- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 754580, 9 pages
Leishmania major Self-Limited Infection Increases Blood Cholesterol and Promotes Atherosclerosis Development
1Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Universidade Federal Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
2Centro Universitário, Av. Prof. Mário Werneck, 1685-Estoril, 30455-610 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
Received 6 February 2013; Revised 30 March 2013; Accepted 31 March 2013
Academic Editor: Gloria L. Vega
Copyright © 2013 Luciana R. Fernandes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- J. Liese, U. Schleicher, and C. Bogdan, “The innate immune response against Leishmania parasites,” Immunobiology, vol. 213, no. 3-4, pp. 377–387, 2008.
- G. K. Hansson, “Inflammatory mechanisms in atherosclerosis,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 328–331, 2009.
- R. Ross, “Atherosclerosis—an inflammatory disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 340, no. 2, pp. 115–126, 1999.
- G. K. Hansson and P. Libby, “The immune response in atherosclerosis: a double-edged sword,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 508–519, 2006.
- S. Kiechl, G. Egger, M. Mayr et al., “Chronic infections and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis: prospective results from a large population study,” Circulation, vol. 103, no. 8, pp. 1064–1070, 2001.
- G. Noll, “Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: a possible relation to infection,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 140, no. 1, pp. S3–S9, 1998.
- F. F. Mussa, H. Chai, X. Wang, Q. Yao, A. B. Lumsden, and C. Chen, “Chlamydia pneumoniae and vascular disease: an update,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1301–1307, 2006.
- L. J. Murray, K. B. Bamford, D. P. J. O'Reilly, E. E. McCrum, and A. E. Evans, “Helicobacter pylori infection: relation with cardiovascular risk factors, ischaemic heart disease, and social class,” British Heart Journal, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 497–501, 1995.
- M. S. Burnett, S. Durrani, E. Stabile et al., “Murine cytomegalovirus infection increases aortic expression of proatherosclerotic genes,” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 7, pp. 893–897, 2004.
- M. J. Doenhoff, R. G. Stanley, K. Griffiths, and C. L. Jackson, “An anti-atherogenic effect of Schistosoma mansoni infections in mice associated with a parasite-induced lowering of blood total cholesterol,” Parasitology, vol. 125, no. 5, pp. 415–421, 2002.
- L. R. Portugal, L. R. Fernandes, G. C. Cesar et al., “Infection with Toxoplasma gondii increases atherosclerotic lesion in ApoE-deficient mice,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 3571–3576, 2004.
- J. H. Meurman, M. Sanz, and S. J. Janket, “Oral health, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease,” Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 403–413, 2004.
- H. Zhang, L. M. Wu, and J. Wu, “Cross-talk between apolipoprotein E and cytokines,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2011, Article ID 949072, 10 pages, 2011.
- L. S. Capettini, S. F. Cortes, J. F. Silva, J. I. Alvarez-Leite, and V. S. Lemos, “Decreased production of nNOS-derived hydrogen peroxide contributes to endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 164, no. 6, pp. 1738–1748, 2011.
- P. G. Reeves, F. H. Nielsen, and G. C. Fahey, “AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: final report of the american institute of nutrition ad hoc writing committee on the reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet,” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 123, no. 11, pp. 1939–1951, 1993.
- L. Q. Vieira, M. Goldschmidt, M. Nashleanas, K. Pfeffer, T. Mak, and P. Scott, “Mice lacking the TNF receptor p55 fail to resolve lesions caused by infection with Leishmania major, but control parasite replication,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 157, no. 2, pp. 827–835, 1996.
- S. Fazio, V. R. Babaev, A. B. Murray et al., “Increased atherosclerosis in mice reconstituted with apolipoprotein E null macrophages,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 94, no. 9, pp. 4647–4652, 1997.
- J. Folch, M. Lees, and S. G. H. Sloane, “A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues,” The Journal of biological chemistry, vol. 226, no. 1, pp. 497–509, 1957.
- B. Paigen, A. Morrow, P. A. Holmes, D. Mitchell, and R. A. Williams, “Quantitative assessment of atherosclerotic lesions in mice,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 231–240, 1987.
- G. Anders, C. L. Eisenberger, F. Jonas, and C. L. Greenblatt, “Distinguishing Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major in the Middle East using the polymerase chain reaction with kinetoplast DNA-specific primers,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 96, supplement 1, pp. S87–S92, 2002.
- A. T. Shamshiev, F. Ampenberger, B. Ernst, L. Rohrer, B. J. Marsland, and M. Kopf, “Dyslipidemia inhibits Toll-like receptor-induced activation of CD8α-negative dendritic cells and protective Th1 type immunity,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 204, no. 2, pp. 441–452, 2007.
- H. C. Santiago, C. F. Oliveira, L. Santiago et al., “Involvement of the chemokine RANTES (CCL5) in resistance to experimental infection with Leishmania major,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 72, no. 8, pp. 4918–4923, 2004.
- C. F. Oliveira, D. Manzoni-de-Almeida, P. S. Mello et al., et al., “Characterization of chronic cutaneous lesions from TNF-receptor-1-deficient mice infected by Leishmania major,” Clinical and Developmental Immunology, vol. 2012, Article ID 865708, 12 pages, 2012.
- F. Benhnini, M. Chenik, D. Laouini, H. Louzir, P. A. Cazenave, and K. Dellagi, “Comparative evaluation of two vaccine candidates against experimental leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major infection in four inbred mouse strains,” Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1529–1537, 2009.
- D. Sacks and N. Noben-Trauth, “The immunology of susceptibility and resistance to Leishmania major in mice,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 845–858, 2002.
- X. Zhou, G. Paulsson, S. Stemme, and G. K. Hansson, “Hypercholesterolemia is associated with a T helper (Th) 1/Th2 switch of the autoimmune response in atherosclerotic apo E-knockout mice,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 101, no. 8, pp. 1717–1725, 1998.
- G. R. Jansen, M. E. Zanetti, and C. F. Hutchison, “Stdies on lipogenesis in vivo. Effects of starvation andre-feeding, and studies on cholesterol synthesis,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 333–340, 1966.
- M. L. Ginger, M. C. Prescott, D. G. Reynolds, M. L. Chance, and J. L. Goad, “Utilization of leucine and acetate as carbon sources for sterol and fatty acid biosynthesis by old and new world Leishmania species, Endotrypanum monterogeii and Trypanosoma cruzi,” European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 267, no. 9, pp. 2555–2566, 2000.
- D. T. Hart and G. H. Coombs, “Leishmania mexicana: energy metabolism of amastigotes and promastigotes,” Experimental Parasitology, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 397–409, 1982.
- M. Rizzo and K. Berneis, “Low-density lipoprotein size and cardiovascular risk assessment,” QJM, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2006.
- E. Esteve, W. Ricart, and J. M. Fernández-Real, “Dyslipidemia and inflammation: an evolutionary conserved mechanism,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 16–31, 2005.
- C. G. Nieto, R. Barrera, M. A. Habela et al., “Changes in the plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoprotein fractions in dogs infected with Leishmania infantum,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 44, no. 3-4, pp. 175–182, 1992.
- G. K. Hansson, “Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 352, no. 16, pp. 1685–1626, 2005.