About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 192325, 8 pages
Clinical Study

Low-Fat Nondairy Minidrink Containing Plant Stanol Ester Effectively Reduces LDL Cholesterol in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Hypercholesterolemia as Part of a Western Diet

1Department of Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
2Foodfiles AB, Dag Hammarskjöldsväg 36B, 751 83 Uppsala, Sweden
3Department of Medicine, Division of Internal Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 700, 00029 Helsinki, Finland

Received 24 June 2013; Revised 15 August 2013; Accepted 19 August 2013

Academic Editor: Gloria L. Vega

Copyright © 2013 Maarit Hallikainen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. C. LaRosa, “Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction: the end is more important than the means,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 240–242, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. O. J. Pollak, “Reduction of blood cholesterol in man,” Circulation, vol. 7, pp. 702–706, 1953.
  3. K. Musa-Veloso, T. H. Poon, J. A. Elliot, and C. Chung, “A comparison of the LDL-cholesterol lowering efficacy of plant stanols and plant sterols over a continuous dose range: results of a meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials,” Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 9–28, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. “Response to comments on the Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to 3 g/day plant stanols as plant stanol esters and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to article 14 of regulation (EC),” EFSA Tecnical Report 1924/2006, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy, 2012, http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/supporting/pub/333e.htm.
  5. T. A. Miettinen, “Cholesterol metabolism during ketoconazole treatment in man,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 43–51, 1988. View at Scopus
  6. T. A. Miettinen, R. S. Tilvis, and Y. A. Kesäniemi, “Serum plant sterols and cholesterol precursors reflect cholesterol absorption and synthesis in volunteers of a randomly selected male population,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 20–31, 1990. View at Scopus
  7. P. Simonen, H. Gylling, and T. A. Miettinen, “The validity of serum squalene and non-cholesterol sterols as surrogate markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption in type 2 diabetes,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 197, no. 2, pp. 883–888, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. W. Kriengsinyos, K. Sumriddetchkajorn, and U. Yamborisut, “Reduction of LDL-cholesterol in mildly hypercholesterolemic Thais with plant stanol ester fortified soy milk,” Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, vol. 94, no. 11, pp. 1327–1336, 2011. View at Scopus
  9. J. Algorta Pineda, M. J. Chinchetru Ranedo, J. Aguirre Anda, and S. Francisco Terreros, “Hypocholesteremic effectiveness of a yogurt containing plant stanol esters,” Revista Clinica Espanola, vol. 205, no. 2, pp. 63–66, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. M. E. Doornbos, E. M. Meynen, G. S. Duchateau, H. C. van der Knaap, and E. A. Trautwein, “Intake occasion affects the serum cholesterol lowering of a plant sterol-enriched single-dose yoghurt drink in mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 325–333, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. Hansel, C. Nicolle, F. Lalanne et al., “Effect of low-fat, fermented milk enriched with plant sterols on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress in moderate hypercholesterolemia,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 790–796, 2007. View at Scopus
  12. E. Mannarino, M. Pirro, C. Cortese et al., “Effects of a phytosterol-enriched dairy product on lipids, sterols and 8-isoprostane in hypercholesterolemic patients: a multicenter Italian study,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 84–90, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. Plana, C. Nicolle, R. Ferre et al., “Plant sterol-enriched fermented milk enhances the attainment of LDL-cholesterol goal in hypercholesterolemic subjects,” European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 32–39, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. Keszthelyi, D. Knol, F. J. Troost, M. van Avesaat, M. Foltz, and A. A. Masclee, “Time of ingestion relative to meal intake determines gastrointestinal responses to a plant sterol-containing yoghurt drink,” European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 1417–1420, 2013.
  15. M. Nissinen, H. Gylling, M. Vuoristo, and T. A. Miettinen, “Micellar distribution of cholesterol and phytosterols after duodenal plant stanol ester infusion,” American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, vol. 282, no. 6, pp. G1009–G1015, 2002. View at Scopus
  16. M. J. Amiot, D. Knol, N. Cardinault et al., “Phytosterol ester processing in the small intestine:impact on cholesterol availability for absorption and chylomicron cholesterol incorporation in healthy humans,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1256–1264, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. J. M. Kempen, J. F. C. Glatz, J. A. Gevers Leuven, H. A. Van der Voort, and M. B. Katan, “Serum lathosterol concentration is an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis in humans,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1149–1155, 1988. View at Scopus
  18. H. Gylling and T. A. Miettinen, “Serum cholesterol and cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in hypercholesterolaemic NIDDM patients before and during sitostanol ester-margarine treatment,” Diabetologia, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 773–780, 1994. View at Scopus
  19. H. Gylling, R. Radhakrishnan, and T. A. Miettinen, “Reduction of serum cholesterol in postmenopausal women with previous myocardial infarction and cholesterol malabsorption induced by dietary sitostanol ester margarine: women and dietary sitostanol,” Circulation, vol. 96, no. 12, pp. 4226–4231, 1997. View at Scopus
  20. T. A. Miettinen, M. Vuoristo, M. Nissinen, H. J. Järvinen, and H. Gylling, “Serum, biliary, and fecal cholesterol and plant sterols in colectomized patients before and during consumption of stanol ester margarine,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 1095–1102, 2000. View at Scopus
  21. H. Gylling, P. Puska, E. Vartiainen, and T. A. Miettinen, “Serum sterols during stanol ester feeding in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 593–600, 1999. View at Scopus
  22. R. P. Mensink, S. Ebbing, M. Lindhout, J. Plat, and M. M. Van Heugten, “Effects of plant stanol esters supplied in low-fat yoghurt on serum lipids and lipoproteins, non-cholesterol sterols and fat soluble antioxidant concentrations,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 160, no. 1, pp. 205–213, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Hallikainen, T. Lyyra-Laitinen, T. Laitinen, L. Moilanen, T. A. Miettinen, and H. Gylling, “Effects of plant stanol esters on serum cholesterol concentrations, relative markers of cholesterol metabolism and endothelial function in type 1 diabetes,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 199, no. 2, pp. 432–439, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Hallikainen, S. Kurl, M. Laakso, T. A. Miettinen, and H. Gylling, “Plant stanol esters lower LDL cholesterol level in statin-treated subjects with type 1 diabetes by interfering the absorption and synthesis of cholesterol,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 217, no. 2, pp. 473–478, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. C. Rideout, Y.-M. Chan, S. V. Harding, and P. J. Jones, “Low and moderate-fat plant sterol fortified soymilk in modulation of plasma lipids and cholesterol kinetics in subjects with normal to high cholesterol concentrations: report on two randomized crossover studies,” Lipids in Health and Disease, vol. 8, p. 45, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. Casas-Agustench, M. Serra A, A. Perez-Heras, et al., “Effects of plant sterol esters in skimmed milk and vegetable-fat-enriched milk on serum lipids and non-cholesterol sterols in hypercholesterolaemic subjects: a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 107, no. 12, pp. 1766–1775, 2012.
  27. S. S. AbuMweis, C. A. Vanstone, A. H. Lichtenstein, and P. J. H. Jones, “Plant sterol consumption frequency affects plasma lipid levels and cholesterol kinetics in humans,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 747–755, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. I. Rudkowska, S. S. AbuMweis, C. Nicolle, and P. J. H. Jones, “Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant sterols in low-fat yogurt consumed as a snack or with a meal,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 588–595, 2008. View at Scopus
  29. M. A. Hallikainen, E. S. Sarkkinen, and M. I. J. Uusitupa, “Plant stanol esters affect serum cholesterol concentrations of hypercholesterolemic men and women in a dose-dependent manner,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 130, no. 4, pp. 767–776, 2000. View at Scopus