Table 1: Major risk factors for cholesterol gallstones.

Independent
 (i) Increasing age
 (ii) Female gender
 (iii) Race
 (iv) Family history
Dietary
 (i) High calorie
 (ii) High cholesterol
 (iii) High fat
 (iv) High trans-fatty acids
 (v) Low fiber
 (vi) Low cis-unsaturated fats
 (vii) High refined carbohydrates
Life style
 (i) Low grade physical activity
 (ii) Prolonged fasting
 (iii) Rapid weight loss
 (iv) Pregnancy and parity
 (v) Oral contraceptives
 (vi) Estrogen replacement therapy
Associated conditions
 (i) The metabolic syndrome
 (ii) Obesity
 (iii) Insulin resistance
 (iv) Diabetes type 2
 (v) Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
 (vi) Gallbladder and/or intestinal stasis

Adapted and modified from Portincasa et al. The Lancet, 2006 [17].