Table 2: Major activators and inactivators of PON1.

Major PON1 inactivators Reversal effect by

SmokingFree thiols (GSH, L-cysteine, etc.)
Oxidative stress Antioxidants (vitamin E, Carotenoids, Flavonoids)
High cholesterol Statins
High triglycerides Fibrates
High glucose Insulin
High fructose Insulin
Atropine
Ampicillin
Ciprofloxacin
Clindamycin sulfate
Oral contraceptives
Copper, zinc, mercury
Manganese, cobalt, cadmium