Table 1: Lp(a) subunits responsible for cellular effects.

ProcessLDL-apoB-100Apo(a)RegionReferences

Thrombosis
 (i) Platelet aggregation [1117]
 (ii) tissue factor pathway [1921]
 (iii) plasminogen activation KIV type 10, KV[8, 20, 2328]
 (iv) TGF 𝛽 activation× KIV type 9[3437]
 (v) TGF 𝛽 production KIV type 10, KV[37]
Inflammation
 (i) Oxidised phospholipids× KV[4446]
 (ii) monocyte migration [19, 51, 53]
 (iii) monocyte adhesion× KIV type 10[19]
Vascular remodelling
 (i) SMC proliferation KIV type 9[35, 36, 58, 62]
 (ii) SMC migration KIV type 9[36]
 (iii) EC proliferation KIV type 10, KV[37, 64, 65]
 (iv) EC migration KIV type 10, KV[37, 65]
 (v) EC contraction KIV type 10[70]

For detailed information, see main body of text and highlighted references. Key: = positive for effect, × = negative for effect, — = not tested.