Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Analysis of Pull-In Instability of Geometrically Nonlinear Microbeam Using Radial Basis Artificial Neural Network Based on Couple Stress Theory Thu, 17 Apr 2014 08:17:55 +0000 The static pull-in instability of beam-type microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is theoretically investigated. Two engineering cases including cantilever and double cantilever microbeam are considered. Considering the midplane stretching as the source of the nonlinearity in the beam behavior, a nonlinear size-dependent Euler-Bernoulli beam model is used based on a modified couple stress theory, capable of capturing the size effect. By selecting a range of geometric parameters such as beam lengths, width, thickness, gaps, and size effect, we identify the static pull-in instability voltage. A MAPLE package is employed to solve the nonlinear differential governing equations to obtain the static pull-in instability voltage of microbeams. Radial basis function artificial neural network with two functions has been used for modeling the static pull-in instability of microcantilever beam. The network has four inputs of length, width, gap, and the ratio of height to scale parameter of beam as the independent process variables, and the output is static pull-in voltage of microbeam. Numerical data, employed for training the network, and capabilities of the model have been verified in predicting the pull-in instability behavior. The output obtained from neural network model is compared with numerical results, and the amount of relative error has been calculated. Based on this verification error, it is shown that the radial basis function of neural network has the average error of 4.55% in predicting pull-in voltage of cantilever microbeam. Further analysis of pull-in instability of beam under different input conditions has been investigated and comparison results of modeling with numerical considerations shows a good agreement, which also proves the feasibility and effectiveness of the adopted approach. The results reveal significant influences of size effect and geometric parameters on the static pull-in instability voltage of MEMS. Mohammad Heidari, Ali Heidari, and Hadi Homaei Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Heidari et al. All rights reserved. Spike Sorting by Joint Probabilistic Modeling of Neural Spike Trains and Waveforms Wed, 16 Apr 2014 09:45:30 +0000 This paper details a novel probabilistic method for automatic neural spike sorting which uses stochastic point process models of neural spike trains and parameterized action potential waveforms. A novel likelihood model for observed firing times as the aggregation of hidden neural spike trains is derived, as well as an iterative procedure for clustering the data and finding the parameters that maximize the likelihood. The method is executed and evaluated on both a fully labeled semiartificial dataset and a partially labeled real dataset of extracellular electric traces from rat hippocampus. In conditions of relatively high difficulty (i.e., with additive noise and with similar action potential waveform shapes for distinct neurons) the method achieves significant improvements in clustering performance over a baseline waveform-only Gaussian mixture model (GMM) clustering on the semiartificial set (1.98% reduction in error rate) and outperforms both the GMM and a state-of-the-art method on the real dataset (5.04% reduction in false positive + false negative errors). Finally, an empirical study of two free parameters for our method is performed on the semiartificial dataset. Brett A. Matthews and Mark A. Clements Copyright © 2014 Brett A. Matthews and Mark A. Clements. All rights reserved. A Tensor-Product-Kernel Framework for Multiscale Neural Activity Decoding and Control Mon, 14 Apr 2014 08:48:45 +0000 Brain machine interfaces (BMIs) have attracted intense attention as a promising technology for directly interfacing computers or prostheses with the brain’s motor and sensory areas, thereby bypassing the body. The availability of multiscale neural recordings including spike trains and local field potentials (LFPs) brings potential opportunities to enhance computational modeling by enriching the characterization of the neural system state. However, heterogeneity on data type (spike timing versus continuous amplitude signals) and spatiotemporal scale complicates the model integration of multiscale neural activity. In this paper, we propose a tensor-product-kernel-based framework to integrate the multiscale activity and exploit the complementary information available in multiscale neural activity. This provides a common mathematical framework for incorporating signals from different domains. The approach is applied to the problem of neural decoding and control. For neural decoding, the framework is able to identify the nonlinear functional relationship between the multiscale neural responses and the stimuli using general purpose kernel adaptive filtering. In a sensory stimulation experiment, the tensor-product-kernel decoder outperforms decoders that use only a single neural data type. In addition, an adaptive inverse controller for delivering electrical microstimulation patterns that utilizes the tensor-product kernel achieves promising results in emulating the responses to natural stimulation. Lin Li, Austin J. Brockmeier, John S. Choi, Joseph T. Francis, Justin C. Sanchez, and José C. Príncipe Copyright © 2014 Lin Li et al. All rights reserved. Coronary Artery Disease Detection Using a Fuzzy-Boosting PSO Approach Thu, 10 Apr 2014 06:40:33 +0000 In the past decades, medical data mining has become a popular data mining subject. Researchers have proposed several tools and various methodologies for developing effective medical expert systems. Diagnosing heart diseases is one of the important topics and many researchers have tried to develop intelligent medical expert systems to help the physicians. In this paper, we propose the use of PSO algorithm with a boosting approach to extract rules for recognizing the presence or absence of coronary artery disease in a patient. The weight of training examples that are classified properly by the new rules is reduced by a boosting mechanism. Therefore, in the next rule generation cycle, the focus is on those fuzzy rules that account for the currently misclassified or uncovered instances. We have used coronary artery disease data sets taken from University of California Irvine, (UCI), to evaluate our new classification approach. Results show that the proposed method can detect the coronary artery disease with an acceptable accuracy. Also, the discovered rules have significant interpretability as well. N. Ghadiri Hedeshi and M. Saniee Abadeh Copyright © 2014 N. Ghadiri Hedeshi and M. Saniee Abadeh. All rights reserved. Object Detection Based on Template Matching through Use of Best-So-Far ABC Wed, 09 Apr 2014 07:27:12 +0000 Best-so-far ABC is a modified version of the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm used for optimization tasks. This algorithm is one of the swarm intelligence (SI) algorithms proposed in recent literature, in which the results demonstrated that the best-so-far ABC can produce higher quality solutions with faster convergence than either the ordinary ABC or the current state-of-the-art ABC-based algorithm. In this work, we aim to apply the best-so-far ABC-based approach for object detection based on template matching by using the difference between the RGB level histograms corresponding to the target object and the template object as the objective function. Results confirm that the proposed method was successful in both detecting objects and optimizing the time used to reach the solution. Anan Banharnsakun and Supannee Tanathong Copyright © 2014 Anan Banharnsakun and Supannee Tanathong. All rights reserved. Prediction of Human's Ability in Sound Localization Based on the Statistical Properties of Spike Trains along the Brainstem Auditory Pathway Mon, 31 Mar 2014 09:57:23 +0000 The minimum audible angle test which is commonly used for evaluating human localization ability depends on interaural time delay, interaural level differences, and spectral information about the acoustic stimulus. These physical properties are estimated at different stages along the brainstem auditory pathway. The interaural time delay is ambiguous at certain frequencies, thus confusion arises as to the source of these frequencies. It is assumed that in a typical minimum audible angle experiment, the brain acts as an unbiased optimal estimator and thus the human performance can be obtained by deriving optimal lower bounds. Two types of lower bounds are tested: the Cramer-Rao and the Barankin. The Cramer-Rao bound only takes into account the approximation of the true direction of the stimulus; the Barankin bound considers other possible directions that arise from the ambiguous phase information. These lower bounds are derived at the output of the auditory nerve and of the superior olivary complex where binaural cues are estimated. An agreement between human experimental data was obtained only when the superior olivary complex was considered and the Barankin lower bound was used. This result suggests that sound localization is estimated by the auditory nuclei using ambiguous binaural information. Ram Krips and Miriam Furst Copyright © 2014 Ram Krips and Miriam Furst. All rights reserved. Homogenous Chaotic Network Serving as a Rate/Population Code to Temporal Code Converter Sun, 23 Mar 2014 07:45:25 +0000 At present, it is obvious that different sections of nervous system utilize different methods for information coding. Primary afferent signals in most cases are represented in form of spike trains using a combination of rate coding and population coding while there are clear evidences that temporal coding is used in various regions of cortex. In the present paper, it is shown that conversion between these two coding schemes can be performed under certain conditions by a homogenous chaotic neural network. Interestingly, this effect can be achieved without network training and synaptic plasticity. Mikhail V. Kiselev Copyright © 2014 Mikhail V. Kiselev. All rights reserved. Mental Mechanisms for Topics Identification Thu, 13 Mar 2014 06:54:07 +0000 Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly. Louis Massey Copyright © 2014 Louis Massey. All rights reserved. Robust Fault Detection of Wind Energy Conversion Systems Based on Dynamic Neural Networks Tue, 11 Mar 2014 14:11:16 +0000 Occurrence of faults in wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) is inevitable. In order to detect the occurred faults at the appropriate time, avoid heavy economic losses, ensure safe system operation, prevent damage to adjacent relevant systems, and facilitate timely repair of failed components; a fault detection system (FDS) is required. Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have gained a noticeable position in FDSs and they have been widely used for modeling of complex dynamical systems. One method for designing an FDS is to prepare a dynamic neural model emulating the normal system behavior. By comparing the outputs of the real system and neural model, incidence of the faults can be identified. In this paper, by utilizing a comprehensive dynamic model which contains both mechanical and electrical components of the WECS, an FDS is suggested using dynamic RNNs. The presented FDS detects faults of the generator's angular velocity sensor, pitch angle sensors, and pitch actuators. Robustness of the FDS is achieved by employing an adaptive threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is capable to detect the faults shortly and it has very low false and missed alarms rate. Nasser Talebi, Mohammad Ali Sadrnia, and Ahmad Darabi Copyright © 2014 Nasser Talebi et al. All rights reserved. Granular Computing Classification Algorithms Based on Distance Measures between Granules from the View of Set Thu, 06 Mar 2014 09:44:16 +0000 Granular computing classification algorithms are proposed based on distance measures between two granules from the view of set. Firstly, granules are represented as the forms of hyperdiamond, hypersphere, hypercube, and hyperbox. Secondly, the distance measure between two granules is defined from the view of set, and the union operator between two granules is formed to obtain the granule set including the granules with different granularity. Thirdly the threshold of granularity determines the union between two granules and is used to form the granular computing classification algorithms based on distance measures (DGrC). The benchmark datasets in UCI Machine Learning Repository are used to verify the performance of DGrC, and experimental results show that DGrC improved the testing accuracies. Hongbing Liu, Chunhua Liu, and Chang-an Wu Copyright © 2014 Hongbing Liu et al. All rights reserved. Hybrid Machine Learning Technique for Forecasting Dhaka Stock Market Timing Decisions Wed, 19 Feb 2014 12:27:21 +0000 Forecasting stock market has been a difficult job for applied researchers owing to nature of facts which is very noisy and time varying. However, this hypothesis has been featured by several empirical experiential studies and a number of researchers have efficiently applied machine learning techniques to forecast stock market. This paper studied stock prediction for the use of investors. It is always true that investors typically obtain loss because of uncertain investment purposes and unsighted assets. This paper proposes a rough set model, a neural network model, and a hybrid neural network and rough set model to find optimal buy and sell of a share on Dhaka stock exchange. Investigational findings demonstrate that our proposed hybrid model has higher precision than the single rough set model and the neural network model. We believe this paper findings will help stock investors to decide about optimal buy and/or sell time on Dhaka stock exchange. Shipra Banik, A. F. M. Khodadad Khan, and Mohammad Anwer Copyright © 2014 Shipra Banik et al. All rights reserved. Research on WNN Modeling for Gold Price Forecasting Based on Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm Thu, 13 Feb 2014 07:06:48 +0000 Gold price forecasting has been a hot issue in economics recently. In this work, wavelet neural network (WNN) combined with a novel artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is proposed for this gold price forecasting issue. In this improved algorithm, the conventional roulette selection strategy is discarded. Besides, the convergence statuses in a previous cycle of iteration are fully utilized as feedback messages to manipulate the searching intensity in a subsequent cycle. Experimental results confirm that this new algorithm converges faster than the conventional ABC when tested on some classical benchmark functions and is effective to improve modeling capacity of WNN regarding the gold price forecasting scheme. Bai Li Copyright © 2014 Bai Li. All rights reserved. An Improved Hybrid Encoding Cuckoo Search Algorithm for 0-1 Knapsack Problems Sun, 12 Jan 2014 16:57:49 +0000 Cuckoo search (CS) is a new robust swarm intelligence method that is based on the brood parasitism of some cuckoo species. In this paper, an improved hybrid encoding cuckoo search algorithm (ICS) with greedy strategy is put forward for solving 0-1 knapsack problems. First of all, for solving binary optimization problem with ICS, based on the idea of individual hybrid encoding, the cuckoo search over a continuous space is transformed into the synchronous evolution search over discrete space. Subsequently, the concept of confidence interval (CI) is introduced; hence, the new position updating is designed and genetic mutation with a small probability is introduced. The former enables the population to move towards the global best solution rapidly in every generation, and the latter can effectively prevent the ICS from trapping into the local optimum. Furthermore, the greedy transform method is used to repair the infeasible solution and optimize the feasible solution. Experiments with a large number of KP instances show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and its ability to achieve good quality solutions. Yanhong Feng, Ke Jia, and Yichao He Copyright © 2014 Yanhong Feng et al. All rights reserved. Unsupervised Approach Data Analysis Based on Fuzzy Possibilistic Clustering: Application to Medical Image MRI Sun, 29 Dec 2013 17:26:18 +0000 The analysis and processing of large data are a challenge for researchers. Several approaches have been used to model these complex data, and they are based on some mathematical theories: fuzzy, probabilistic, possibilistic, and evidence theories. In this work, we propose a new unsupervised classification approach that combines the fuzzy and possibilistic theories; our purpose is to overcome the problems of uncertain data in complex systems. We used the membership function of fuzzy c-means (FCM) to initialize the parameters of possibilistic c-means (PCM), in order to solve the problem of coinciding clusters that are generated by PCM and also overcome the weakness of FCM to noise. To validate our approach, we used several validity indexes and we compared them with other conventional classification algorithms: fuzzy c-means, possibilistic c-means, and possibilistic fuzzy c-means. The experiments were realized on different synthetics data sets and real brain MR images. Nour-Eddine El Harchaoui, Mounir Ait Kerroum, Ahmed Hammouch, Mohamed Ouadou, and Driss Aboutajdine Copyright © 2013 Nour-Eddine El Harchaoui et al. All rights reserved. Clustering by Fuzzy Neural Gas and Evaluation of Fuzzy Clusters Mon, 16 Dec 2013 08:38:19 +0000 We consider some modifications of the neural gas algorithm. First, fuzzy assignments as known from fuzzy c-means and neighborhood cooperativeness as known from self-organizing maps and neural gas are combined to obtain a basic Fuzzy Neural Gas. Further, a kernel variant and a simulated annealing approach are derived. Finally, we introduce a fuzzy extension of the ConnIndex to obtain an evaluation measure for clusterings based on fuzzy vector quantization. Tina Geweniger, Lydia Fischer, Marika Kaden, Mandy Lange, and Thomas Villmann Copyright © 2013 Tina Geweniger et al. All rights reserved. On the Role of Auditory Feedback in Robot-Assisted Movement Training after Stroke: Review of the Literature Sun, 08 Dec 2013 08:46:22 +0000 The goal of this paper is to address a topic that is rarely investigated in the literature of technology-assisted motor rehabilitation, that is, the integration of auditory feedback in the rehabilitation device. After a brief introduction on rehabilitation robotics, the main concepts of auditory feedback are presented, together with relevant approaches, techniques, and technologies available in this domain. Current uses of auditory feedback in the context of technology-assisted rehabilitation are then reviewed. In particular, a comparative quantitative analysis over a large corpus of the recent literature suggests that the potential of auditory feedback in rehabilitation systems is currently and largely underexploited. Finally, several scenarios are proposed in which the use of auditory feedback may contribute to overcome some of the main limitations of current rehabilitation systems, in terms of user engagement, development of acute-phase and home rehabilitation devices, learning of more complex motor tasks, and improving activities of daily living. Giulio Rosati, Antonio Rodà, Federico Avanzini, and Stefano Masiero Copyright © 2013 Giulio Rosati et al. All rights reserved. Modeling the Formation Process of Grouping Stimuli Sets through Cortical Columns and Microcircuits to Feature Neurons Thu, 28 Nov 2013 10:56:21 +0000 A computational model of a self-structuring neuronal net is presented in which repetitively applied pattern sets induce the formation of cortical columns and microcircuits which decode distinct patterns after a learning phase. In a case study, it is demonstrated how specific neurons in a feature classifier layer become orientation selective if they receive bar patterns of different slopes from an input layer. The input layer is mapped and intertwined by self-evolving neuronal microcircuits to the feature classifier layer. In this topical overview, several models are discussed which indicate that the net formation converges in its functionality to a mathematical transform which maps the input pattern space to a feature representing output space. The self-learning of the mathematical transform is discussed and its implications are interpreted. Model assumptions are deduced which serve as a guide to apply model derived repetitive stimuli pattern sets to in vitro cultures of neuron ensembles to condition them to learn and execute a mathematical transform. Frank Klefenz and Adam Williamson Copyright © 2013 Frank Klefenz and Adam Williamson. All rights reserved. An Overview of Bayesian Methods for Neural Spike Train Analysis Sun, 17 Nov 2013 08:56:06 +0000 Neural spike train analysis is an important task in computational neuroscience which aims to understand neural mechanisms and gain insights into neural circuits. With the advancement of multielectrode recording and imaging technologies, it has become increasingly demanding to develop statistical tools for analyzing large neuronal ensemble spike activity. Here we present a tutorial overview of Bayesian methods and their representative applications in neural spike train analysis, at both single neuron and population levels. On the theoretical side, we focus on various approximate Bayesian inference techniques as applied to latent state and parameter estimation. On the application side, the topics include spike sorting, tuning curve estimation, neural encoding and decoding, deconvolution of spike trains from calcium imaging signals, and inference of neuronal functional connectivity and synchrony. Some research challenges and opportunities for neural spike train analysis are discussed. Zhe Chen Copyright © 2013 Zhe Chen. All rights reserved. A Functional Model of Sensemaking in a Neurocognitive Architecture Tue, 05 Nov 2013 09:12:50 +0000 Sensemaking is the active process of constructing a meaningful representation (i.e., making sense) of some complex aspect of the world. In relation to intelligence analysis, sensemaking is the act of finding and interpreting relevant facts amongst the sea of incoming reports, images, and intelligence. We present a cognitive model of core information-foraging and hypothesis-updating sensemaking processes applied to complex spatial probability estimation and decision-making tasks. While the model was developed in a hybrid symbolic-statistical cognitive architecture, its correspondence to neural frameworks in terms of both structure and mechanisms provided a direct bridge between rational and neural levels of description. Compared against data from two participant groups, the model correctly predicted both the presence and degree of four biases: confirmation, anchoring and adjustment, representativeness, and probability matching. It also favorably predicted human performance in generating probability distributions across categories, assigning resources based on these distributions, and selecting relevant features given a prior probability distribution. This model provides a constrained theoretical framework describing cognitive biases as arising from three interacting factors: the structure of the task environment, the mechanisms and limitations of the cognitive architecture, and the use of strategies to adapt to the dual constraints of cognition and the environment. Christian Lebiere, Peter Pirolli, Robert Thomson, Jaehyon Paik, Matthew Rutledge-Taylor, James Staszewski, and John R. Anderson Copyright © 2013 Christian Lebiere et al. All rights reserved. A Neuro-Fuzzy Approach in the Classification of Students’ Academic Performance Mon, 04 Nov 2013 16:16:29 +0000 Classifying the student academic performance with high accuracy facilitates admission decisions and enhances educational services at educational institutions. The purpose of this paper is to present a neuro-fuzzy approach for classifying students into different groups. The neuro-fuzzy classifier used previous exam results and other related factors as input variables and labeled students based on their expected academic performance. The results showed that the proposed approach achieved a high accuracy. The results were also compared with those obtained from other well-known classification approaches, including support vector machine, Naive Bayes, neural network, and decision tree approaches. The comparative analysis indicated that the neuro-fuzzy approach performed better than the others. It is expected that this work may be used to support student admission procedures and to strengthen the services of educational institutions. Quang Hung Do and Jeng-Fung Chen Copyright © 2013 Quang Hung Do and Jeng-Fung Chen. All rights reserved. Common Spatio-Time-Frequency Patterns for Motor Imagery-Based Brain Machine Interfaces Sun, 03 Nov 2013 13:26:28 +0000 For efficient decoding of brain activities in analyzing brain function with an application to brain machine interfacing (BMI), we address a problem of how to determine spatial weights (spatial patterns), bandpass filters (frequency patterns), and time windows (time patterns) by utilizing electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. To find these parameters, we develop a data-driven criterion that is a natural extension of the so-called common spatial patterns (CSP) that are known to be effective features in BMI. We show that the proposed criterion can be optimized by an alternating procedure to achieve fast convergence. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively extract discriminative features for a motor imagery-based BMI. Hiroshi Higashi and Toshihisa Tanaka Copyright © 2013 Hiroshi Higashi and Toshihisa Tanaka. All rights reserved. Research on Hotspot Discovery in Internet Public Opinions Based on Improved -Means Tue, 10 Sep 2013 15:01:26 +0000 How to discover hotspot in the Internet public opinions effectively is a hot research field for the researchers related which plays a key role for governments and corporations to find useful information from mass data in the Internet. An improved -means algorithm for hotspot discovery in internet public opinions is presented based on the analysis of existing defects and calculation principle of original -means algorithm. First, some new methods are designed to preprocess website texts, select and express the characteristics of website texts, and define the similarity between two website texts, respectively. Second, clustering principle and the method of initial classification centers selection are analyzed and improved in order to overcome the limitations of original -means algorithm. Finally, the experimental results verify that the improved algorithm can improve the clustering stability and classification accuracy of hotspot discovery in internet public opinions when used in practice. Gensheng Wang Copyright © 2013 Gensheng Wang. All rights reserved. Convergence Analysis of Particle Swarm Optimizer and Its Improved Algorithm Based on Velocity Differential Evolution Wed, 28 Aug 2013 15:42:23 +0000 This paper presents an analysis of the relationship of particle velocity and convergence of the particle swarm optimization. Its premature convergence is due to the decrease of particle velocity in search space that leads to a total implosion and ultimately fitness stagnation of the swarm. An improved algorithm which introduces a velocity differential evolution (DE) strategy for the hierarchical particle swarm optimization (H-PSO) is proposed to improve its performance. The DE is employed to regulate the particle velocity rather than the traditional particle position in case that the optimal result has not improved after several iterations. The benchmark functions will be illustrated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Hongtao Ye, Wenguang Luo, and Zhenqiang Li Copyright © 2013 Hongtao Ye et al. All rights reserved. Color Image Quantization Algorithm Based on Self-Adaptive Differential Evolution Mon, 15 Jul 2013 14:15:31 +0000 Differential evolution algorithm (DE) is one of the novel stochastic optimization methods. It has a better performance in the problem of the color image quantization, but it is difficult to set the parameters of DE for users. This paper proposes a color image quantization algorithm based on self-adaptive DE. In the proposed algorithm, a self-adaptive mechanic is used to automatically adjust the parameters of DE during the evolution, and a mixed mechanic of DE and -means is applied to strengthen the local search. The numerical experimental results, on a set of commonly used test images, show that the proposed algorithm is a practicable quantization method and is more competitive than -means and particle swarm algorithm (PSO) for the color image quantization. Qinghua Su and Zhongbo Hu Copyright © 2013 Qinghua Su and Zhongbo Hu. All rights reserved. Strategic Cognitive Sequencing: A Computational Cognitive Neuroscience Approach Mon, 08 Jul 2013 14:21:34 +0000 We address strategic cognitive sequencing, the “outer loop” of human cognition: how the brain decides what cognitive process to apply at a given moment to solve complex, multistep cognitive tasks. We argue that this topic has been neglected relative to its importance for systematic reasons but that recent work on how individual brain systems accomplish their computations has set the stage for productively addressing how brain regions coordinate over time to accomplish our most impressive thinking. We present four preliminary neural network models. The first addresses how the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basal ganglia (BG) cooperate to perform trial-and-error learning of short sequences; the next, how several areas of PFC learn to make predictions of likely reward, and how this contributes to the BG making decisions at the level of strategies. The third models address how PFC, BG, parietal cortex, and hippocampus can work together to memorize sequences of cognitive actions from instruction (or “self-instruction”). The last shows how a constraint satisfaction process can find useful plans. The PFC maintains current and goal states and associates from both of these to find a “bridging” state, an abstract plan. We discuss how these processes could work together to produce strategic cognitive sequencing and discuss future directions in this area. Seth A. Herd, Kai A. Krueger, Trenton E. Kriete, Tsung-Ren Huang, Thomas E. Hazy, and Randall C. O'Reilly Copyright © 2013 Seth A. Herd et al. All rights reserved. Multiobjective Optimization of Evacuation Routes in Stadium Using Superposed Potential Field Network Based ACO Wed, 19 Jun 2013 14:01:05 +0000 Multiobjective evacuation routes optimization problem is defined to find out optimal evacuation routes for a group of evacuees under multiple evacuation objectives. For improving the evacuation efficiency, we abstracted the evacuation zone as a superposed potential field network (SPFN), and we presented SPFN-based ACO algorithm (SPFN-ACO) to solve this problem based on the proposed model. In Wuhan Sports Center case, we compared SPFN-ACO algorithm with HMERP-ACO algorithm and traditional ACO algorithm under three evacuation objectives, namely, total evacuation time, total evacuation route length, and cumulative congestion degree. The experimental results show that SPFN-ACO algorithm has a better performance while comparing with HMERP-ACO algorithm and traditional ACO algorithm for solving multi-objective evacuation routes optimization problem. Jialiang Kou, Shengwu Xiong, Zhixiang Fang, Xinlu Zong, and Zhong Chen Copyright © 2013 Jialiang Kou et al. All rights reserved. Augmenting Weak Semantic Cognitive Maps with an “Abstractness” Dimension Wed, 12 Jun 2013 08:27:24 +0000 The emergent consensus on dimensional models of sentiment, appraisal, emotions, and values is on the semantics of the principal dimensions, typically interpreted as valence, arousal, and dominance. The notion of weak semantic maps was introduced recently as distribution of representations in abstract spaces that are not derived from human judgments, psychometrics, or any other a priori information about their semantics. Instead, they are defined entirely by binary semantic relations among representations, such as synonymy and antonymy. An interesting question concerns the ability of the antonymy-based semantic maps to capture all “universal” semantic dimensions. The present work shows that those narrow weak semantic maps are not complete in this sense and can be augmented with other semantic relations. Specifically, including hyponym-hypernym relations yields a new semantic dimension of the map labeled here “abstractness” (or ontological generality) that is not reducible to any dimensions represented by antonym pairs or to traditional affective space dimensions. It is expected that including other semantic relations (e.g., meronymy/holonymy) will also result in the addition of new semantic dimensions to the map. These findings have broad implications for automated quantitative evaluation of the meaning of text and may shed light on the nature of human subjective experience. Alexei V. Samsonovich and Giorgio A. Ascoli Copyright © 2013 Alexei V. Samsonovich and Giorgio A. Ascoli. All rights reserved. Hippocampal Anatomy Supports the Use of Context in Object Recognition: A Computational Model Sat, 25 May 2013 15:53:02 +0000 The human hippocampus receives distinct signals via the lateral entorhinal cortex, typically associated with object features, and the medial entorhinal cortex, associated with spatial or contextual information. The existence of these distinct types of information calls for some means by which they can be managed in an appropriate way, by integrating them or keeping them separate as required to improve recognition. We hypothesize that several anatomical features of the hippocampus, including differentiation in connectivity between the superior/inferior blades of DG and the distal/proximal regions of CA3 and CA1, work together to play this information managing role. We construct a set of neural network models with these features and compare their recognition performance when given noisy or partial versions of contexts and their associated objects. We found that the anterior and posterior regions of the hippocampus naturally require different ratios of object and context input for optimal performance, due to the greater number of objects versus contexts. Additionally, we found that having separate processing regions in DG significantly aided recognition in situations where object inputs were degraded. However, split processing in both DG and CA3 resulted in performance tradeoffs, though the actual hippocampus may have ways of mitigating such losses. Patrick Greene, Mike Howard, Rajan Bhattacharyya, and Jean-Marc Fellous Copyright © 2013 Patrick Greene et al. All rights reserved. The Parietal Cortex in Sensemaking: The Dissociation of Multiple Types of Spatial Information Sun, 21 Apr 2013 08:19:28 +0000 According to the data-frame theory, sensemaking is a macrocognitive process in which people try to make sense of or explain their observations by processing a number of explanatory structures called frames until the observations and frames become congruent. During the sensemaking process, the parietal cortex has been implicated in various cognitive tasks for the functions related to spatial and temporal information processing, mathematical thinking, and spatial attention. In particular, the parietal cortex plays important roles by extracting multiple representations of magnitudes at the early stages of perceptual analysis. By a series of neural network simulations, we demonstrate that the dissociation of different types of spatial information can start early with a rather similar structure (i.e., sensitivity on a common metric), but accurate representations require specific goal-directed top-down controls due to the interference in selective attention. Our results suggest that the roles of the parietal cortex rely on the hierarchical organization of multiple spatial representations and their interactions. The dissociation and interference between different types of spatial information are essentially the result of the competition at different levels of abstraction. Yanlong Sun and Hongbin Wang Copyright © 2013 Yanlong Sun and Hongbin Wang. All rights reserved. Finger Tapping Clinimetric Score Prediction in Parkinson's Disease Using Low-Cost Accelerometers Tue, 16 Apr 2013 09:12:32 +0000 The motor clinical hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) are usually quantified by physicians using validated clinimetric scales such as the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS). However, clinical ratings are prone to subjectivity and inter-rater variability. The PD medical community is therefore looking for a simple, inexpensive, and objective rating method. As a first step towards this goal, a triaxial accelerometer-based system was used in a sample of 36 PD patients and 10 age-matched controls as they performed the MDS-UPDRS finger tapping (FT) task. First, raw signals were epoched to isolate the successive single FT movements. Next, eighteen FT task movement features were extracted, depicting MDS-UPDRS features and accelerometer specific features. An ordinal logistic regression model and a greedy backward algorithm were used to identify the most relevant features in the prediction of MDS-UPDRS FT scores, given by 3 specialists in movement disorders (SMDs). The Goodman-Kruskal Gamma index obtained (0.961), depicting the predictive performance of the model, is similar to those obtained between the individual scores given by the SMD (0.870 to 0.970). The automatic prediction of MDS-UPDRS scores using the proposed system may be valuable in clinical trials designed to evaluate and modify motor disability in PD patients. Julien Stamatakis, Jérome Ambroise, Julien Crémers, Hoda Sharei, Valérie Delvaux, Benoit Macq, and Gaëtan Garraux Copyright © 2013 Julien Stamatakis et al. All rights reserved.