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Cholesterol
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 581432, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/581432
Clinical Study

Macronutrient Intake Influences the Effect of 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D Status on Metabolic Syndrome Outcomes in African American Girls

1Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1675 University Boulevard, WEBB 439 Birmingham, AL 35294-3360, USA
2Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-3360, USA

Received 29 February 2012; Revised 23 April 2012; Accepted 23 April 2012

Academic Editor: Roya Kelishadi

Copyright © 2012 Anna L. Newton et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The objectives were to determine the effect of macronutrient modification on vitamin D status and if change in 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentration influences components of metabolic syndrome in obese African American girls. Methods. Five-week intervention using reduced CHO (43% carbohydrate; 27% fat: SPEC) versus standard CHO (55% carbohydrate; 40% fat: STAN) eucaloric diet. Subjects were 28 obese African American females, aged 9–14 years. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and meal test were performed at baseline and five weeks. Results. Approximately 30% of girls had metabolic syndrome. Serum 25OHD increased in both groups at five weeks [STAN: 20.3 ± 1.1 to 22.4 ± 1.1 ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 ) versus SPEC: 1 6 . 1 ± 1 . 0 to 1 6 . 8 ± 1 . 0 ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 5 )]. The STAN group, increased 25OHD concentration over five weeks ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 ), which was positively related to triglycerides ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 ) and inversely associated with total cholesterol ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 ) and LDL ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 ). The SPEC group, had increase in 25OHD ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 5 ), which was positively related to fasting insulin ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 ) and insulin sensitivity while inversely associated with fasting glucose ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 ). The contribution of vitamin D status to metabolic syndrome parameters differs according to macronutrient intake. Improvement in 25OHD may improve fasting glucose, insulin sensitivity, and LDL; however, macronutrient intake warrants consideration.