = 2 4 )
1.22 (0.24)1.12 (0.27) 1.42 (0.35)
( 𝑛 = 2 4 )
Fogelholm et al. [18]270Same weight loss intervention as above + walking program targeted to expend 8.4 MJ/wk.
8 weeks12 weeks weight loss + 40 weeks walking program (2) + 2 year followup.92.0 (9.8)78.2 (11.6)* 87.4 (15.3)
( 𝑛 = 2 3 )
1.22 (0.24)1.13 (0.19) 1.41 (0.25)
( 𝑛 = 2 3 )
Haugaard et al. [28]92600–800 kcal/d followed by weight maintenance (hypocaloric balanced diet).8 weeks32 weeks (8 weeks VLCD + 24 weeks weight maintenance).104.594.7
(SE: 4.0)*
93.5
(SE: 4.9)*
1.41.2 (0.1)*1.4 (0.1)
Heinonen et al. [24]3519800 kcal/d followed by weight maintenance (hypocaloric balanced diet + placebo or Orlistat).
8 weeks8 months (8 weeks VLCD + 6 months weight maintenance).101.7 (2.0)86.9 (1.7)*86.6 (1.8)*1.17 (0.04)1.25 (0.04)*1.23 (0.05)*
Paisey et al. [26]156Type 2 diabetic patients 450 kcal/d for women or 650 kcal/d for men.
6 weeks>5 years (6 week VLCD and 5 year followup).1.20 (0.39)1.26 (0.47)
Pekkarinen et al. [20]290429 kcal/d followed by weight maintenance (refeeding to low-energy food).
The programme included 12 sessions of behaviour methods for weight control.
8 week52 week (8 week VLCD + 9 weeks refeeding and followup at week 52).96.1 (10.9)Δ −12.4 (3.3)*Δ −10.7 (7.6)*
( 𝑛 = 2 7 )
1.19 (0.25)Δ −0.20 (0.20)*Δ 0.16 (0.18)* ( 𝑛 = 2 6 )
Richelsen et al. [22]15676600–800 kcal/d followed by weight maintenance (hypocaloric balanced diet + Placebo).
8 weeks38 months (8 weeks VLCD + 36 months placebo and hypocaloric diet).111.9 (16.0)Δ −14.3 *Δ −7.2 *1.15 (0.26)Δ −0.07*Δ 0.06*
Richelsen et al. [22]15376600–800 kcal/d followed by weight maintenance (hypocaloric balanced diet + Orlistat).
8 weeks38 months (8 weeks VLCD + 36 months Orlistat and hypocaloric diet).110.7 (17.9)Δ −14.5*Δ −9.4*1.13 (0.26)Δ −0.05*Δ 0.04*
Rolland et al. [19]145~550 kcal/d + behaviour therapy followed by weight maintenance (refeeding, balanced diet and behaviour therapy.
Average 6.9 months9 months (12 weeks–9 months of VLCD followed by maintenance).129.6 (23.0)109.1 (14.6)*109.1 (14.6)*1.29 (0.19)1.47 (0.23)*1.47 (0.23)*
Wing et. [21]174LCD (1000 to 1500 kcal/d depending on initial body weight) followed by a VLCD (400 kcal/d) followed by weight maintenance (refeeding to hypocaloric diet) + BT (for duration of the study)8 weeks72 weeks (1 month LCD followed by 2 months of VLCD, followed by refeeding for 8 weeks and a followup after 52 weeks).102.1 (11.7)83.5 (9.5)*93.5 (10.4)*1.11 (2.3)1.26 (0.30)*1.33 (0.25)*

Values reported as means (standard deviation) unless stated otherwise.
N: number of participants
* P < . 0 5 compared to baseline
SE: standard error
Δ values reported as change
values do not include weight lost during the VLCD.