Table 1: Changes in anthropometric measurements, plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations, and cardiorespiratory variables during the intervention.

Control groupIntervention group
Baseline12 monthsBaseline12 months

Gender (M/F)14/419/40.500
Age (y)48.2 ± 249.4 ± 1.70.667
Weight (kg)93.9 ± 2.992.2 ± 3.4103.5 ± 2.2c91.5 ± 2.4d,e<0.001<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)31.4 ± 0.630.9 ± 0.933.4 ± 0.6c29.5 ± 0.6d,e<0.001<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)104.6 ± 2.3102.9 ± 2.6112.9 ± 2.1c101.0 ± 2.0d,e<0.001<0.001
P-Glucose (mmol/L)(f)6.19 ± 0.515.57 ± 0.165.92 ± 0.195.59 ± 0.130.5280.306
S-Insulin (mU/L)10.18 ± 1.068.25 ± 1.0514.61 ± 1.69c7.16 ± 0.630.0820.105
HOMA-IR2.66 ± 0.332.08 ± 0.283.98 ± 0.541.80 ± 0.180.0870.103
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.17 ± 0.255.21 ± 0.234.83 ± 0.114.63 ± 0.160.2460.369
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)3.13 ± 0.173.28 ± 0.173.06 ± 0.102.88 ± 0.140.1160.226
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.13 ± 0.101.12 ± 0.070.98 ± 0.051.15 ± 0.06d0.0280.044
Total triglycerides (mmol/L)(f)1.78 ± 0.241.60 ± 0.301.73 ± 0.171.32 ± 0.120.6830.510
AHI (total)9.5 ± 0.811.2 ± 2.09.8 ± 0.65.2 ± 1.2d,(e)0.0070.040
Mean 94.5 ± 0.393.9 ± 0.3d94.0 ± 0.394.8 ± 0.3d,e<0.0010.001
Time with < 90% 3.5 ± 0.99.2 ± 3.56.4 ± 2.24.7 ± 2.1d,e0.0070.004
Percentage time with < 90%0.9 ± 0.22.3 ± 0.9d1.6 ± 0.50.8 ± 0.3d,e0.0030.002

Values shown are means ± SEM.
aGroup by time interaction analysed with analysis of variance for repeated measurements (GLM). If the baseline differed between groups ( ), it was taken into account as covariance. (Gender Fisher’s exact test and age Student’s -test).
bGroup by time interaction (gender and BMI as covariance).
c denotes a significant difference at the baseline between the groups.
d denotes a significant difference from the baseline within the groups.
e denotes a significant difference at the 12 months between the groups, (e) (gender and BMI as covariance).
f denotes a significant change over time, (f) (gender and BMI as covariance).