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Cholesterol
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 792090, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/792090
Review Article

Functionally Defective High-Density Lipoprotein and Paraoxonase: A Couple for Endothelial Dysfunction in Atherosclerosis

1Laboratory of Atatürk Hospital, 07040 Antalya, Turkey
2Central Laboratories of Antalya Education and Research Hospital of Ministry of Health, 07100 Antalya, Turkey
3Antalya Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi Merkez Laboratuvarı Soğuksu, 07100 Antalya, Turkey

Received 29 June 2013; Revised 8 August 2013; Accepted 12 August 2013

Academic Editor: Jeffrey Cohn

Copyright © 2013 Esin Eren et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The endothelium is the primary target for biochemical or mechanical injuries caused by the putative risk factors of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction represents the ultimate link between atherosclerotic risk factors that promote atherosclerosis. HDL-C is thought to exert at least some parts of its antiatherogenic facilities via stimulating endothelial NO production, nearby inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation. HDL-C is capable of opposing LDL’s inductive effects and avoiding the ox-LDL’s inhibition of eNOS. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an HDL-associated enzyme esterase which appears to contribute to the antioxidant and antiatherosclerotic capabilities of HDL-C. “Healthy HDL,” namely the particle that contains the active Paraoxonase 1, has the power to suppress the formation of oxidized lipids. “Dysfunctional HDL,” on the contrary, has reduced Paraoxonase 1 enzyme activity and not only fails in its mission but also potentially leads to greater formation of oxidized lipids/lipoproteins to cause endothelial dysfunction. The association of HDL-C PON1 and endothelial dysfunction depends largely on the molecules with exact damaging effect on NO synthase coupling. Loss of nitric oxide bioavailability has a pivotal role in endothelial dysfunction preceding the appearance of atherosclerosis. Analyses of HDL-C and Paraoxonase1 would be more important in the diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis in the very near future.