Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Optimization for Service Routes of Pallet Service Center Based on the Pallet Pool Mode Tue, 26 Jul 2016 11:15:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/5691735/ Service routes optimization (SRO) of pallet service center should meet customers’ demand firstly and then, through the reasonable method of lines organization, realize the shortest path of vehicle driving. The routes optimization of pallet service center is similar to the distribution problems of vehicle routing problem (VRP) and Chinese postman problem (CPP), but it has its own characteristics. Based on the relevant research results, the conditions of determining the number of vehicles, the one way of the route, the constraints of loading, and time windows are fully considered, and a chance constrained programming model with stochastic constraints is constructed taking the shortest path of all vehicles for a delivering (recycling) operation as an objective. For the characteristics of the model, a hybrid intelligent algorithm including stochastic simulation, neural network, and immune clonal algorithm is designed to solve the model. Finally, the validity and rationality of the optimization model and algorithm are verified by the case. Kang Zhou, Shiwei He, and Rui Song Copyright © 2016 Kang Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Driving a Semiautonomous Mobile Robotic Car Controlled by an SSVEP-Based BCI Tue, 26 Jul 2016 10:00:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/4909685/ Brain-computer interfaces represent a range of acknowledged technologies that translate brain activity into computer commands. The aim of our research is to develop and evaluate a BCI control application for certain assistive technologies that can be used for remote telepresence or remote driving. The communication channel to the target device is based on the steady-state visual evoked potentials. In order to test the control application, a mobile robotic car (MRC) was introduced and a four-class BCI graphical user interface (with live video feedback and stimulation boxes on the same screen) for piloting the MRC was designed. For the purpose of evaluating a potential real-life scenario for such assistive technology, we present a study where 61 subjects steered the MRC through a predetermined route. All 61 subjects were able to control the MRC and finish the experiment (mean time 207.08 s, SD 50.25) with a mean (SD) accuracy and ITR of 93.03% (5.73) and 14.07 bits/min (4.44), respectively. The results show that our proposed SSVEP-based BCI control application is suitable for mobile robots with a shared-control approach. We also did not observe any negative influence of the simultaneous live video feedback and SSVEP stimulation on the performance of the BCI system. Piotr Stawicki, Felix Gembler, and Ivan Volosyak Copyright © 2016 Piotr Stawicki et al. All rights reserved. Robot and Neuroscience Technology: Computational and Engineering Approaches in Medicine Mon, 25 Jul 2016 11:59:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/5204510/ Hiroki Tamura, Shangce Gao, Qixin Cao, Chuntao Leng, Hui Yu, and Harold Szu Copyright © 2016 Hiroki Tamura et al. All rights reserved. Improved Correction of Atmospheric Pressure Data Obtained by Smartphones through Machine Learning Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:53:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/9467878/ A correction method using machine learning aims to improve the conventional linear regression (LR) based method for correction of atmospheric pressure data obtained by smartphones. The method proposed in this study conducts clustering and regression analysis with time domain classification. Data obtained in Gyeonggi-do, one of the most populous provinces in South Korea surrounding Seoul with the size of 10,000 km2, from July 2014 through December 2014, using smartphones were classified with respect to time of day (daytime or nighttime) as well as day of the week (weekday or weekend) and the user’s mobility, prior to the expectation-maximization (EM) clustering. Subsequently, the results were analyzed for comparison by applying machine learning methods such as multilayer perceptron (MLP) and support vector regression (SVR). The results showed a mean absolute error (MAE) 26% lower on average when regression analysis was performed through EM clustering compared to that obtained without EM clustering. For machine learning methods, the MAE for SVR was around 31% lower for LR and about 19% lower for MLP. It is concluded that pressure data from smartphones are as good as the ones from national automatic weather station (AWS) network. Yong-Hyuk Kim, Ji-Hun Ha, Yourim Yoon, Na-Young Kim, Hyo-Hyuc Im, Sangjin Sim, and Reno K. Y. Choi Copyright © 2016 Yong-Hyuk Kim et al. All rights reserved. Macroscopic Neural Oscillation during Skilled Reaching Movements in Humans Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:36:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/2714052/ The neural mechanism of skilled movements, such as reaching, has been considered to differ from that of rhythmic movement such as locomotion. It is generally thought that skilled movements are consciously controlled by the brain, while rhythmic movements are usually controlled autonomously by the spinal cord and brain stem. However, several studies in recent decades have suggested that neural networks in the spinal cord may also be involved in the generation of skilled movements. Moreover, a recent study revealed that neural activities in the motor cortex exhibit rhythmic oscillations corresponding to movement frequency during reaching movements as rhythmic movements. However, whether the oscillations are generated in the spinal cord or the cortical circuit in the motor cortex causes the oscillations is unclear. If the spinal cord is involved in the skilled movements, then similar rhythmic oscillations with time delays should be found in macroscopic neural activity. We measured whole-brain MEG signals during reaching. The MEG signals were analyzed using a dynamical analysis method. We found that rhythmic oscillations with time delays occur in all subjects during reaching movements. The results suggest that the corticospinal system is involved in the generation and control of the skilled movements as rhythmic movements. Hong Gi Yeom, June Sic Kim, and Chun Kee Chung Copyright © 2016 Hong Gi Yeom et al. All rights reserved. Comparing the Performance of Popular MEG/EEG Artifact Correction Methods in an Evoked-Response Study Thu, 21 Jul 2016 06:27:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/7489108/ We here compared results achieved by applying popular methods for reducing artifacts in magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of the auditory evoked Mismatch Negativity (MMN) responses in healthy adult subjects. We compared the Signal Space Separation (SSS) and temporal SSS (tSSS) methods for reducing noise from external and nearby sources. Our results showed that tSSS reduces the interference level more reliably than plain SSS, particularly for MEG gradiometers, also for healthy subjects not wearing strongly interfering magnetic material. Therefore, tSSS is recommended over SSS. Furthermore, we found that better artifact correction is achieved by applying Independent Component Analysis (ICA) in comparison to Signal Space Projection (SSP). Although SSP reduces the baseline noise level more than ICA, SSP also significantly reduces the signal—slightly more than it reduces the artifacts interfering with the signal. However, ICA also adds noise, or correction errors, to the waveform when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the original data is relatively low—in particular to EEG and to MEG magnetometer data. In conclusion, ICA is recommended over SSP, but one should be careful when applying ICA to reduce artifacts on neurophysiological data with relatively low SNR. Niels Trusbak Haumann, Lauri Parkkonen, Marina Kliuchko, Peter Vuust, and Elvira Brattico Copyright © 2016 Niels Trusbak Haumann et al. All rights reserved. Ubiquitous Robotic Technology for Smart Manufacturing System Thu, 30 Jun 2016 11:53:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/6018686/ As the manufacturing tasks become more individualized and more flexible, the machines in smart factory are required to do variable tasks collaboratively without reprogramming. This paper for the first time discusses the similarity between smart manufacturing systems and the ubiquitous robotic systems and makes an effort on deploying ubiquitous robotic technology to the smart factory. Specifically, a component based framework is proposed in order to enable the communication and cooperation of the heterogeneous robotic devices. Further, compared to the service robotic domain, the smart manufacturing systems are often in larger size. So a hierarchical planning method was implemented to improve the planning efficiency. A test bed of smart factory is developed. It demonstrates that the proposed framework is suitable for industrial domain, and the hierarchical planning method is able to solve large problems intractable with flat methods. Wenshan Wang, Xiaoxiao Zhu, Liyu Wang, Qiang Qiu, and Qixin Cao Copyright © 2016 Wenshan Wang et al. All rights reserved. Quadrupedal Robot Locomotion: A Biologically Inspired Approach and Its Hardware Implementation Wed, 29 Jun 2016 14:55:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/5615618/ A bioinspired locomotion system for a quadruped robot is presented. Locomotion is achieved by a spiking neural network (SNN) that acts as a Central Pattern Generator (CPG) producing different locomotion patterns represented by their raster plots. To generate these patterns, the SNN is configured with specific parameters (synaptic weights and topologies), which were estimated by a metaheuristic method based on Christiansen Grammar Evolution (CGE). The system has been implemented and validated on two robot platforms; firstly, we tested our system on a quadruped robot and, secondly, on a hexapod one. In this last one, we simulated the case where two legs of the hexapod were amputated and its locomotion mechanism has been changed. For the quadruped robot, the control is performed by the spiking neural network implemented on an Arduino board with 35% of resource usage. In the hexapod robot, we used Spartan 6 FPGA board with only 3% of resource usage. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed system in both cases. A. Espinal, H. Rostro-Gonzalez, M. Carpio, E. I. Guerra-Hernandez, M. Ornelas-Rodriguez, H. J. Puga-Soberanes, M. A. Sotelo-Figueroa, and P. Melin Copyright © 2016 A. Espinal et al. All rights reserved. Automatic Training of Rat Cyborgs for Navigation Wed, 29 Jun 2016 12:08:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/6459251/ A rat cyborg system refers to a biological rat implanted with microelectrodes in its brain, via which the outer electrical stimuli can be delivered into the brain in vivo to control its behaviors. Rat cyborgs have various applications in emergency, such as search and rescue in disasters. Prior to a rat cyborg becoming controllable, a lot of effort is required to train it to adapt to the electrical stimuli. In this paper, we build a vision-based automatic training system for rat cyborgs to replace the time-consuming manual training procedure. A hierarchical framework is proposed to facilitate the colearning between rats and machines. In the framework, the behavioral states of a rat cyborg are visually sensed by a camera, a parameterized state machine is employed to model the training action transitions triggered by rat’s behavioral states, and an adaptive adjustment policy is developed to adaptively adjust the stimulation intensity. The experimental results of three rat cyborgs prove the effectiveness of our system. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to tackle automatic training of animal cyborgs. Yipeng Yu, Zhaohui Wu, Kedi Xu, Yongyue Gong, Nenggan Zheng, Xiaoxiang Zheng, and Gang Pan Copyright © 2016 Yipeng Yu et al. All rights reserved. A Character Level Based and Word Level Based Approach for Chinese-Vietnamese Machine Translation Wed, 29 Jun 2016 11:10:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/9821608/ Chinese and Vietnamese have the same isolated language; that is, the words are not delimited by spaces. In machine translation, word segmentation is often done first when translating from Chinese or Vietnamese into different languages (typically English) and vice versa. However, it is a matter for consideration that words may or may not be segmented when translating between two languages in which spaces are not used between words, such as Chinese and Vietnamese. Since Chinese-Vietnamese is a low-resource language pair, the sparse data problem is evident in the translation system of this language pair. Therefore, while translating, whether it should be segmented or not becomes more important. In this paper, we propose a new method for translating Chinese to Vietnamese based on a combination of the advantages of character level and word level translation. In addition, a hybrid approach that combines statistics and rules is used to translate on the word level. And at the character level, a statistical translation is used. The experimental results showed that our method improved the performance of machine translation over that of character or word level translation. Phuoc Tran, Dien Dinh, and Hien T. Nguyen Copyright © 2016 Phuoc Tran et al. All rights reserved. Kernel Recursive Least-Squares Temporal Difference Algorithms with Sparsification and Regularization Wed, 29 Jun 2016 09:26:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/2305854/ By combining with sparse kernel methods, least-squares temporal difference (LSTD) algorithms can construct the feature dictionary automatically and obtain a better generalization ability. However, the previous kernel-based LSTD algorithms do not consider regularization and their sparsification processes are batch or offline, which hinder their widespread applications in online learning problems. In this paper, we combine the following five techniques and propose two novel kernel recursive LSTD algorithms: (i) online sparsification, which can cope with unknown state regions and be used for online learning, (ii) and regularization, which can avoid overfitting and eliminate the influence of noise, (iii) recursive least squares, which can eliminate matrix-inversion operations and reduce computational complexity, (iv) a sliding-window approach, which can avoid caching all history samples and reduce the computational cost, and (v) the fixed-point subiteration and online pruning, which can make regularization easy to implement. Finally, simulation results on two 50-state chain problems demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithms. Chunyuan Zhang, Qingxin Zhu, and Xinzheng Niu Copyright © 2016 Chunyuan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Optimizing the Shunting Schedule of Electric Multiple Units Depot Using an Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Wed, 29 Jun 2016 09:12:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/5804626/ The shunting schedule of electric multiple units depot (SSED) is one of the essential plans for high-speed train maintenance activities. This paper presents a 0-1 programming model to address the problem of determining an optimal SSED through automatic computing. The objective of the model is to minimize the number of shunting movements and the constraints include track occupation conflicts, shunting routes conflicts, time durations of maintenance processes, and shunting running time. An enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO) algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, an empirical study from Shanghai South EMU Depot is carried out to illustrate the model and EPSO algorithm. The optimization results indicate that the proposed method is valid for the SSED problem and that the EPSO algorithm outperforms the traditional PSO algorithm on the aspect of optimality. Jiaxi Wang, Boliang Lin, and Junchen Jin Copyright © 2016 Jiaxi Wang et al. All rights reserved. Simulation and Validation in Brain Image Analysis Tue, 28 Jun 2016 06:39:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/1041058/ Jussi Tohka, Pierre Bellec, Christophe Grova, and Anthonin Reilhac Copyright © 2016 Jussi Tohka et al. All rights reserved. Deep Neural Networks Based Recognition of Plant Diseases by Leaf Image Classification Wed, 22 Jun 2016 12:15:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/3289801/ The latest generation of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has achieved impressive results in the field of image classification. This paper is concerned with a new approach to the development of plant disease recognition model, based on leaf image classification, by the use of deep convolutional networks. Novel way of training and the methodology used facilitate a quick and easy system implementation in practice. The developed model is able to recognize 13 different types of plant diseases out of healthy leaves, with the ability to distinguish plant leaves from their surroundings. According to our knowledge, this method for plant disease recognition has been proposed for the first time. All essential steps required for implementing this disease recognition model are fully described throughout the paper, starting from gathering images in order to create a database, assessed by agricultural experts. Caffe, a deep learning framework developed by Berkley Vision and Learning Centre, was used to perform the deep CNN training. The experimental results on the developed model achieved precision between 91% and 98%, for separate class tests, on average 96.3%. Srdjan Sladojevic, Marko Arsenovic, Andras Anderla, Dubravko Culibrk, and Darko Stefanovic Copyright © 2016 Srdjan Sladojevic et al. All rights reserved. EOG-sEMG Human Interface for Communication Tue, 21 Jun 2016 12:11:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/7354082/ The aim of this study is to present electrooculogram (EOG) and surface electromyogram (sEMG) signals that can be used as a human-computer interface. Establishing an efficient alternative channel for communication without overt speech and hand movements is important for increasing the quality of life for patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, or other illnesses. In this paper, we propose an EOG-sEMG human-computer interface system for communication using both cross-channels and parallel lines channels on the face with the same electrodes. This system could record EOG and sEMG signals as “dual-modality” for pattern recognition simultaneously. Although as much as 4 patterns could be recognized, dealing with the state of the patients, we only choose two classes (left and right motion) of EOG and two classes (left blink and right blink) of sEMG which are easily to be realized for simulation and monitoring task. From the simulation results, our system achieved four-pattern classification with an accuracy of 95.1%. Hiroki Tamura, Mingmin Yan, Keiko Sakurai, and Koichi Tanno Copyright © 2016 Hiroki Tamura et al. All rights reserved. Optimizing NEURON Simulation Environment Using Remote Memory Access with Recursive Doubling on Distributed Memory Systems Mon, 20 Jun 2016 11:41:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/3676582/ Increase in complexity of neuronal network models escalated the efforts to make NEURON simulation environment efficient. The computational neuroscientists divided the equations into subnets amongst multiple processors for achieving better hardware performance. On parallel machines for neuronal networks, interprocessor spikes exchange consumes large section of overall simulation time. In NEURON for communication between processors Message Passing Interface (MPI) is used. MPI_Allgather collective is exercised for spikes exchange after each interval across distributed memory systems. The increase in number of processors though results in achieving concurrency and better performance but it inversely affects MPI_Allgather which increases communication time between processors. This necessitates improving communication methodology to decrease the spikes exchange time over distributed memory systems. This work has improved MPI_Allgather method using Remote Memory Access (RMA) by moving two-sided communication to one-sided communication, and use of recursive doubling mechanism facilitates achieving efficient communication between the processors in precise steps. This approach enhanced communication concurrency and has improved overall runtime making NEURON more efficient for simulation of large neuronal network models. Danish Shehzad and Zeki Bozkuş Copyright © 2016 Danish Shehzad and Zeki Bozkuş. All rights reserved. A Fast Framework for Abrupt Change Detection Based on Binary Search Trees and Kolmogorov Statistic Thu, 16 Jun 2016 08:03:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/8343187/ Change-Point (CP) detection has attracted considerable attention in the fields of data mining and statistics; it is very meaningful to discuss how to quickly and efficiently detect abrupt change from large-scale bioelectric signals. Currently, most of the existing methods, like Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic and so forth, are time-consuming, especially for large-scale datasets. In this paper, we propose a fast framework for abrupt change detection based on binary search trees (BSTs) and a modified KS statistic, named BSTKS (binary search trees and Kolmogorov statistic). In this method, first, two binary search trees, termed as BSTcA and BSTcD, are constructed by multilevel Haar Wavelet Transform (HWT); second, three search criteria are introduced in terms of the statistic and variance fluctuations in the diagnosed time series; last, an optimal search path is detected from the root to leaf nodes of two BSTs. The studies on both the synthetic time series samples and the real electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings indicate that the proposed BSTKS can detect abrupt change more quickly and efficiently than KS, -statistic (), and Singular-Spectrum Analyses (SSA) methods, with the shortest computation time, the highest hit rate, the smallest error, and the highest accuracy out of four methods. This study suggests that the proposed BSTKS is very helpful for useful information inspection on all kinds of bioelectric time series signals. Jin-Peng Qi, Jie Qi, and Qing Zhang Copyright © 2016 Jin-Peng Qi et al. All rights reserved. A Methodology for the Hybridization Based in Active Components: The Case of cGA and Scatter Search Tue, 14 Jun 2016 11:28:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/8289237/ This work presents the results of a new methodology for hybridizing metaheuristics. By first locating the active components (parts) of one algorithm and then inserting them into second one, we can build efficient and accurate optimization, search, and learning algorithms. This gives a concrete way of constructing new techniques that contrasts the spread ad hoc way of hybridizing. In this paper, the enhanced algorithm is a Cellular Genetic Algorithm (cGA) which has been successfully used in the past to find solutions to such hard optimization problems. In order to extend and corroborate the use of active components as an emerging hybridization methodology, we propose here the use of active components taken from Scatter Search (SS) to improve cGA. The results obtained over a varied set of benchmarks are highly satisfactory in efficacy and efficiency when compared with a standard cGA. Moreover, the proposed hybrid approach (i.e., cGA+SS) has shown encouraging results with regard to earlier applications of our methodology. Andrea Villagra, Enrique Alba, and Guillermo Leguizamón Copyright © 2016 Andrea Villagra et al. All rights reserved. Novel Virtual Environment for Alternative Treatment of Children with Cerebral Palsy Tue, 14 Jun 2016 09:36:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/8984379/ Cerebral palsy is a severe condition usually caused by decreased brain oxygenation during pregnancy, at birth or soon after birth. Conventional treatments for cerebral palsy are often tiresome and expensive, leading patients to quit treatment. In this paper, we describe a virtual environment for patients to engage in a playful therapeutic game for neuropsychomotor rehabilitation, based on the experience of the occupational therapy program of the Nucleus for Integrated Medical Assistance (NAMI) at the University of Fortaleza, Brazil. Integration between patient and virtual environment occurs through the hand motion sensor “Leap Motion,” plus the electroencephalographic sensor “MindWave,” responsible for measuring attention levels during task execution. To evaluate the virtual environment, eight clinical experts on cerebral palsy were subjected to a questionnaire regarding the potential of the experimental virtual environment to promote cognitive and motor rehabilitation, as well as the potential of the treatment to enhance risks and/or negatively influence the patient’s development. Based on the very positive appraisal of the experts, we propose that the experimental virtual environment is a promising alternative tool for the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. Juliana M. de Oliveira, Rafael Carneiro G. Fernandes, Cristtiano S. Pinto, Plácido R. Pinheiro, Sidarta Ribeiro, and Victor Hugo C. de Albuquerque Copyright © 2016 Juliana M. de Oliveira et al. All rights reserved. A Review of Surrogate Assisted Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms Sun, 12 Jun 2016 07:37:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/9420460/ Multiobjective evolutionary algorithms have incorporated surrogate models in order to reduce the number of required evaluations to approximate the Pareto front of computationally expensive multiobjective optimization problems. Currently, few works have reviewed the state of the art in this topic. However, the existing reviews have focused on classifying the evolutionary multiobjective optimization algorithms with respect to the type of underlying surrogate model. In this paper, we center our focus on classifying multiobjective evolutionary algorithms with respect to their integration with surrogate models. This interaction has led us to classify similar approaches and identify advantages and disadvantages of each class. Alan Díaz-Manríquez, Gregorio Toscano, Jose Hugo Barron-Zambrano, and Edgar Tello-Leal Copyright © 2016 Alan Díaz-Manríquez et al. All rights reserved. Adaptive Shape Kernel-Based Mean Shift Tracker in Robot Vision System Thu, 09 Jun 2016 06:38:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/6040232/ This paper proposes an adaptive shape kernel-based mean shift tracker using a single static camera for the robot vision system. The question that we address in this paper is how to construct such a kernel shape that is adaptive to the object shape. We perform nonlinear manifold learning technique to obtain the low-dimensional shape space which is trained by training data with the same view as the tracking video. The proposed kernel searches the shape in the low-dimensional shape space obtained by nonlinear manifold learning technique and constructs the adaptive kernel shape in the high-dimensional shape space. It can improve mean shift tracker performance to track object position and object contour and avoid the background clutter. In the experimental part, we take the walking human as example to validate that our method is accurate and robust to track human position and describe human contour. Chunmei Liu, Yirui Wang, and Shangce Gao Copyright © 2016 Chunmei Liu et al. All rights reserved. Metaheuristic Algorithms for Convolution Neural Network Wed, 08 Jun 2016 12:06:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/1537325/ A typical modern optimization technique is usually either heuristic or metaheuristic. This technique has managed to solve some optimization problems in the research area of science, engineering, and industry. However, implementation strategy of metaheuristic for accuracy improvement on convolution neural networks (CNN), a famous deep learning method, is still rarely investigated. Deep learning relates to a type of machine learning technique, where its aim is to move closer to the goal of artificial intelligence of creating a machine that could successfully perform any intellectual tasks that can be carried out by a human. In this paper, we propose the implementation strategy of three popular metaheuristic approaches, that is, simulated annealing, differential evolution, and harmony search, to optimize CNN. The performances of these metaheuristic methods in optimizing CNN on classifying MNIST and CIFAR dataset were evaluated and compared. Furthermore, the proposed methods are also compared with the original CNN. Although the proposed methods show an increase in the computation time, their accuracy has also been improved (up to 7.14 percent). L. M. Rasdi Rere, Mohamad Ivan Fanany, and Aniati Murni Arymurthy Copyright © 2016 L. M. Rasdi Rere et al. All rights reserved. Neural Net Gains Estimation Based on an Equivalent Model Sun, 05 Jun 2016 13:36:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/1690924/ A model of an Equivalent Artificial Neural Net (EANN) describes the gains set, viewed as parameters in a layer, and this consideration is a reproducible process, applicable to a neuron in a neural net (NN). The EANN helps to estimate the NN gains or parameters, so we propose two methods to determine them. The first considers a fuzzy inference combined with the traditional Kalman filter, obtaining the equivalent model and estimating in a fuzzy sense the gains matrix and the proper gain into the traditional filter identification. The second develops a direct estimation in state space, describing an EANN using the expected value and the recursive description of the gains estimation. Finally, a comparison of both descriptions is performed; highlighting the analytical method describes the neural net coefficients in a direct form, whereas the other technique requires selecting into the Knowledge Base (KB) the factors based on the functional error and the reference signal built with the past information of the system. Karen Alicia Aguilar Cruz, José de Jesús Medel Juárez, José Luis Fernández Muñoz, and Midory Esmeralda Vigueras Velázquez Copyright © 2016 Karen Alicia Aguilar Cruz et al. All rights reserved. An Analysis of the Effects of Smartphone Push Notifications on Task Performance with regard to Smartphone Overuse Using ERP Sun, 05 Jun 2016 09:00:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/5718580/ Smartphones are used ubiquitously worldwide and are essential tools in modern society. However, smartphone overuse is an emerging social issue, and limited studies have objectively assessed this matter. The majority of previous studies have included surveys or behavioral observation studies. Since a previous study demonstrated an association between increased push notifications and smartphone overuse, we investigated the effects of push notifications on task performance. We detected changes in brainwaves generated by smartphone push notifications using the N200 and P300 components of event-related potential (ERP) to investigate both concentration and cognitive ability. ERP assessment indicated that, in both risk and nonrisk groups, the lowest N200 amplitude and the longest latency during task performance were found when push notifications were delivered. Compared to the nonrisk group, the risk group demonstrated lower P300 amplitudes and longer latencies. In addition, the risk group featured a higher rate of error in the Go-Nogo task, due to the negative influence of smartphone push notifications on performance in both risk and nonrisk groups. Furthermore, push notifications affected subsequent performance in the risk group. Seul-Kee Kim, So-Yeong Kim, and Hang-Bong Kang Copyright © 2016 Seul-Kee Kim et al. All rights reserved. PWC-ICA: A Method for Stationary Ordered Blind Source Separation with Application to EEG Thu, 02 Jun 2016 11:28:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/9754813/ Independent component analysis (ICA) is a class of algorithms widely applied to separate sources in EEG data. Most ICA approaches use optimization criteria derived from temporal statistical independence and are invariant with respect to the actual ordering of individual observations. We propose a method of mapping real signals into a complex vector space that takes into account the temporal order of signals and enforces certain mixing stationarity constraints. The resulting procedure, which we call Pairwise Complex Independent Component Analysis (PWC-ICA), performs the ICA in a complex setting and then reinterprets the results in the original observation space. We examine the performance of our candidate approach relative to several existing ICA algorithms for the blind source separation (BSS) problem on both real and simulated EEG data. On simulated data, PWC-ICA is often capable of achieving a better solution to the BSS problem than AMICA, Extended Infomax, or FastICA. On real data, the dipole interpretations of the BSS solutions discovered by PWC-ICA are physically plausible, are competitive with existing ICA approaches, and may represent sources undiscovered by other ICA methods. In conjunction with this paper, the authors have released a MATLAB toolbox that performs PWC-ICA on real, vector-valued signals. Kenneth Ball, Nima Bigdely-Shamlo, Tim Mullen, and Kay Robbins Copyright © 2016 Kenneth Ball et al. All rights reserved. An Application of Self-Organizing Map for Multirobot Multigoal Path Planning with Minmax Objective Thu, 02 Jun 2016 06:10:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/2720630/ In this paper, Self-Organizing Map (SOM) for the Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (MTSP) with minmax objective is applied to the robotic problem of multigoal path planning in the polygonal domain. The main difficulty of such SOM deployment is determination of collision-free paths among obstacles that is required to evaluate the neuron-city distances in the winner selection phase of unsupervised learning. Moreover, a collision-free path is also needed in the adaptation phase, where neurons are adapted towards the presented input signal (city) to the network. Simple approximations of the shortest path are utilized to address this issue and solve the robotic MTSP by SOM. Suitability of the proposed approximations is verified in the context of cooperative inspection, where cities represent sensing locations that guarantee to “see” the whole robots’ workspace. The inspection task formulated as the MTSP-Minmax is solved by the proposed SOM approach and compared with the combinatorial heuristic GENIUS. The results indicate that the proposed approach provides competitive results to GENIUS and support applicability of SOM for robotic multigoal path planning with a group of cooperating mobile robots. The proposed combination of approximate shortest paths with unsupervised learning opens further applications of SOM in the field of robotic planning. Jan Faigl Copyright © 2016 Jan Faigl. All rights reserved. Mitigation of Effects of Occlusion on Object Recognition with Deep Neural Networks through Low-Level Image Completion Wed, 01 Jun 2016 13:18:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/6425257/ Heavily occluded objects are more difficult for classification algorithms to identify correctly than unoccluded objects. This effect is rare and thus hard to measure with datasets like ImageNet and PASCAL VOC, however, owing to biases in human-generated image pose selection. We introduce a dataset that emphasizes occlusion and additions to a standard convolutional neural network aimed at increasing invariance to occlusion. An unmodified convolutional neural network trained and tested on the new dataset rapidly degrades to chance-level accuracy as occlusion increases. Training with occluded data slows this decline but still yields poor performance with high occlusion. Integrating novel preprocessing stages to segment the input and inpaint occlusions is an effective mitigation. A convolutional network so modified is nearly as effective with more than 81% of pixels occluded as it is with no occlusion. Such a network is also more accurate on unoccluded images than an otherwise identical network that has been trained with only unoccluded images. These results depend on successful segmentation. The occlusions in our dataset are deliberately easy to segment from the figure and background. Achieving similar results on a more challenging dataset would require finding a method to split figure, background, and occluding pixels in the input. Benjamin Chandler and Ennio Mingolla Copyright © 2016 Benjamin Chandler and Ennio Mingolla. All rights reserved. Gender and Age Related Effects While Watching TV Advertisements: An EEG Study Thu, 26 May 2016 06:30:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/3795325/ The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment ) and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment ). Experiment results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population. Giulia Cartocci, Patrizia Cherubino, Dario Rossi, Enrica Modica, Anton Giulio Maglione, Gianluca di Flumeri, and Fabio Babiloni Copyright © 2016 Giulia Cartocci et al. All rights reserved. Stratification-Based Outlier Detection over the Deep Web Wed, 25 May 2016 09:32:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/7386517/ For many applications, finding rare instances or outliers can be more interesting than finding common patterns. Existing work in outlier detection never considers the context of deep web. In this paper, we argue that, for many scenarios, it is more meaningful to detect outliers over deep web. In the context of deep web, users must submit queries through a query interface to retrieve corresponding data. Therefore, traditional data mining methods cannot be directly applied. The primary contribution of this paper is to develop a new data mining method for outlier detection over deep web. In our approach, the query space of a deep web data source is stratified based on a pilot sample. Neighborhood sampling and uncertainty sampling are developed in this paper with the goal of improving recall and precision based on stratification. Finally, a careful performance evaluation of our algorithm confirms that our approach can effectively detect outliers in deep web. Xuefeng Xian, Pengpeng Zhao, Victor S. Sheng, Ligang Fang, Caidong Gu, Yuanfeng Yang, and Zhiming Cui Copyright © 2016 Xuefeng Xian et al. All rights reserved. An Artificial Intelligence System to Predict Quality of Service in Banking Organizations Sun, 22 May 2016 13:10:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/9139380/ Quality of service, that is, the waiting time that customers must endure in order to receive a service, is a critical performance aspect in private and public service organizations. Providing good service quality is particularly important in highly competitive sectors where similar services exist. In this paper, focusing on banking sector, we propose an artificial intelligence system for building a model for the prediction of service quality. While the traditional approach used for building analytical models relies on theories and assumptions about the problem at hand, we propose a novel approach for learning models from actual data. Thus, the proposed approach is not biased by the knowledge that experts may have about the problem, but it is completely based on the available data. The system is based on a recently defined variant of genetic programming that allows practitioners to include the concept of semantics in the search process. This will have beneficial effects on the search process and will produce analytical models that are based only on the data and not on domain-dependent knowledge. Mauro Castelli, Luca Manzoni, and Aleš Popovič Copyright © 2016 Mauro Castelli et al. All rights reserved.