About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Cholesterol
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 840935, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/840935
Research Article

Effects of Diet, Aerobic Exercise, or Both on Non-HDL-C in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analytic Research Group, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-9190, USA

Received 18 August 2012; Accepted 26 September 2012

Academic Editor: Jan Wouter Jukema

Copyright © 2012 George A. Kelley and Kristi S. Kelley. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, et al., “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2012 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 125, pp. e2–e220, 2012.
  2. M. Heron, “Deaths: leading causes for 2008,” National Vital Statistics Reports, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 1–94, 2012.
  3. National Cholesterol Education Program, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, and National Institutes of Health, “Third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult treatment panel III) final report,” Circulation, vol. 106, pp. 3143–3421, 2002.
  4. R. V. Milani and C. J. Lavie, “Another step forward in refining risk stratification: moving past low-density lipoprotein cholesterol,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 464–466, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. S. Rana, S. M. Boekholdt, J. J. P. Kastelein, and P. K. Shah, “The role of non-HDL cholesterol in risk stratification for coronary artery disease,” Current Atherosclerosis Reports, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 130–134, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. M. Boekholdt, B. J. Arsenault, S. Mora et al., “Association of LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels with risk of cardiovascular events among patients treated with statins: a meta-analysis,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 307, no. 12, pp. 1302–1309, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. D. Sniderman, K. Williams, J. H. Contois et al., “A meta-analysis of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein b as markers of cardiovascular risk,” Circulation, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 337–345, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. A. Kelley, K. S. Kelley, S. Roberts, and W. Haskell, “Comparison of aerobic exercise, diet or both on lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 31, pp. 156–167, 2012.
  9. L. V. Hedges and I. Olkin, Statistical Methods for Meta-Analysis, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1985.
  10. J. P. T. Higgins and S. Green, Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.
  11. J. P. T. Higgins, S. G. Thompson, and D. J. Spiegelhalter, “A re-evaluation of random-effects meta-analysis,” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A, vol. 172, no. 1, pp. 137–159, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. A. Kelley and K. S. Kelley, “Impact of progressive resistance training on lipids and lipoproteins in adults: another look at a meta-analysis using prediction intervals,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 473–475, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. L. Graham and J. L. Moran, “Robust meta-analytic conclusions mandate the provision of prediction intervals in meta-analysis summaries,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 503–510, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. W. G. Cochran, “The combination of estimates from different experiments,” Biometrics, vol. 10, pp. 101–129, 1954.
  15. J. P. T. Higgins, S. G. Thompson, J. J. Deeks, and D. G. Altman, “Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses,” British Medical Journal, vol. 327, no. 7414, pp. 557–560, 2003. View at Scopus
  16. S. Duval and R. Tweedie, “Trim and fill: a simple funnel-plot-based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis,” Biometrics, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 455–463, 2000. View at Scopus
  17. S. Duval and R. Tweedie, “A Nonparametric “Trim and Fill” method of accounting for publication bias in meta-analysis,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, vol. 95, no. 449, pp. 89–98, 2000. View at Scopus
  18. Biostat, “Comprehensive meta-analysis. (2.2),” Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 2006.
  19. “Microsoft Excel 2007,” Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Wash, USA, 2007.
  20. Statistical Services Center, “SSC-Stat. (2.18),” University of Reading, Statistical Services Center, UK, 2007.
  21. M. L. Hellenius, U. D. Faire, B. Berglund, A. Hamsten, and I. Krakau, “Diet and exercise are equally effective in reducing risk for cardiovascular disease. Results of a randomized controlled study in men with slightly to moderately raised cardiovascular risk factors,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 81–91, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Hopewell, The effect of fiber and exercise on weight loss and blood lipids in moderately overweight women [Dissertation], West Virginia University, 1989.
  23. D. C. Nieman, D. W. Brock, D. Butterworth, A. C. Utter, and C. C. Nieman, “Reducing diet and/or exercise training decreases the lipid and lipoprotein risk factors of moderately obese women,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 344–350, 2002. View at Scopus
  24. M. L. Stefanick, S. Mackey, M. Sheehan, N. Ellsworth, W. L. Haskell, and P. D. Wood, “Effects of diet and exercise in men and postmenopausal women with low levels of HDL cholesterol and high levels of LDL cholesterol,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 339, no. 1, pp. 12–20, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. V. L. Vetro, The effects of aerobic dance exercise and nutrition intervention on cholesterol levels [M.S. thesis], Springfield College, 1990.
  26. R. R. Wing, E. Venditti, J. M. Jakicic, B. A. Polley, and W. Lang, “Lifestyle intervention in overweight individuals with a family history of diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 350–359, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. G. Robinson, S. Wang, B. J. Smith, and T. A. Jacobson, “Meta-analysis of the relationship between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction and coronary heart disease risk,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 316–322, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. H. Littell, J. Corcoran, and V. Pillai, Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2008.