Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Classification of Two Class Motor Imagery Tasks Using Hybrid GA-PSO Based -Means Clustering Mon, 20 Apr 2015 06:35:32 +0000 Transferring the brain computer interface (BCI) from laboratory condition to meet the real world application needs BCI to be applied asynchronously without any time constraint. High level of dynamism in the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal reasons us to look toward evolutionary algorithm (EA). Motivated by these two facts, in this work a hybrid GA-PSO based -means clustering technique has been used to distinguish two class motor imagery (MI) tasks. The proposed hybrid GA-PSO based -means clustering is found to outperform genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) based -means clustering techniques in terms of both accuracy and execution time. The lesser execution time of hybrid GA-PSO technique makes it suitable for real time BCI application. Time frequency representation (TFR) techniques have been used to extract the feature of the signal under investigation. TFRs based features are extracted and relying on the concept of event related synchronization (ERD) and desynchronization (ERD) feature vector is formed. Suraj, Purnendu Tiwari, Subhojit Ghosh, and Rakesh Kumar Sinha Copyright © 2015 Suraj et al. All rights reserved. On the Relationship between Variational Level Set-Based and SOM-Based Active Contours Sun, 19 Apr 2015 11:02:24 +0000 Most Active Contour Models (ACMs) deal with the image segmentation problem as a functional optimization problem, as they work on dividing an image into several regions by optimizing a suitable functional. Among ACMs, variational level set methods have been used to build an active contour with the aim of modeling arbitrarily complex shapes. Moreover, they can handle also topological changes of the contours. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) have attracted the attention of many computer vision scientists, particularly in modeling an active contour based on the idea of utilizing the prototypes (weights) of a SOM to control the evolution of the contour. SOM-based models have been proposed in general with the aim of exploiting the specific ability of SOMs to learn the edge-map information via their topology preservation property and overcoming some drawbacks of other ACMs, such as trapping into local minima of the image energy functional to be minimized in such models. In this survey, we illustrate the main concepts of variational level set-based ACMs, SOM-based ACMs, and their relationship and review in a comprehensive fashion the development of their state-of-the-art models from a machine learning perspective, with a focus on their strengths and weaknesses. Mohammed M. Abdelsamea, Giorgio Gnecco, Mohamed Medhat Gaber, and Eyad Elyan Copyright © 2015 Mohammed M. Abdelsamea et al. All rights reserved. Memory Dynamics in Attractor Networks Sun, 19 Apr 2015 10:25:20 +0000 As can be represented by neurons and their synaptic connections, attractor networks are widely believed to underlie biological memory systems and have been used extensively in recent years to model the storage and retrieval process of memory. In this paper, we propose a new energy function, which is nonnegative and attains zero values only at the desired memory patterns. An attractor network is designed based on the proposed energy function. It is shown that the desired memory patterns are stored as the stable equilibrium points of the attractor network. To retrieve a memory pattern, an initial stimulus input is presented to the network, and its states converge to one of stable equilibrium points. Consequently, the existence of the spurious points, that is, local maxima, saddle points, or other local minima which are undesired memory patterns, can be avoided. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Guoqi Li, Kiruthika Ramanathan, Ning Ning, Luping Shi, and Changyun Wen Copyright © 2015 Guoqi Li et al. All rights reserved. Fuzzy Controller Design Using Evolutionary Techniques for Twin Rotor MIMO System: A Comparative Study Sun, 19 Apr 2015 07:54:55 +0000 This paper presents a comparative study of fuzzy controller design for the twin rotor multi-input multioutput (MIMO) system (TRMS) considering most promising evolutionary techniques. These are gravitational search algorithm (GSA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), artificial bee colony (ABC), and differential evolution (DE). In this study, the gains of four fuzzy proportional derivative (PD) controllers for TRMS have been optimized using the considered techniques. The optimization techniques are developed to identify the optimal control parameters for system stability enhancement, to cancel high nonlinearities in the model, to reduce the coupling effect, and to drive TRMS pitch and yaw angles into the desired tracking trajectory efficiently and accurately. The most effective technique in terms of system response due to different disturbances has been investigated. In this work, it is observed that GSA is the most effective technique in terms of solution quality and convergence speed. H. A. Hashim and M. A. Abido Copyright © 2015 H. A. Hashim and M. A. Abido. All rights reserved. Robust Adaptive Principal Component Analysis Based on Intergraph Matrix for Medical Image Registration Sun, 19 Apr 2015 07:04:31 +0000 This paper proposes a novel robust adaptive principal component analysis (RAPCA) method based on intergraph matrix for image registration in order to improve robustness and real-time performance. The contributions can be divided into three parts. Firstly, a novel RAPCA method is developed to capture the common structure patterns based on intergraph matrix of the objects. Secondly, the robust similarity measure is proposed based on adaptive principal component. Finally, the robust registration algorithm is derived based on the RAPCA. The experimental results show that the proposed method is very effective in capturing the common structure patterns for image registration on real-world images. Chengcai Leng, Jinjun Xiao, Min Li, and Haipeng Zhang Copyright © 2015 Chengcai Leng et al. All rights reserved. Encoding Sequential Information in Semantic Space Models: Comparing Holographic Reduced Representation and Random Permutation Tue, 07 Apr 2015 13:18:14 +0000 Circular convolution and random permutation have each been proposed as neurally plausible binding operators capable of encoding sequential information in semantic memory. We perform several controlled comparisons of circular convolution and random permutation as means of encoding paired associates as well as encoding sequential information. Random permutations outperformed convolution with respect to the number of paired associates that can be reliably stored in a single memory trace. Performance was equal on semantic tasks when using a small corpus, but random permutations were ultimately capable of achieving superior performance due to their higher scalability to large corpora. Finally, “noisy” permutations in which units are mapped to other units arbitrarily (no one-to-one mapping) perform nearly as well as true permutations. These findings increase the neurological plausibility of random permutations and highlight their utility in vector space models of semantics. Gabriel Recchia, Magnus Sahlgren, Pentti Kanerva, and Michael N. Jones Copyright © 2015 Gabriel Recchia et al. All rights reserved. Harmony Search Method: Theory and Applications Tue, 07 Apr 2015 10:43:26 +0000 The Harmony Search (HS) method is an emerging metaheuristic optimization algorithm, which has been employed to cope with numerous challenging tasks during the past decade. In this paper, the essential theory and applications of the HS algorithm are first described and reviewed. Several typical variants of the original HS are next briefly explained. As an example of case study, a modified HS method inspired by the idea of Pareto-dominance-based ranking is also presented. It is further applied to handle a practical wind generator optimal design problem. X. Z. Gao, V. Govindasamy, H. Xu, X. Wang, and K. Zenger Copyright © 2015 X. Z. Gao et al. All rights reserved. High-Frequency Electroencephalographic Activity in Left Temporal Area Is Associated with Pleasant Emotion Induced by Video Clips Thu, 26 Mar 2015 14:09:31 +0000 Recent findings suggest that specific neural correlates for the key elements of basic emotions do exist and can be identified by neuroimaging techniques. In this paper, electroencephalogram (EEG) is used to explore the markers for video-induced emotions. The problem is approached from a classifier perspective: the features that perform best in classifying person’s valence and arousal while watching video clips with audiovisual emotional content are searched from a large feature set constructed from the EEG spectral powers of single channels as well as power differences between specific channel pairs. The feature selection is carried out using a sequential forward floating search method and is done separately for the classification of valence and arousal, both derived from the emotional keyword that the subject had chosen after seeing the clips. The proposed classifier-based approach reveals a clear association between the increased high-frequency (15–32 Hz) activity in the left temporal area and the clips described as “pleasant” in the valence and “medium arousal” in the arousal scale. These clips represent the emotional keywords amusement and joy/happiness. The finding suggests the occurrence of a specific neural activation during video-induced pleasant emotion and the possibility to detect this from the left temporal area using EEG. Jukka Kortelainen, Eero Väyrynen, and Tapio Seppänen Copyright © 2015 Jukka Kortelainen et al. All rights reserved. Estimating Latent Attentional States Based on Simultaneous Binary and Continuous Behavioral Measures Thu, 26 Mar 2015 12:55:01 +0000 Cognition is a complex and dynamic process. It is an essential goal to estimate latent attentional states based on behavioral measures in many sequences of behavioral tasks. Here, we propose a probabilistic modeling and inference framework for estimating the attentional state using simultaneous binary and continuous behavioral measures. The proposed model extends the standard hidden Markov model (HMM) by explicitly modeling the state duration distribution, which yields a special example of the hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM). We validate our methods using computer simulations and experimental data. In computer simulations, we systematically investigate the impacts of model mismatch and the latency distribution. For the experimental data collected from a rodent visual detection task, we validate the results with predictive log-likelihood. Our work is useful for many behavioral neuroscience experiments, where the common goal is to infer the discrete (binary or multinomial) state sequences from multiple behavioral measures. Zhe Chen Copyright © 2015 Zhe Chen. All rights reserved. Learning Document Semantic Representation with Hybrid Deep Belief Network Mon, 23 Mar 2015 08:26:27 +0000 High-level abstraction, for example, semantic representation, is vital for document classification and retrieval. However, how to learn document semantic representation is still a topic open for discussion in information retrieval and natural language processing. In this paper, we propose a new Hybrid Deep Belief Network (HDBN) which uses Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM) on the lower layers together with Deep Belief Network (DBN) on the upper layers. The advantage of DBM is that it employs undirected connection when training weight parameters which can be used to sample the states of nodes on each layer more successfully and it is also an effective way to remove noise from the different document representation type; the DBN can enhance extract abstract of the document in depth, making the model learn sufficient semantic representation. At the same time, we explore different input strategies for semantic distributed representation. Experimental results show that our model using the word embedding instead of single word has better performance. Yan Yan, Xu-Cheng Yin, Sujian Li, Mingyuan Yang, and Hong-Wei Hao Copyright © 2015 Yan Yan et al. All rights reserved. Clustering Molecular Dynamics Trajectories for Optimizing Docking Experiments Sun, 22 Mar 2015 11:34:07 +0000 Molecular dynamics simulations of protein receptors have become an attractive tool for rational drug discovery. However, the high computational cost of employing molecular dynamics trajectories in virtual screening of large repositories threats the feasibility of this task. Computational intelligence techniques have been applied in this context, with the ultimate goal of reducing the overall computational cost so the task can become feasible. Particularly, clustering algorithms have been widely used as a means to reduce the dimensionality of molecular dynamics trajectories. In this paper, we develop a novel methodology for clustering entire trajectories using structural features from the substrate-binding cavity of the receptor in order to optimize docking experiments on a cloud-based environment. The resulting partition was selected based on three clustering validity criteria, and it was further validated by analyzing the interactions between 20 ligands and a fully flexible receptor (FFR) model containing a 20 ns molecular dynamics simulation trajectory. Our proposed methodology shows that taking into account features of the substrate-binding cavity as input for the k-means algorithm is a promising technique for accurately selecting ensembles of representative structures tailored to a specific ligand. Renata De Paris, Christian V. Quevedo, Duncan D. Ruiz, Osmar Norberto de Souza, and Rodrigo C. Barros Copyright © 2015 Renata De Paris et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Human Standing Balance by Largest Lyapunov Exponent Wed, 18 Mar 2015 14:07:36 +0000 The purpose of this research is to analyse the relationship between nonlinear dynamic character and individuals’ standing balance by the largest Lyapunov exponent, which is regarded as a metric for assessing standing balance. According to previous study, the largest Lyapunov exponent from centre of pressure time series could not well quantify the human balance ability. In this research, two improvements were made. Firstly, an external stimulus was applied to feet in the form of continuous horizontal sinusoidal motion by a moving platform. Secondly, a multiaccelerometer subsystem was adopted. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in this experiment. A new metric, coordinated largest Lyapunov exponent was proposed, which reflected the relationship of body segments by integrating multidimensional largest Lyapunov exponent values. By using this metric in actual standing performance under sinusoidal stimulus, an obvious relationship between the new metric and the actual balance ability was found in the majority of the subjects. These results show that the sinusoidal stimulus can make human balance characteristics more obvious, which is beneficial to assess balance, and balance is determined by the ability of coordinating all body segments. Kun Liu, Hongrui Wang, Jinzhuang Xiao, and Zahari Taha Copyright © 2015 Kun Liu et al. All rights reserved. Modelling Coupled Oscillations in the Notch, Wnt, and FGF Signaling Pathways during Somitogenesis: A Comprehensive Mathematical Model Tue, 17 Mar 2015 12:47:10 +0000 Somite formation in the early stage of vertebrate embryonic development is controlled by a complicated gene network named segmentation clock, which is defined by the periodic expression of genes related to the Notch, Wnt, and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathways. Although in recent years some findings about crosstalk among the Notch, Wnt, and FGF pathways in somitogenesis have been reported, the investigation of their crosstalk mechanisms from a systematic point of view is still lacking. In this study, a more comprehensive mathematical model was proposed to simulate the dynamics of the Notch, Wnt, and FGF pathways in the segmentation clock. Simulations and bifurcation analyses of this model suggested that the concentration gradients of both Wnt, and FGF signals along the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) are corresponding to the whole process from start to stop of the segmentation clock. A number of highly sensitive parameters to the segmentation clock’s oscillatory pattern were identified. By further bifurcation analyses for these sensitive parameters, and several complementary mechanisms in respect of the maintenance of the stable oscillation of the segmentation clock were revealed. Hong-yan Wang, Yan-xin Huang, Li-hua Zheng, Yong-li Bao, Lu-guo Sun, Yin Wu, Chun-lei Yu, Zhen-bo Song, Ying Sun, Guan-nan Wang, Zhi-qiang Ma, and Yu-xin Li Copyright © 2015 Hong-yan Wang et al. All rights reserved. Sentiment Analysis Using Common-Sense and Context Information Tue, 17 Mar 2015 11:17:54 +0000 Sentiment analysis research has been increasing tremendously in recent times due to the wide range of business and social applications. Sentiment analysis from unstructured natural language text has recently received considerable attention from the research community. In this paper, we propose a novel sentiment analysis model based on common-sense knowledge extracted from ConceptNet based ontology and context information. ConceptNet based ontology is used to determine the domain specific concepts which in turn produced the domain specific important features. Further, the polarities of the extracted concepts are determined using the contextual polarity lexicon which we developed by considering the context information of a word. Finally, semantic orientations of domain specific features of the review document are aggregated based on the importance of a feature with respect to the domain. The importance of the feature is determined by the depth of the feature in the ontology. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Basant Agarwal, Namita Mittal, Pooja Bansal, and Sonal Garg Copyright © 2015 Basant Agarwal et al. All rights reserved. Kernel Temporal Differences for Neural Decoding Tue, 17 Mar 2015 09:19:19 +0000 We study the feasibility and capability of the kernel temporal difference (KTD)() algorithm for neural decoding. KTD() is an online, kernel-based learning algorithm, which has been introduced to estimate value functions in reinforcement learning. This algorithm combines kernel-based representations with the temporal difference approach to learning. One of our key observations is that by using strictly positive definite kernels, algorithm’s convergence can be guaranteed for policy evaluation. The algorithm’s nonlinear functional approximation capabilities are shown in both simulations of policy evaluation and neural decoding problems (policy improvement). KTD can handle high-dimensional neural states containing spatial-temporal information at a reasonable computational complexity allowing real-time applications. When the algorithm seeks a proper mapping between a monkey’s neural states and desired positions of a computer cursor or a robot arm, in both open-loop and closed-loop experiments, it can effectively learn the neural state to action mapping. Finally, a visualization of the coadaptation process between the decoder and the subject shows the algorithm’s capabilities in reinforcement learning brain machine interfaces. Jihye Bae, Luis G. Sanchez Giraldo, Eric A. Pohlmeyer, Joseph T. Francis, Justin C. Sanchez, and José C. Príncipe Copyright © 2015 Jihye Bae et al. All rights reserved. A Pressure Control Method for Emulsion Pump Station Based on Elman Neural Network Mon, 16 Mar 2015 11:45:31 +0000 In order to realize pressure control of emulsion pump station which is key equipment of coal mine in the safety production, the control requirements were analyzed and a pressure control method based on Elman neural network was proposed. The key techniques such as system framework, pressure prediction model, pressure control model, and the flowchart of proposed approach were presented. Finally, a simulation example was carried out and comparison results indicated that the proposed approach was feasible and efficient and outperformed others. Chao Tan, Nan Qi, Xin Zhou, Xinhua Liu, Xingang Yao, Zhongbin Wang, and Lei Si Copyright © 2015 Chao Tan et al. All rights reserved. A Fast Clustering Algorithm for Data with a Few Labeled Instances Wed, 11 Mar 2015 11:06:56 +0000 The diameter of a cluster is the maximum intracluster distance between pairs of instances within the same cluster, and the split of a cluster is the minimum distance between instances within the cluster and instances outside the cluster. Given a few labeled instances, this paper includes two aspects. First, we present a simple and fast clustering algorithm with the following property: if the ratio of the minimum split to the maximum diameter (RSD) of the optimal solution is greater than one, the algorithm returns optimal solutions for three clustering criteria. Second, we study the metric learning problem: learn a distance metric to make the RSD as large as possible. Compared with existing metric learning algorithms, one of our metric learning algorithms is computationally efficient: it is a linear programming model rather than a semidefinite programming model used by most of existing algorithms. We demonstrate empirically that the supervision and the learned metric can improve the clustering quality. Jinfeng Yang, Yong Xiao, Jiabing Wang, Qianli Ma, and Yanhua Shen Copyright © 2015 Jinfeng Yang et al. All rights reserved. Fuzzy Emotional Semantic Analysis and Automated Annotation of Scene Images Mon, 09 Mar 2015 12:18:48 +0000 With the advances in electronic and imaging techniques, the production of digital images has rapidly increased, and the extraction and automated annotation of emotional semantics implied by images have become issues that must be urgently addressed. To better simulate human subjectivity and ambiguity for understanding scene images, the current study proposes an emotional semantic annotation method for scene images based on fuzzy set theory. A fuzzy membership degree was calculated to describe the emotional degree of a scene image and was implemented using the Adaboost algorithm and a back-propagation (BP) neural network. The automated annotation method was trained and tested using scene images from the SUN Database. The annotation results were then compared with those based on artificial annotation. Our method showed an annotation accuracy rate of 91.2% for basic emotional values and 82.4% after extended emotional values were added, which correspond to increases of 5.5% and 8.9%, respectively, compared with the results from using a single BP neural network algorithm. Furthermore, the retrieval accuracy rate based on our method reached approximately 89%. This study attempts to lay a solid foundation for the automated emotional semantic annotation of more types of images and therefore is of practical significance. Jianfang Cao and Lichao Chen Copyright © 2015 Jianfang Cao and Lichao Chen. All rights reserved. A Robust Computational Technique for Model Order Reduction of Two-Time-Scale Discrete Systems via Genetic Algorithms Sun, 08 Mar 2015 13:59:29 +0000 A robust computational technique for model order reduction (MOR) of multi-time-scale discrete systems (single input single output (SISO) and multi-input multioutput (MIMO)) is presented in this paper. This work is motivated by the singular perturbation of multi-time-scale systems where some specific dynamics may not have significant influence on the overall system behavior. The new approach is proposed using genetic algorithms (GA) with the advantage of obtaining a reduced order model, maintaining the exact dominant dynamics in the reduced order, and minimizing the steady state error. The reduction process is performed by obtaining an upper triangular transformed matrix of the system state matrix defined in state space representation along with the elements of B, C, and D matrices. The GA computational procedure is based on maximizing the fitness function corresponding to the response deviation between the full and reduced order models. The proposed computational intelligence MOR method is compared to recently published work on MOR techniques where simulation results show the potential and advantages of the new approach. Othman M. K. Alsmadi and Zaer S. Abo-Hammour Copyright © 2015 Othman M. K. Alsmadi and Zaer S. Abo-Hammour. All rights reserved. Test Statistics for the Identification of Assembly Neurons in Parallel Spike Trains Sun, 08 Mar 2015 11:10:16 +0000 In recent years numerous improvements have been made in multiple-electrode recordings (i.e., parallel spike-train recordings) and spike sorting to the extent that nowadays it is possible to monitor the activity of up to hundreds of neurons simultaneously. Due to these improvements it is now potentially possible to identify assembly activity (roughly understood as significant synchronous spiking of a group of neurons) from these recordings, which—if it can be demonstrated reliably—would significantly improve our understanding of neural activity and neural coding. However, several methodological problems remain when trying to do so and, among them, a principal one is the combinatorial explosion that one faces when considering all potential neuronal assemblies, since in principle every subset of the recorded neurons constitutes a candidate set for an assembly. We present several statistical tests to identify assembly neurons (i.e., neurons that participate in a neuronal assembly) from parallel spike trains with the aim of reducing the set of neurons to a relevant subset of them and this way ease the task of identifying neuronal assemblies in further analyses. These tests are an improvement of those introduced in the work by Berger et al. (2010) based on additional features like spike weight or pairwise overlap and on alternative ways to identify spike coincidences (e.g., by avoiding time binning, which tends to lose information). David Picado Muiño and Christian Borgelt Copyright © 2015 David Picado Muiño and Christian Borgelt. All rights reserved. Immune Centroids Oversampling Method for Binary Classification Thu, 05 Mar 2015 13:46:26 +0000 To improve the classification performance of imbalanced learning, a novel oversampling method, immune centroids oversampling technique (ICOTE) based on an immune network, is proposed. ICOTE generates a set of immune centroids to broaden the decision regions of the minority class space. The representative immune centroids are regarded as synthetic examples in order to resolve the imbalance problem. We utilize an artificial immune network to generate synthetic examples on clusters with high data densities, which can address the problem of synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE), which lacks reflection on groups of training examples. Meanwhile, we further improve the performance of ICOTE via integrating ENN with ICOTE, that is, ICOTE + ENN. ENN disposes the majority class examples that invade the minority class space, so ICOTE + ENN favors the separation of both classes. Our comprehensive experimental results show that two proposed oversampling methods can achieve better performance than the renowned resampling methods. Xusheng Ai, Jian Wu, Victor S. Sheng, Pengpeng Zhao, and Zhiming Cui Copyright © 2015 Xusheng Ai et al. All rights reserved. Traffic Speed Data Imputation Method Based on Tensor Completion Tue, 03 Mar 2015 08:47:26 +0000 Traffic speed data plays a key role in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS); however, missing traffic data would affect the performance of ITS as well as Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS). In this paper, we handle this issue by a novel tensor-based imputation approach. Specifically, tensor pattern is adopted for modeling traffic speed data and then High accurate Low Rank Tensor Completion (HaLRTC), an efficient tensor completion method, is employed to estimate the missing traffic speed data. This proposed method is able to recover missing entries from given entries, which may be noisy, considering severe fluctuation of traffic speed data compared with traffic volume. The proposed method is evaluated on Performance Measurement System (PeMS) database, and the experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach over state-of-the-art baseline approaches. Bin Ran, Huachun Tan, Jianshuai Feng, Ying Liu, and Wuhong Wang Copyright © 2015 Bin Ran et al. All rights reserved. The Intelligence of Dual Simplex Method to Solve Linear Fractional Fuzzy Transportation Problem Tue, 24 Feb 2015 13:43:46 +0000 An approach is presented to solve a fuzzy transportation problem with linear fractional fuzzy objective function. In this proposed approach the fractional fuzzy transportation problem is decomposed into two linear fuzzy transportation problems. The optimal solution of the two linear fuzzy transportations is solved by dual simplex method and the optimal solution of the fractional fuzzy transportation problem is obtained. The proposed method is explained in detail with an example. S. Narayanamoorthy and S. Kalyani Copyright © 2015 S. Narayanamoorthy and S. Kalyani. All rights reserved. The Construction of Support Vector Machine Classifier Using the Firefly Algorithm Mon, 23 Feb 2015 12:53:13 +0000 The setting of parameters in the support vector machines (SVMs) is very important with regard to its accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, we employ the firefly algorithm to train all parameters of the SVM simultaneously, including the penalty parameter, smoothness parameter, and Lagrangian multiplier. The proposed method is called the firefly-based SVM (firefly-SVM). This tool is not considered the feature selection, because the SVM, together with feature selection, is not suitable for the application in a multiclass classification, especially for the one-against-all multiclass SVM. In experiments, binary and multiclass classifications are explored. In the experiments on binary classification, ten of the benchmark data sets of the University of California, Irvine (UCI), machine learning repository are used; additionally the firefly-SVM is applied to the multiclass diagnosis of ultrasonic supraspinatus images. The classification performance of firefly-SVM is also compared to the original LIBSVM method associated with the grid search method and the particle swarm optimization based SVM (PSO-SVM). The experimental results advocate the use of firefly-SVM to classify pattern classifications for maximum accuracy. Chih-Feng Chao and Ming-Huwi Horng Copyright © 2015 Chih-Feng Chao and Ming-Huwi Horng. All rights reserved. Numerical Computation of Homogeneous Slope Stability Sun, 15 Feb 2015 09:29:52 +0000 To simplify the computational process of homogeneous slope stability, improve computational accuracy, and find multiple potential slip surfaces of a complex geometric slope, this study utilized the limit equilibrium method to derive expression equations of overall and partial factors of safety. This study transformed the solution of the minimum factor of safety (FOS) to solving of a constrained nonlinear programming problem and applied an exhaustive method (EM) and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) to this problem. In simple slope examples, the computational results using an EM and PSO were close to those obtained using other methods. Compared to the EM, the PSO had a small computation error and a significantly shorter computation time. As a result, the PSO could precisely calculate the slope FOS with high efficiency. The example of the multistage slope analysis indicated that this slope had two potential slip surfaces. The factors of safety were 1.1182 and 1.1560, respectively. The differences between these and the minimum FOS (1.0759) were small, but the positions of the slip surfaces were completely different than the critical slip surface (CSS). Shuangshuang Xiao, Kemin Li, Xiaohua Ding, and Tong Liu Copyright © 2015 Shuangshuang Xiao et al. All rights reserved. An Adaptive Image Enhancement Technique by Combining Cuckoo Search and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Sun, 15 Feb 2015 08:10:18 +0000 Image enhancement is an important procedure of image processing and analysis. This paper presents a new technique using a modified measure and blending of cuckoo search and particle swarm optimization (CS-PSO) for low contrast images to enhance image adaptively. In this way, contrast enhancement is obtained by global transformation of the input intensities; it employs incomplete Beta function as the transformation function and a novel criterion for measuring image quality considering three factors which are threshold, entropy value, and gray-level probability density of the image. The enhancement process is a nonlinear optimization problem with several constraints. CS-PSO is utilized to maximize the objective fitness criterion in order to enhance the contrast and detail in an image by adapting the parameters of a novel extension to a local enhancement technique. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with other existing techniques such as linear contrast stretching, histogram equalization, and evolutionary computing based image enhancement methods like backtracking search algorithm, differential search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization in terms of processing time and image quality. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust and adaptive and exhibits the better performance than other methods involved in the paper. Zhiwei Ye, Mingwei Wang, Zhengbing Hu, and Wei Liu Copyright © 2015 Zhiwei Ye et al. All rights reserved. Study on the Calculation Models of Bus Delay at Bays Using Queueing Theory and Markov Chain Wed, 11 Feb 2015 06:21:20 +0000 Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays. Feng Sun, Li Sun, Shao-wei Sun, and Dian-hai Wang Copyright © 2015 Feng Sun et al. All rights reserved. A Lane-Level LBS System for Vehicle Network with High-Precision BDS/GPS Positioning Sun, 08 Feb 2015 08:39:37 +0000 In recent years, research on vehicle network location service has begun to focus on its intelligence and precision. The accuracy of space-time information has become a core factor for vehicle network systems in a mobile environment. However, difficulties persist in vehicle satellite positioning since deficiencies in the provision of high-quality space-time references greatly limit the development and application of vehicle networks. In this paper, we propose a high-precision-based vehicle network location service to solve this problem. The major components of this study include the following: (1) application of wide-area precise positioning technology to the vehicle network system. An adaptive correction message broadcast protocol is designed to satisfy the requirements for large-scale target precise positioning in the mobile Internet environment; (2) development of a concurrence service system with a flexible virtual expansion architecture to guarantee reliable data interaction between vehicles and the background; (3) verification of the positioning precision and service quality in the urban environment. Based on this high-precision positioning service platform, a lane-level location service is designed to solve a typical traffic safety problem. Chi Guo, Wenfei Guo, Guangyi Cao, and Hongbo Dong Copyright © 2015 Chi Guo et al. All rights reserved. A Framework for Final Drive Simultaneous Failure Diagnosis Based on Fuzzy Entropy and Sparse Bayesian Extreme Learning Machine Thu, 05 Feb 2015 06:50:02 +0000 This research proposes a novel framework of final drive simultaneous failure diagnosis containing feature extraction, training paired diagnostic models, generating decision threshold, and recognizing simultaneous failure modes. In feature extraction module, adopt wavelet package transform and fuzzy entropy to reduce noise interference and extract representative features of failure mode. Use single failure sample to construct probability classifiers based on paired sparse Bayesian extreme learning machine which is trained only by single failure modes and have high generalization and sparsity of sparse Bayesian learning approach. To generate optimal decision threshold which can convert probability output obtained from classifiers into final simultaneous failure modes, this research proposes using samples containing both single and simultaneous failure modes and Grid search method which is superior to traditional techniques in global optimization. Compared with other frequently used diagnostic approaches based on support vector machine and probability neural networks, experiment results based on -measure value verify that the diagnostic accuracy and efficiency of the proposed framework which are crucial for simultaneous failure diagnosis are superior to the existing approach. Qing Ye, Hao Pan, and Changhua Liu Copyright © 2015 Qing Ye et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Multiple Instance Learning Method Based on Extreme Learning Machine Tue, 03 Feb 2015 06:40:36 +0000 Since real-world data sets usually contain large instances, it is meaningful to develop efficient and effective multiple instance learning (MIL) algorithm. As a learning paradigm, MIL is different from traditional supervised learning that handles the classification of bags comprising unlabeled instances. In this paper, a novel efficient method based on extreme learning machine (ELM) is proposed to address MIL problem. First, the most qualified instance is selected in each bag through a single hidden layer feedforward network (SLFN) whose input and output weights are both initialed randomly, and the single selected instance is used to represent every bag. Second, the modified ELM model is trained by using the selected instances to update the output weights. Experiments on several benchmark data sets and multiple instance regression data sets show that the ELM-MIL achieves good performance; moreover, it runs several times or even hundreds of times faster than other similar MIL algorithms. Jie Wang, Liangjian Cai, Jinzhu Peng, and Yuheng Jia Copyright © 2015 Jie Wang et al. All rights reserved.