Table 2: Changes in serum noncholesterol sterols and squalene during the intervention.

Control groupIntervention group
Baseline12 monthsBaseline12 months

Cholesterol (mg/dL)195.9 ± 9.6193.9 ± 9.3181.9 ± 5.2172.5 ± 5.60.2190.413
Cholesterol synthesis markers
 Squalene : cholesterol26.5 ± 2.624.7 ± 2.723.5 ± 1.222.1 ± 1.70.8600.408
 Cholestenol : cholesterol 15.2 ± 1.416.9 ± 1.922.3 ± 2.9c18.0 ± 2.9d,e0.0250.020
 Desmosterol : cholesterol(f)66.3 ± 4.563.4 ± 5.277.8 ± 5.065.6 ± 2.80.1310.161
 Lathosterol : cholesterol(f)179.4 ± 14175.1 ± 12.7208.3 ± 13.0178.9 ± 14.10.1260.069
Cholesterol absorption markers
 Campesterol : cholesterol 206.1 ± 27.7208.2 ± 18.3227.1 ± 24.2235.1 ± 30.60.6560.670
 Sitosterol : cholesterol108.1 ± 11.6107.5 ± 7.7132.5 ± 16.0136.6 ± 16.10.8430.842
 Cholestanol : cholesterol131.1 ± 5.8130.6 ± 6.1121.0 ± 4.6135.5 ± 6.7d0.0020.004
Cholesterol metabolism markers
 Squalene : Cholestanol0.21 ± 0.030.20 ± 0.030.20 ± 0.010.18 ± 0.020.2930.109
 Cholestenol : Cholestanol0.12 ± 0.010.14 ± 0.020.20 ± 0.03c0.14 ± 0.02d,e0.0060.006
 Desmosterol : Cholestanol0.54 ± 0.060.52 ± 0.060.68 ± 0.060.52 ± 0.04d0.0160.029
 Lathosterol : Cholestanol1.42 ± 0.121.42 ± 0.131.81 ± 0.151.45 ± 0.17d0.0260.017

Values shown are means ± SEM.
aGroup by time interaction analysed with analysis of variance for repeated measurements (GLM). If the baseline differed between groups ( ), it was taken into account as covariance.
bGroup by time interaction (gender and BMI as covariance).
c denotes a significant difference at the baseline between the groups.
d denotes a significant difference from the baseline within the groups.
e denotes a significant difference at the 12 months between the groups.
f denotes a significant change over time (f) (gender and BMI as covariance).