Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Designing Artificial Neural Networks Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms Mon, 29 Jun 2015 09:56:09 +0000 Artificial Neural Network (ANN) design is a complex task because its performance depends on the architecture, the selected transfer function, and the learning algorithm used to train the set of synaptic weights. In this paper we present a methodology that automatically designs an ANN using particle swarm optimization algorithms such as Basic Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Second Generation of Particle Swarm Optimization (SGPSO), and a New Model of PSO called NMPSO. The aim of these algorithms is to evolve, at the same time, the three principal components of an ANN: the set of synaptic weights, the connections or architecture, and the transfer functions for each neuron. Eight different fitness functions were proposed to evaluate the fitness of each solution and find the best design. These functions are based on the mean square error (MSE) and the classification error (CER) and implement a strategy to avoid overtraining and to reduce the number of connections in the ANN. In addition, the ANN designed with the proposed methodology is compared with those designed manually using the well-known Back-Propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt Learning Algorithms. Finally, the accuracy of the method is tested with different nonlinear pattern classification problems. Beatriz A. Garro and Roberto A. Vázquez Copyright © 2015 Beatriz A. Garro and Roberto A. Vázquez. All rights reserved. Localized Ambient Solidity Separation Algorithm Based Computer User Segmentation Sun, 28 Jun 2015 10:54:43 +0000 Most of popular clustering methods typically have some strong assumptions of the dataset. For example, the -means implicitly assumes that all clusters come from spherical Gaussian distributions which have different means but the same covariance. However, when dealing with datasets that have diverse distribution shapes or high dimensionality, these assumptions might not be valid anymore. In order to overcome this weakness, we proposed a new clustering algorithm named localized ambient solidity separation (LASS) algorithm, using a new isolation criterion called centroid distance. Compared with other density based isolation criteria, our proposed centroid distance isolation criterion addresses the problem caused by high dimensionality and varying density. The experiment on a designed two-dimensional benchmark dataset shows that our proposed LASS algorithm not only inherits the advantage of the original dissimilarity increments clustering method to separate naturally isolated clusters but also can identify the clusters which are adjacent, overlapping, and under background noise. Finally, we compared our LASS algorithm with the dissimilarity increments clustering method on a massive computer user dataset with over two million records that contains demographic and behaviors information. The results show that LASS algorithm works extremely well on this computer user dataset and can gain more knowledge from it. Xiao Sun, Tongda Zhang, Yueting Chai, and Yi Liu Copyright © 2015 Xiao Sun et al. All rights reserved. Solving Single Machine Total Weighted Tardiness Problem with Unequal Release Date Using Neurohybrid Particle Swarm Optimization Approach Tue, 23 Jun 2015 11:22:27 +0000 A particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) has been used to solve the single machine total weighted tardiness problem (SMTWT) with unequal release date. To find the best solutions three different solution approaches have been used. To prepare subhybrid solution system, genetic algorithms (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) have been used. In the subhybrid system (GA and SA), GA obtains a solution in any stage, that solution is taken by SA and used as an initial solution. When SA finds better solution than this solution, it stops working and gives this solution to GA again. After GA finishes working the obtained solution is given to PSO. PSO searches for better solution than this solution. Later it again sends the obtained solution to GA. Three different solution systems worked together. Neurohybrid system uses PSO as the main optimizer and SA and GA have been used as local search tools. For each stage, local optimizers are used to perform exploitation to the best particle. In addition to local search tools, neurodominance rule (NDR) has been used to improve performance of last solution of hybrid-PSO system. NDR checked sequential jobs according to total weighted tardiness factor. All system is named as neurohybrid-PSO solution system. Tarik Cakar and Rasit Koker Copyright © 2015 Tarik Cakar and Rasit Koker. All rights reserved. A Computational Approach towards Visual Object Recognition at Taxonomic Levels of Concepts Mon, 22 Jun 2015 07:19:14 +0000 It has been argued that concepts can be perceived at three main levels of abstraction. Generally, in a recognition system, object categories can be viewed at three levels of taxonomic hierarchy which are known as superordinate, basic, and subordinate levels. For instance, “horse” is a member of subordinate level which belongs to basic level of “animal” and superordinate level of “natural objects.” Our purpose in this study is to take an investigation into visual features at each taxonomic level. We first present a recognition tree which is more general in terms of inclusiveness with respect to visual representation of objects. Then we focus on visual feature definition, that is, how objects from the same conceptual category can be visually represented at each taxonomic level. For the first level we define global features based on frequency patterns to illustrate visual distinctions among artificial and natural. In contrast, our approach for the second level is based on shape descriptors which are defined by recruiting moment based representation. Finally, we show how conceptual knowledge can be utilized for visual feature definition in order to enhance recognition of subordinate categories. Zahra Sadeghi, Babak Nadjar Araabi, and Majid Nili Ahmadabadi Copyright © 2015 Zahra Sadeghi et al. All rights reserved. Improved Fractal Space Filling Curves Hybrid Optimization Algorithm for Vehicle Routing Problem Tue, 16 Jun 2015 13:58:12 +0000 Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the key issues in optimization of modern logistics system. In this paper, a modified VRP model with hard time window is established and a Hybrid Optimization Algorithm (HOA) based on Fractal Space Filling Curves (SFC) method and Genetic Algorithm (GA) is introduced. By incorporating the proposed algorithm, SFC method can find an initial and feasible solution very fast; GA is used to improve the initial solution. Thereafter, experimental software was developed and a large number of experimental computations from Solomon’s benchmark have been studied. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the HOA. Yi-xiang Yue, Tong Zhang, and Qun-xing Yue Copyright © 2015 Yi-xiang Yue et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Features for Movement Prediction from Single-Trial Movement-Related Cortical Potentials in Healthy Subjects and Stroke Patients Tue, 16 Jun 2015 11:38:47 +0000 Detection of movement intention from the movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) derived from the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals has shown to be important in combination with assistive devices for effective neurofeedback in rehabilitation. In this study, we compare time and frequency domain features to detect movement intention from EEG signals prior to movement execution. Data were recoded from 24 able-bodied subjects, 12 performing real movements, and 12 performing imaginary movements. Furthermore, six stroke patients with lower limb paresis were included. Temporal and spectral features were investigated in combination with linear discriminant analysis and compared with template matching. The results showed that spectral features were best suited for differentiating between movement intention and noise across different tasks. The ensemble average across tasks when using spectral features was (error = 3.4 ± 0.8%, sensitivity = 97.2 ± 0.9%, and specificity = 97 ± 1%) significantly better () than temporal features (error = 15 ± 1.4%, sensitivity: 85 ± 1.3%, and specificity: 84 ± 2%). The proposed approach also (error = 3.4 ± 0.8%) outperformed template matching (error = 26.9 ± 2.3%) significantly (). Results imply that frequency information is important for detecting movement intention, which is promising for the application of this approach to provide patient-driven real-time neurofeedback. Ernest Nlandu Kamavuako, Mads Jochumsen, Imran Khan Niazi, and Kim Dremstrup Copyright © 2015 Ernest Nlandu Kamavuako et al. All rights reserved. Can the Outputs of LGN Y-Cells Support Emotion Recognition? A Computational Study Mon, 15 Jun 2015 12:44:26 +0000 It has been suggested that emotional visual input is processed along both a slower cortical pathway and a faster subcortical pathway which comprises the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), the superior colliculus, the pulvinar, and finally the amygdala. However, anatomical as well as functional evidence concerning the subcortical route is lacking. Here, we adopt a computational approach in order to investigate whether the visual representation that is achieved in the LGN may support emotion recognition and emotional response along the subcortical route. In four experiments, we show that the outputs of LGN Y-cells support neither facial expression categorization nor the same/different expression matching by an artificial classificator. However, the same classificator is able to perform at an above chance level in a statistics-based categorization of scenes containing animals and scenes containing people and of light and dark patterns. It is concluded that the visual representation achieved in the LGN is insufficient to allow for the recognition of emotional facial expression. Andrea De Cesarei and Maurizio Codispoti Copyright © 2015 Andrea De Cesarei and Maurizio Codispoti. All rights reserved. A Robust and Fast Computation Touchless Palm Print Recognition System Using LHEAT and the IFkNCN Classifier Sun, 31 May 2015 14:23:46 +0000 Mobile implementation is a current trend in biometric design. This paper proposes a new approach to palm print recognition, in which smart phones are used to capture palm print images at a distance. A touchless system was developed because of public demand for privacy and sanitation. Robust hand tracking, image enhancement, and fast computation processing algorithms are required for effective touchless and mobile-based recognition. In this project, hand tracking and the region of interest (ROI) extraction method were discussed. A sliding neighborhood operation with local histogram equalization, followed by a local adaptive thresholding or LHEAT approach, was proposed in the image enhancement stage to manage low-quality palm print images. To accelerate the recognition process, a new classifier, improved fuzzy-based k nearest centroid neighbor (IFkNCN), was implemented. By removing outliers and reducing the amount of training data, this classifier exhibited faster computation. Our experimental results demonstrate that a touchless palm print system using LHEAT and IFkNCN achieves a promising recognition rate of 98.64%. Haryati Jaafar, Salwani Ibrahim, and Dzati Athiar Ramli Copyright © 2015 Haryati Jaafar et al. All rights reserved. Energy Consumption Forecasting Using Semantic-Based Genetic Programming with Local Search Optimizer Thu, 28 May 2015 08:04:47 +0000 Energy consumption forecasting (ECF) is an important policy issue in today’s economies. An accurate ECF has great benefits for electric utilities and both negative and positive errors lead to increased operating costs. The paper proposes a semantic based genetic programming framework to address the ECF problem. In particular, we propose a system that finds (quasi-)perfect solutions with high probability and that generates models able to produce near optimal predictions also on unseen data. The framework blends a recently developed version of genetic programming that integrates semantic genetic operators with a local search method. The main idea in combining semantic genetic programming and a local searcher is to couple the exploration ability of the former with the exploitation ability of the latter. Experimental results confirm the suitability of the proposed method in predicting the energy consumption. In particular, the system produces a lower error with respect to the existing state-of-the art techniques used on the same dataset. More importantly, this case study has shown that including a local searcher in the geometric semantic genetic programming system can speed up the search process and can result in fitter models that are able to produce an accurate forecasting also on unseen data. Mauro Castelli, Leonardo Trujillo, and Leonardo Vanneschi Copyright © 2015 Mauro Castelli et al. All rights reserved. Enhancement of ELM by Clustering Discrimination Manifold Regularization and Multiobjective FOA for Semisupervised Classification Wed, 27 May 2015 06:53:36 +0000 A novel semisupervised extreme learning machine (ELM) with clustering discrimination manifold regularization (CDMR) framework named CDMR-ELM is proposed for semisupervised classification. By using unsupervised fuzzy clustering method, CDMR framework integrates clustering discrimination of both labeled and unlabeled data with twinning constraints regularization. Aiming at further improving the classification accuracy and efficiency, a new multiobjective fruit fly optimization algorithm (MOFOA) is developed to optimize crucial parameters of CDME-ELM. The proposed MOFOA is implemented with two objectives: simultaneously minimizing the number of hidden nodes and mean square error (MSE). The results of experiments on actual datasets show that the proposed semisupervised classifier can obtain better accuracy and efficiency with relatively few hidden nodes compared with other state-of-the-art classifiers. Qing Ye, Hao Pan, and Changhua Liu Copyright © 2015 Qing Ye et al. All rights reserved. Inclusion of Neuropsychological Scores in Atrophy Models Improves Diagnostic Classification of Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment Mon, 25 May 2015 11:35:26 +0000 Brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are difficult to demarcate to assess the progression of AD. This study presents a statistical framework on the basis of MRI volumes and neuropsychological scores. A feature selection technique using backward stepwise linear regression together with linear discriminant analysis is designed to classify cognitive normal (CN) subjects, early MCI (EMCI), late MCI (LMCI), and AD subjects in an exhaustive two-group classification process. Results show a dominance of the neuropsychological parameters like MMSE and RAVLT. Cortical volumetric measures of the temporal, parietal, and cingulate regions are found to be significant classification factors. Moreover, an asymmetrical distribution of the volumetric measures across hemispheres is seen for CN versus EMCI and EMCI versus AD, showing dominance of the right hemisphere; whereas CN versus LMCI and EMCI versus LMCI show dominance of the left hemisphere. A 2-fold cross-validation showed an average accuracy of 93.9%, 90.8%, and 94.5%, for the CN versus AD, CN versus LMCI, and EMCI versus AD, respectively. The accuracy for groups that are difficult to differentiate like EMCI versus LMCI was 73.6%. With the inclusion of the neuropsychological scores, a significant improvement (24.59%) was obtained over using MRI measures alone. Mohammed Goryawala, Qi Zhou, Warren Barker, David A. Loewenstein, Ranjan Duara, and Malek Adjouadi Copyright © 2015 Mohammed Goryawala et al. All rights reserved. Intelligent Surveillance Robot with Obstacle Avoidance Capabilities Using Neural Network Sun, 24 May 2015 11:36:08 +0000 For specific purpose, vision-based surveillance robot that can be run autonomously and able to acquire images from its dynamic environment is very important, for example, in rescuing disaster victims in Indonesia. In this paper, we propose architecture for intelligent surveillance robot that is able to avoid obstacles using 3 ultrasonic distance sensors based on backpropagation neural network and a camera for face recognition. 2.4 GHz transmitter for transmitting video is used by the operator/user to direct the robot to the desired area. Results show the effectiveness of our method and we evaluate the performance of the system. Widodo Budiharto Copyright © 2015 Widodo Budiharto. All rights reserved. Combining MLC and SVM Classifiers for Learning Based Decision Making: Analysis and Evaluations Thu, 21 May 2015 07:07:30 +0000 Maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) and support vector machines (SVM) are two commonly used approaches in machine learning. MLC is based on Bayesian theory in estimating parameters of a probabilistic model, whilst SVM is an optimization based nonparametric method in this context. Recently, it is found that SVM in some cases is equivalent to MLC in probabilistically modeling the learning process. In this paper, MLC and SVM are combined in learning and classification, which helps to yield probabilistic output for SVM and facilitate soft decision making. In total four groups of data are used for evaluations, covering sonar, vehicle, breast cancer, and DNA sequences. The data samples are characterized in terms of Gaussian/non-Gaussian distributed and balanced/unbalanced samples which are then further used for performance assessment in comparing the SVM and the combined SVM-MLC classifier. Interesting results are reported to indicate how the combined classifier may work under various conditions. Yi Zhang, Jinchang Ren, and Jianmin Jiang Copyright © 2015 Yi Zhang et al. All rights reserved. A Hybrid alldifferent-Tabu Search Algorithm for Solving Sudoku Puzzles Wed, 20 May 2015 13:19:02 +0000 The Sudoku problem is a well-known logic-based puzzle of combinatorial number-placement. It consists in filling a grid, composed of columns, rows, and subgrids, each one containing distinct integers from 1 to . Such a puzzle belongs to the NP-complete collection of problems, to which there exist diverse exact and approximate methods able to solve it. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid algorithm that smartly combines a classic tabu search procedure with the alldifferent global constraint from the constraint programming world. The alldifferent constraint is known to be efficient for domain filtering in the presence of constraints that must be pairwise different, which are exactly the kind of constraints that Sudokus own. This ability clearly alleviates the work of the tabu search, resulting in a faster and more robust approach for solving Sudokus. We illustrate interesting experimental results where our proposed algorithm outperforms the best results previously reported by hybrids and approximate methods. Ricardo Soto, Broderick Crawford, Cristian Galleguillos, Fernando Paredes, and Enrique Norero Copyright © 2015 Ricardo Soto et al. All rights reserved. Theory and Simulation for Traffic Characteristics on the Highway with a Slowdown Section Mon, 18 May 2015 13:08:01 +0000 We study the traffic characteristics on a single-lane highway with a slowdown section using the deterministic cellular automaton (CA) model. Based on the theoretical analysis, the relationships among local mean densities, velocities, traffic fluxes, and global densities are derived. The results show that two critical densities exist in the evolutionary process of traffic state, and they are significant demarcation points for traffic phase transition. Furthermore, the changing laws of the two critical densities with different length of limit section are also investigated. It is shown that only one critical density appears if a highway is not slowdown section; nevertheless, with the growing length of slowdown section, one critical density separates into two critical densities; if the entire highway is slowdown section, they finally merge into one. The contrastive analysis proves that the analytical results are consistent with the numerical ones. Dejie Xu, Baohua Mao, Yaping Rong, and Wei Wei Copyright © 2015 Dejie Xu et al. All rights reserved. Fast Distributed Dynamics of Semantic Networks via Social Media Sun, 17 May 2015 07:01:32 +0000 We investigate the dynamics of semantic organization using social media, a collective expression of human thought. We propose a novel, time-dependent semantic similarity measure (TSS), based on the social network Twitter. We show that TSS is consistent with static measures of similarity but provides high temporal resolution for the identification of real-world events and induced changes in the distributed structure of semantic relationships across the entire lexicon. Using TSS, we measured the evolution of a concept and its movement along the semantic neighborhood, driven by specific news/events. Finally, we showed that particular events may trigger a temporary reorganization of elements in the semantic network. Facundo Carrillo, Guillermo A. Cecchi, Mariano Sigman, and Diego Fernández Slezak Copyright © 2015 Facundo Carrillo et al. All rights reserved. Stabilization Methods for a Multiagent System with Complex Behaviours Wed, 13 May 2015 09:00:54 +0000 The main focus of the paper is the stability analysis of a class of multiagent systems based on an interaction protocol which can generate different types of overall behaviours, from asymptotically stable to chaotic. We present several interpretations of stability and suggest two methods to assess the stability of the system, based on the internal models of the agents and on the external, observed behaviour. Since it is very difficult to predict a priori whether a system will be stable or unstable, we propose three heuristic methods that can be used to stabilize such a system during its execution, with minimal changes to its state. Florin Leon Copyright © 2015 Florin Leon. All rights reserved. An Improved Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm with Elitist Breeding for Unconstrained Optimization Sun, 10 May 2015 07:57:43 +0000 An improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization with elitist breeding (EB-QPSO) for unconstrained optimization is presented and empirically studied in this paper. In EB-QPSO, the novel elitist breeding strategy acts on the elitists of the swarm to escape from the likely local optima and guide the swarm to perform more efficient search. During the iterative optimization process of EB-QPSO, when criteria met, the personal best of each particle and the global best of the swarm are used to generate new diverse individuals through the transposon operators. The new generated individuals with better fitness are selected to be the new personal best particles and global best particle to guide the swarm for further solution exploration. A comprehensive simulation study is conducted on a set of twelve benchmark functions. Compared with five state-of-the-art quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithms, the proposed EB-QPSO performs more competitively in all of the benchmark functions in terms of better global search capability and faster convergence rate. Zhen-Lun Yang, Angus Wu, and Hua-Qing Min Copyright © 2015 Zhen-Lun Yang et al. All rights reserved. Log-Spiral Keypoint: A Robust Approach toward Image Patch Matching Tue, 05 May 2015 12:28:37 +0000 Matching of keypoints across image patches forms the basis of computer vision applications, such as object detection, recognition, and tracking in real-world images. Most of keypoint methods are mainly used to match the high-resolution images, which always utilize an image pyramid for multiscale keypoint detection. In this paper, we propose a novel keypoint method to improve the matching performance of image patches with the low-resolution and small size. The location, scale, and orientation of keypoints are directly estimated from an original image patch using a Log-Spiral sampling pattern for keypoint detection without consideration of image pyramid. A Log-Spiral sampling pattern for keypoint description and two bit-generated functions are designed for generating a binary descriptor. Extensive experiments show that the proposed method is more effective and robust than existing binary-based methods for image patch matching. Kangho Paek, Min Yao, Zhongwei Liu, and Hun Kim Copyright © 2015 Kangho Paek et al. All rights reserved. MapReduce Based Personalized Locality Sensitive Hashing for Similarity Joins on Large Scale Data Thu, 30 Apr 2015 12:55:22 +0000 Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) has been proposed as an efficient technique for similarity joins for high dimensional data. The efficiency and approximation rate of LSH depend on the number of generated false positive instances and false negative instances. In many domains, reducing the number of false positives is crucial. Furthermore, in some application scenarios, balancing false positives and false negatives is favored. To address these problems, in this paper we propose Personalized Locality Sensitive Hashing (PLSH), where a new banding scheme is embedded to tailor the number of false positives, false negatives, and the sum of both. PLSH is implemented in parallel using MapReduce framework to deal with similarity joins on large scale data. Experimental studies on real and simulated data verify the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed PLSH technique, compared with state-of-the-art methods. Jingjing Wang and Chen Lin Copyright © 2015 Jingjing Wang and Chen Lin. All rights reserved. Forecasting Nonlinear Chaotic Time Series with Function Expression Method Based on an Improved Genetic-Simulated Annealing Algorithm Mon, 27 Apr 2015 13:16:30 +0000 The paper proposes a novel function expression method to forecast chaotic time series, using an improved genetic-simulated annealing (IGSA) algorithm to establish the optimum function expression that describes the behavior of time series. In order to deal with the weakness associated with the genetic algorithm, the proposed algorithm incorporates the simulated annealing operation which has the strong local search ability into the genetic algorithm to enhance the performance of optimization; besides, the fitness function and genetic operators are also improved. Finally, the method is applied to the chaotic time series of Quadratic and Rossler maps for validation. The effect of noise in the chaotic time series is also studied numerically. The numerical results verify that the method can forecast chaotic time series with high precision and effectiveness, and the forecasting precision with certain noise is also satisfactory. It can be concluded that the IGSA algorithm is energy-efficient and superior. Jun Wang, Bi-hua Zhou, Shu-dao Zhou, and Zheng Sheng Copyright © 2015 Jun Wang et al. All rights reserved. Evaluating a Pivot-Based Approach for Bilingual Lexicon Extraction Thu, 23 Apr 2015 16:51:55 +0000 A pivot-based approach for bilingual lexicon extraction is based on the similarity of context vectors represented by words in a pivot language like English. In this paper, in order to show validity and usability of the pivot-based approach, we evaluate the approach in company with two different methods for estimating context vectors: one estimates them from two parallel corpora based on word association between source words (resp., target words) and pivot words and the other estimates them from two parallel corpora based on word alignment tools for statistical machine translation. Empirical results on two language pairs (e.g., Korean-Spanish and Korean-French) have shown that the pivot-based approach is very promising for resource-poor languages and this approach observes its validity and usability. Furthermore, for words with low frequency, our method is also well performed. Jae-Hoon Kim, Hong-Seok Kwon, and Hyeong-Won Seo Copyright © 2015 Jae-Hoon Kim et al. All rights reserved. A Fuzzy Computing Model for Identifying Polarity of Chinese Sentiment Words Thu, 23 Apr 2015 16:51:42 +0000 With the spurt of online user-generated contents on web, sentiment analysis has become a very active research issue in data mining and natural language processing. As the most important indicator of sentiment, sentiment words which convey positive and negative polarity are quite instrumental for sentiment analysis. However, most of the existing methods for identifying polarity of sentiment words only consider the positive and negative polarity by the Cantor set, and no attention is paid to the fuzziness of the polarity intensity of sentiment words. In order to improve the performance, we propose a fuzzy computing model to identify the polarity of Chinese sentiment words in this paper. There are three major contributions in this paper. Firstly, we propose a method to compute polarity intensity of sentiment morphemes and sentiment words. Secondly, we construct a fuzzy sentiment classifier and propose two different methods to compute the parameter of the fuzzy classifier. Thirdly, we conduct extensive experiments on four sentiment words datasets and three review datasets, and the experimental results indicate that our model performs better than the state-of-the-art methods. Bingkun Wang, Yongfeng Huang, Xian Wu, and Xing Li Copyright © 2015 Bingkun Wang et al. All rights reserved. Initialization by a Novel Clustering for Wavelet Neural Network as Time Series Predictor Wed, 22 Apr 2015 06:59:41 +0000 The architecture and parameter initialization of wavelet neural network are discussed and a novel initialization method is proposed. The new approach can be regarded as a dynamic clustering procedure which will derive the neuron number as well as the initial value of translation and dilation parameters according to the input patterns and the activating wavelets functions. Three simulation examples are given to examine the performance of our method as well as Zhang's heuristic initialization approach. The results show that the new approach not only can decide the WNN structure automatically, but also provides superior initial parameter values that make the optimization process more stable and quickly. Rong Cheng, Hongping Hu, Xiuhui Tan, and Yanping Bai Copyright © 2015 Rong Cheng et al. All rights reserved. A Low-Noise, Modular, and Versatile Analog Front-End Intended for Processing In Vitro Neuronal Signals Detected by Microelectrode Arrays Tue, 21 Apr 2015 13:28:55 +0000 The collection of good quality extracellular neuronal spikes from neuronal cultures coupled to Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs) is a binding requirement to gather reliable data. Due to physical constraints, low power requirement, or the need of customizability, commercial recording platforms are not fully adequate for the development of experimental setups integrating MEA technology with other equipment needed to perform experiments under climate controlled conditions, like environmental chambers or cell culture incubators. To address this issue, we developed a custom MEA interfacing system featuring low noise, low power, and the capability to be readily integrated inside an incubator-like environment. Two stages, a preamplifier and a filter amplifier, were designed, implemented on printed circuit boards, and tested. The system is characterized by a low input-referred noise (<1 μV RMS), a high channel separation (>70 dB), and signal-to-noise ratio values of neuronal recordings comparable to those obtained with the benchmark commercial MEA system. In addition, the system was successfully integrated with an environmental MEA chamber, without harming cell cultures during experiments and without being damaged by the high humidity level. The devised system is of practical value in the development of in vitro platforms to study temporally extended neuronal network dynamics by means of MEAs. Giulia Regalia, Emilia Biffi, Giancarlo Ferrigno, and Alessandra Pedrocchi Copyright © 2015 Giulia Regalia et al. All rights reserved. Feature Selection Applying Statistical and Neurofuzzy Methods to EEG-Based BCI Tue, 21 Apr 2015 12:33:16 +0000 This paper presents an investigation aimed at drastically reducing the processing burden required by motor imagery brain-computer interface (BCI) systems based on electroencephalography (EEG). In this research, the focus has moved from the channel to the feature paradigm, and a 96% reduction of the number of features required in the process has been achieved maintaining and even improving the classification success rate. This way, it is possible to build cheaper, quicker, and more portable BCI systems. The data set used was provided within the framework of BCI Competition III, which allows it to compare the presented results with the classification accuracy achieved in the contest. Furthermore, a new three-step methodology has been developed which includes a feature discriminant character calculation stage; a score, order, and selection phase; and a final feature selection step. For the first stage, both statistics method and fuzzy criteria are used. The fuzzy criteria are based on the S-dFasArt classification algorithm which has shown excellent performance in previous papers undertaking the BCI multiclass motor imagery problem. The score, order, and selection stage is used to sort the features according to their discriminant nature. Finally, both order selection and Group Method Data Handling (GMDH) approaches are used to choose the most discriminant ones. Juan-Antonio Martinez-Leon, Jose-Manuel Cano-Izquierdo, and Julio Ibarrola Copyright © 2015 Juan-Antonio Martinez-Leon et al. All rights reserved. Classification of Two Class Motor Imagery Tasks Using Hybrid GA-PSO Based -Means Clustering Mon, 20 Apr 2015 06:35:32 +0000 Transferring the brain computer interface (BCI) from laboratory condition to meet the real world application needs BCI to be applied asynchronously without any time constraint. High level of dynamism in the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal reasons us to look toward evolutionary algorithm (EA). Motivated by these two facts, in this work a hybrid GA-PSO based -means clustering technique has been used to distinguish two class motor imagery (MI) tasks. The proposed hybrid GA-PSO based -means clustering is found to outperform genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) based -means clustering techniques in terms of both accuracy and execution time. The lesser execution time of hybrid GA-PSO technique makes it suitable for real time BCI application. Time frequency representation (TFR) techniques have been used to extract the feature of the signal under investigation. TFRs based features are extracted and relying on the concept of event related synchronization (ERD) and desynchronization (ERD) feature vector is formed. Suraj, Purnendu Tiwari, Subhojit Ghosh, and Rakesh Kumar Sinha Copyright © 2015 Suraj et al. All rights reserved. On the Relationship between Variational Level Set-Based and SOM-Based Active Contours Sun, 19 Apr 2015 11:02:24 +0000 Most Active Contour Models (ACMs) deal with the image segmentation problem as a functional optimization problem, as they work on dividing an image into several regions by optimizing a suitable functional. Among ACMs, variational level set methods have been used to build an active contour with the aim of modeling arbitrarily complex shapes. Moreover, they can handle also topological changes of the contours. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) have attracted the attention of many computer vision scientists, particularly in modeling an active contour based on the idea of utilizing the prototypes (weights) of a SOM to control the evolution of the contour. SOM-based models have been proposed in general with the aim of exploiting the specific ability of SOMs to learn the edge-map information via their topology preservation property and overcoming some drawbacks of other ACMs, such as trapping into local minima of the image energy functional to be minimized in such models. In this survey, we illustrate the main concepts of variational level set-based ACMs, SOM-based ACMs, and their relationship and review in a comprehensive fashion the development of their state-of-the-art models from a machine learning perspective, with a focus on their strengths and weaknesses. Mohammed M. Abdelsamea, Giorgio Gnecco, Mohamed Medhat Gaber, and Eyad Elyan Copyright © 2015 Mohammed M. Abdelsamea et al. All rights reserved. Memory Dynamics in Attractor Networks Sun, 19 Apr 2015 10:25:20 +0000 As can be represented by neurons and their synaptic connections, attractor networks are widely believed to underlie biological memory systems and have been used extensively in recent years to model the storage and retrieval process of memory. In this paper, we propose a new energy function, which is nonnegative and attains zero values only at the desired memory patterns. An attractor network is designed based on the proposed energy function. It is shown that the desired memory patterns are stored as the stable equilibrium points of the attractor network. To retrieve a memory pattern, an initial stimulus input is presented to the network, and its states converge to one of stable equilibrium points. Consequently, the existence of the spurious points, that is, local maxima, saddle points, or other local minima which are undesired memory patterns, can be avoided. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Guoqi Li, Kiruthika Ramanathan, Ning Ning, Luping Shi, and Changyun Wen Copyright © 2015 Guoqi Li et al. All rights reserved. Fuzzy Controller Design Using Evolutionary Techniques for Twin Rotor MIMO System: A Comparative Study Sun, 19 Apr 2015 07:54:55 +0000 This paper presents a comparative study of fuzzy controller design for the twin rotor multi-input multioutput (MIMO) system (TRMS) considering most promising evolutionary techniques. These are gravitational search algorithm (GSA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), artificial bee colony (ABC), and differential evolution (DE). In this study, the gains of four fuzzy proportional derivative (PD) controllers for TRMS have been optimized using the considered techniques. The optimization techniques are developed to identify the optimal control parameters for system stability enhancement, to cancel high nonlinearities in the model, to reduce the coupling effect, and to drive TRMS pitch and yaw angles into the desired tracking trajectory efficiently and accurately. The most effective technique in terms of system response due to different disturbances has been investigated. In this work, it is observed that GSA is the most effective technique in terms of solution quality and convergence speed. H. A. Hashim and M. A. Abido Copyright © 2015 H. A. Hashim and M. A. Abido. All rights reserved.