Chinese Journal of Biology http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Association of Copy Number Variations in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review Sun, 16 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/713109/ Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by language impairments, social deficits, and repetitive behaviors. The onset of symptoms occurs by the age of 3 and shows a lifelong persistence. Genetics plays a major role in the etiology of ASD. Except genetics, several potential risk factors (environmental factors and epigenetics) may contribute to ASD. Copy number variations (CNVs) are the most widespread structural variations in the human genome. These variations can alter the genome structure either by deletion or by duplication. CNVs can be de novo or inherited. Chromosomal rearrangements have been detected in 5–10% of the patients with ASD and recently copy number changes ranging from a few kilobases (kb) to several megabases (Mb) in size have been reported. Recent data have also revealed that submicroscopic CNVs can have a role in ASD, and de novo CNVs seem to be a more common risk factor in sporadic compared with inherited forms of ASD. CNVs are being implicated as a contributor to the pathophysiology of complex neurodevelopmental disorders and they can affect a wide range of human phenotypes including mental retardation (MR), autism, neuropsychiatric disorders, and susceptibility to other complex traits such as HIV, Crohn’s disease, and psoriasis. This review emphasizes the major CNVs reported to date in ASD. Elif Funda Sener Copyright © 2014 Elif Funda Sener. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Production Parameters for Maximum Lipase Production by P. stutzeri MTCC 5618 and Scale-Up in Bioreactor Thu, 30 Oct 2014 09:33:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/208462/ Intracellular lipase producer screened from the library available in the laboratory, identified through 16S rRNA as Pseudomonas stutzeri, was studied for maximum enzyme production in shake flask. The work was intended to evaluate the effect of different physicochemical factors like carbon, nitrogen, metal ions, surfactant, inoculum, pH, temperature, agitation, and aeration on lipase production. Optimized media showed 1.62-fold increase in lipase production when compared to basal media. Scale-up of lipase in in situ bioreactor showed reduction in fermentation time in both basal and optimized media, giving 41 and 99 U/mg of lipase activity after 48 h of fermentation. Vishal Thakur, R. Tewari, and Rohit Sharma Copyright © 2014 Vishal Thakur et al. All rights reserved. Microbiological and Toxicological Assessment of Pharmaceutical Wastewater from the Lagos Megacity, Nigeria Sun, 28 Sep 2014 11:55:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/638142/ We conducted a microbiological and toxicological profiling of a pharmaceutical wastewater, one of the major wastes entering the Lagos lagoon. The morphological characterization of seven bacterial isolates from the wastewater indicated that 4 of them were gram positive bacilli while 3 were cocci of both gram reactions. The bacterial isolates exhibited varying degrees of enzyme activities but most were able to hydrolyze starch to yield amylase. Only 3 of the isolates showed prospects as antibacterial agents, given their moderate inhibition to Staphylococcus xylosus relative to 8 other species tested. Overall, 81.3% of the isolates were resistant, and 3.3% were susceptible while 15.4% of the isolates showed intermediate sensitivity to the antibiotics. The assessment of antioxidant activities in liver samples of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, exposed to sublethal concentrations of the effluents indicated some form of oxidative stress given the higher levels of lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, in the exposed fishes relative to the control kept in dechlorinate tap water. But for reduced glutathione, activities of the antioxidative stress enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST), were higher in the effluent exposed tilapia. Responses were not dose dependent and enzyme activities were often higher at day 14 compared to day 28. This relevance of the findings to water quality was discussed. Avemaria Ifeoma Obasi, Nnamdi Henry Amaeze, and Damilola Dorcas Osoko Copyright © 2014 Avemaria Ifeoma Obasi et al. All rights reserved. Inhibition of 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase (Ex Vivo) by Morus indica (Mulberry) Tue, 23 Sep 2014 13:06:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/318561/ Phytochemicals are the bioactive components that contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular and other degenerative diseases. Inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase would be an effective means of lowering plasma cholesterol in humans. The present study explores the HMG CoA reductase inhibitory effect of extracts from leaves of Morus indica varieties, M5, V1, and S36, compared with the statin, using an ex vivo method. The assay is based on the stoichiometric formation of coenzyme A during the reduction of microsomal HMG CoA to mevalonate. Dechlorophyllised extract of three varieties was studied at 300 µg. The coenzyme A released at the end of assay in control (100.31 nmoles) and statins (94.46 nm) was higher than the dechlorphyllised extracts of the samples. The coenzyme A released during the reduction of HMG CoA to mevalonate in dechlorophyllised extracts of the samples was as follows: S36 M5 V1. The results indicated that the samples were highly effective in inhibiting the enzyme compared to statins (standard drug). The results indicate the role of Morus varieties extracts in modulating the cholesterol metabolism by inhibiting the activity of HMG CoA reductase. These results provide scope for designing in vivo animal studies to confirm their effect. Vanitha Reddy Palvai and Asna Urooj Copyright © 2014 Vanitha Reddy Palvai and Asna Urooj. All rights reserved. Metagenomics: An Application Based Perspective Thu, 21 Aug 2014 12:47:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/146030/ Metagenomics deals with the isolation of genetic material directly recovered from environmental samples. Metagenomics as an approach has emerged over the past two decades to elucidate a host of microbial communities inhabiting a specific niche with the goal of understanding their genetic diversity, population structure, and ecological role played by them. A number of new and novel molecules with significant functionalities and applications have been identified through this approach. In fact, many investigators are engaged in this field to unlock the untapped genetic resources with funding from governments sector. The sustainable economic future of modern industrialized societies requires the development of novel molecules, enzymes, processes, products, and applications. Metagenomics can also be applied to solve practical challenges in the field of medicine, agriculture, sustainability, and ecology. Metagenomics promises to provide new molecules and novel enzymes with diverse functions and enhanced features compared to the enzymes from the culturable microorganisms. Besides the application of metagenomics for unlocking novel biocatalysts from nature, it also has found applications in fields as diverse as bioremediation, personalized medicine, xenobiotic metabolism, and so forth. Yasir Bashir, Salam Pradeep Singh, and Bolin Kumar Konwar Copyright © 2014 Yasir Bashir et al. All rights reserved. Production of Extracellular Polymeric Substances by Halophilic Bacteria of Solar Salterns Wed, 06 Aug 2014 10:24:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/205731/ Moderately halophilic aerobic bacteria were isolated from 31 soil and 18 water samples collected from multipond solar salterns of Gujarat, Orissa, and West Bengal, India. A total of 587 bacterial isolates with distinct morphological features were obtained from these samples following dilution and plating on MH agar medium supplemented with NaCl. The isolates were screened for growth associated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production in MY medium under batch culture. In all, 20 isolates were selected as potent ones producing more than 1 g/L of EPS. These EPS producing isolates were characterized in detail for their morphological, physiological, and biochemical features and tentatively identified as members belonging to the genera Halomonas, Salinicoccus, Bacillus, Aidingimonas, Alteromonas, and Chromohalobacter. Apart from EPS production, these isolates also hold promise towards the production of various biomolecules of industrial importance. Jhuma Biswas and A. K. Paul Copyright © 2014 Jhuma Biswas and A. K. Paul. All rights reserved. Canthium parviflorum Leaves: Antioxidant Activity in Food and Biological Systems, pH, and Temperature Stability Thu, 10 Apr 2014 13:37:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/813201/ Canthium parviflorum leaves were analyzed for their proximate and phytochemical composition. The leaves were extracted with methanol (ME) and analyzed for antioxidant activity by radical scavenging method, reducing power, ferric reducing capacity, and in vitro inhibition of Fenton’s reagent induced oxidation in oil emulsion and microsomes. In addition, the effect of high temperature (100°C, 15 and 30 min) and pH (4.5, 7, and 9) on the antioxidant activity of ME was investigated. The leaves were rich in polyphenols, flavonoids β-carotene, glutathione, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid. The ME exhibited varying degree of antioxidant activity in a dose dependent manner. The RSA was 68%–500 μg. Reducing potency was 0.34 and FRAP was 1.377. Canthium exhibited greater inhibition of oxidation in microsomes (73%) than in the oil emulsion (21%). Heat treatment resulted in reduction of radical scavenging activity of extract from 68% to 40%. At pH 4.5 and 7 methanol extract exhibited some percent of antioxidant activity which ranged between 18 and 32%. Data indicates Canthium as a good source of antioxidants and methanol extract exhibited good antioxidant activity. Vanitha Reddy Palvai, Sowmya Mahalingu, and Asna Urooj Copyright © 2014 Vanitha Reddy Palvai et al. All rights reserved. Sugarcane Bagasse: A Potential Medium for Fungal Cultures Thu, 13 Mar 2014 13:21:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/840505/ Worldwide, sugarcane industries produce tons of sugarcane bagasse as residual/waste material. This residual material is rich in complex lignocellulosic substances and may be used as a low cost carbon and energy source for the growth of fungal species. The present work was aimed at designing a sugarcane waste-based medium as a substitute for expensive commercial media for growing fungal cultures. Eight species of fungi, namely, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fusarium sp., and four unidentified species F1, F2, F3, and F5, were grown on the sugarcane bagasse medium which produced remarkable results and competed with standard media like potato dextrose agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar, and cornmeal agar. The designed medium was able to provide nourishment to the fungi as well as prevent the growth of any bacterial or fungal contaminant. The production of spores was more in the sugarcane medium as compared with standard media. Hence, this study led to the discovery of a new and efficient medium for fungal cultures as well as decrease in the waste disposal expenses and efforts. Arushdeep Sidana and Umar Farooq Copyright © 2014 Arushdeep Sidana and Umar Farooq. All rights reserved. Structure-Function Elucidation of Antioxidative and Prooxidative Activities of the Polyphenolic Compound Curcumin Sun, 09 Mar 2014 08:47:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/396708/ Phenolic compounds have been very well known for their antioxidant properties, owing to their unique ability to act as free radical scavengers which, in turn, is an outstanding attribute of their unique biochemical structure. Recent accumulating lines of evidence inculcate sustainable interest and curiosity towards the chemoprotective nature of the natural polyphenolic compound curcumin (diferuloylmethane) against oxidative stress-mediated disorders. Curcumin is naturally found as a constituent of dietary spices called turmeric, extracted from the plant Curcuma longa. However, like every phenolic antioxidant, curcumin possesses a concentration and medium dependent anti- and pro-oxidant behaviour. A detailed study of the structure-function analysis and the understanding of the mode of action of curcumin as well as its chemical analogues is thus essential to understand the selective biochemical consequences of curcumin. Moreover, the presence of transition metal ions, route of administration, and localized tissue are also the vital decisive factors to determine curcumin behaviour. With this viewpoint, this paper sheds lights on the medium dependent prooxidative and antioxidative attributes of curcumin. Further, with respect to emergence of nanocarriers, a brief discussion focusing on the biochemical effect exertion of curcumin chiefly due to targeted and slow release has also been added towards the end. Parth Malik and Tapan K. Mukherjee Copyright © 2014 Parth Malik and Tapan K. Mukherjee. All rights reserved. Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics on Hypercholesterolemia: A Review Thu, 27 Feb 2014 06:34:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/572754/ Cholesterol plays a major role in human health. High cholesterol is a leading risk factor for human cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Excess cholesterol in the bloodstream can form plaque in the artery walls. Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. A number of pharmacological and non-pharmacological (including dietary) approaches being employed to reduce the cholesterol level. Numerous drugs that lower serum cholesterol have been developed to treat hypercholesterolemic patients, the best example being the statins drugs (Atorvastatin, Simvastatin, Rosuvastatin, and Lovastatin). However, the undesirable side effects of these compounds were observed and have caused concern about their long term therapeutic use. Several studies have been reported that the consumption of fermented dairy products decreases serum cholesterol. Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and prebiotics have been suggested to reduce cholesterol via various mechanisms without any deleterious effect to the human health. This paper may throw some light to prove the ability of these synbiotics as a novel alternative or adjuvant to chemical drugs to help fight the hypercholesterolemic problem. Marimuthu Anandharaj, Balayogan Sivasankari, and Rizwana Parveen Rani Copyright © 2014 Marimuthu Anandharaj et al. All rights reserved. Biotechnological Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates: A Review on Trends and Latest Developments Mon, 24 Feb 2014 08:20:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/802984/ Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) producers have been reported to reside at various ecological niches which are naturally or accidently exposed to high organic matter or growth limited conditions such as dairy wastes, hydrocarbon contaminated sites, pulp and paper mill wastes, agricultural wastes, activated sludges of treatment plants, rhizosphere, and industrial effluents. Few among them also produce extracellular by-products like rhamnolipids, extracellular polymeric substances, and biohydrogen gas. These sorts of microbes are industrially important candidates for the reason that they can use waste materials of different origin as substrate with simultaneous production of valuable bioproducts including PHA. Implementation of integrated system to separate their by-products (intracellular and extracellular) can be economical in regard to production. In this review, we have discussed various microorganisms dwelling at different environmental conditions which stimulate them to accumulate carbon as polyhydroxyalkanoates granules and factors influencing its production and composition. A brief aspect on metabolites which are produced concomitantly with PHA has also been discussed. In conclusion, exploring of capabilities like of dual production by microbes and use of wastes as renewable substrate under optimized cultural conditions either in batch or continuous process can cause deduction in present cost of bioplastic production from stored PHA granules. Baljeet Singh Saharan, Anita Grewal, and Pardeep Kumar Copyright © 2014 Baljeet Singh Saharan et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidant Status of Vigna mungo L. in Response to Sulfur Nutrition Tue, 18 Feb 2014 11:22:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/724523/ Black gram (Vigna mungo L. var. DPU-88-31), an edible legume, was grown at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 meq S L−1 to study the effect of deficient and excess level of sulfur on oxidative metabolism. Plants supplied by 4 meq S L−1 showed optimum yield. Sulfur deficient plants (1 and 2 meq S L−1) showed reduction in growth and chlorosis of young leaves. Tissue sulfur and cysteine concentration was increased with increasing sulfur supply. The thresholds for critical concentration of sulfur deficiency and toxicity were 0.315% and 0.434% dry weight. Biomass and photoassimilatory pigments were decreased and carbohydrates (sugar and starch) were accumulated in leaves of sulfur deficient and excess plants. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in sulfur deficient and excess plants caused oxidative damage in plants which was also evident by the increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and concentration of ascorbate and nonprotein thiols. Neelam Chandra and Nalini Pandey Copyright © 2014 Neelam Chandra and Nalini Pandey. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Helminths in Exotic and Indigenous Goats Slaughtered in Selected Abattoirs in Port Harcourt, South-South, Nigeria Thu, 13 Feb 2014 09:17:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/435913/ A total of 213 faecal samples were collected from four abattoirs and households to determine the prevalence of helminthes infections in exotic and indigenous goats in Port Harcourt, South-South, Nigeria. The study revealed that out of 153 exotic goats (Red Sokoto) Capra hircus, 112 were infected with various species of gastrointestinal helminths; out of 60 indigenous goats (West African dwarf) Capra hircus, 49 were also infected with various types of gastrointestinal helminths. The formol-ether concentration method was used to analyse the specimens. The study revealed that an overall prevalence of (75.5%) was recorded, out of which 57 (76.0%), 55 (70.5%), and 49 (81.6%) were recorded for exotic goat in the months of May–September, 2010, exotic goat in the months October 2010–February, 2011 and for indigenous goats, respectively. The overall prevalence amongst the infected animals was not statistically significant (). Species of helminthes revealed from the study were, Haemonchus, Strongyloides, Chabertia, Trichuris, Ostertagia, Bunostomum, Trichostrongyloida, Ascaris, Tenia, Avitelina, Fasciola, Eurytrema, Gastrothylax, Schistosoma, and Dicrocoelium. Ovutor Owhoeli, Kingsley Elele, and Lebari Barine Gboeloh Copyright © 2014 Ovutor Owhoeli et al. All rights reserved. Anticancer Activity of Tabernaemontana coronaria against Carcinogen Induced Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Sun, 09 Feb 2014 06:14:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/584074/ Medicinal plants have been used for treatment of various ailments since time immemorial. Tabernaemontana coronaria is a flowering plant belonging to Apocynaceae family. Considering the very good antioxidant properties of Tabernaemontana coronaria, the anticancer property of the ethanolic extract was evaluated against DEN and Fe-NTA induced clear cell renal cell carcinoma. A group of male rats were induced with single intraperitoneal injection of DEN (200 mg/kg bw) and followed by Fe-NTA (9 mg Fe/kg bw) twice a week for 24 weeks. Another set of two groups were induced with carcinogens and treated with plant extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg bw), respectively. Further two sets of rats were treated with only the plant extracts. The therapeutic efficacy of the ethanolic extract of Tabernaemontana coronaria was observed in terms of normalization of altered renal oxidative stress parameters like LPO and enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants in kidney of rats. These results suggested that the plant extract could act against DEN and Fe-NTA induced clear cell renal cell carcinoma in male rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties which was confirmed by histopathological studies. K. Poornima and V. K. Gopalakrishnan Copyright © 2014 K. Poornima and V. K. Gopalakrishnan. All rights reserved. Significant Differences in the Prevalence of Elevated HbA1c Levels for Type I and Type II Diabetics Attending the Parirenyatwa Diabetic Clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe Thu, 23 Jan 2014 06:59:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/672980/ Diabetics have chronically elevated glucose levels. High levels of glucose result in nonenzymatic formation of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Therefore, elevated HbA1c is a good indicator of poorly controlled diabetes. We used the standard HbA1c method to determine glycemic control in diabetics attending a public health facility in Harare, Zimbabwe. Our study sought to assess the prevalence of elevated HbA1c amongst treated diabetics and compare the HbA1c levels by type of diabetes. The cross-sectional study was carried out at one of the main public health centres in Zimbabwe: the Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals in Harare. Type I and type II diabetics were recruited and had their blood HbA1c levels measured. The standard one tailed proportion z test was used to test the hypothesis at 5% significance level. Combined prevalence of type I and type II diabetics with elevated HbA1c was 27%. There was no significant difference in levels of HbA1c by age and sex. Over half (54%) of Type I diabetics had elevated HbA1c, suggesting poor glycemic control. In contrast only 24% of the Type II diabetics studied had elevated HbA1c. The difference in proportion of Type I and Type II diabetics with elevated HbA1c suggestive of poor glycemic control was significant (). Kurai Z. Chako, Heather Phillipo, Erisi Mafuratidze, and Danai Tavonga Zhou Copyright © 2014 Kurai Z. Chako et al. All rights reserved. Antimicrobial Activity of Cladonia verticillaris Lichen Preparations on Bacteria and Fungi of Medical Importance Wed, 22 Jan 2014 09:40:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/219392/ Cladonia verticillaris lichen lectin (ClaveLL) was purified using a previously established protocol and then evaluated for its potential antimicrobial activity. Initially, the autochthonous lichen was submitted to extraction with sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0, followed by filtration and centrifugation to obtain crude extract. A salt fractionation was performed with 30% ammonium sulfate. After centrifugation, the protein fraction was loaded onto molecular exclusion chromatography using Sephadex G-100 matrix to purify active lectin. ClaveLL showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) assayed strains, with greater inhibitory effect on growth of E. coli (MIC of 7.18 μg mL−1). The lowest minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, 57.4 μg mL−1) was detected against E. faecalis. The antifungal assay performed with Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichosporon cutaneum, and Trichosporon asahi evaluated crude extract, fraction, and ClaveLL preparations. ClaveLL was the most active against T. rubrum with an inhibition percentage of 35% compared to negative control (phosphate buffer). Extract and fraction showed better activity on growth inhibition of T. mentagrophytes (35%). The results indicate the potential of ClaveLL and other C. verticillaris preparations as antimicrobial agents useful for applications focusing on human health. Dalila de Brito Marques Ramos, Francis Soares Gomes, Thiago Henrique Napoleão, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva, Michele Dalvina Correia da Silva, and Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho Copyright © 2014 Dalila de Brito Marques Ramos et al. All rights reserved. Restorative Prospective of Powdered Seeds Extract of Garcinia kola in Chrysichthys furcatus Induced with Glyphosate Formulation Tue, 21 Jan 2014 13:50:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/854157/ Responses of Chrysichthys furcatus to glyphosate formulation and Garcinia kola seed extracts were investigated using the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development numbers 203 and 407 recommended toxicity bioassay. The fish were divided into five groups and exposed to different treatments of glyphosate formulation and Garcinia kola seed extract, with the control serving as a reference. Water quality parameters and blood chemistry were estimated in the experimental and control fish at the end of 28 days. There was no significant difference () between fish treated with glyphosate formulation alone and other treatments except for dissolved oxygen which was highly significant () between fish treated with glyphosate formulation alone and other treatments and the control. All the blood parameters were significantly () affected by glyphosate formulation when compared with the control. The changes observed in glyphosate formulation alone were reversible when G. kola seeds extract was added and was dose dependent. The plant’s extract has shown to be a good remedy to pollutants, and formulations of the seed extract into tablets or capsules could serve as antidote to ameliorate the effects of pollutants. This finding can reduce the risk of biomagnifications of poisons along the food chain. T. O. Ikpesu, I. Tongo, and A. Ariyo Copyright © 2014 T. O. Ikpesu et al. All rights reserved. Chronic Kidney Disease—Effect of Oxidative Stress Tue, 21 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/216210/ Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing health problem with increasing incidence. The annual mortality of end-stage renal disease patients is about 9%, which is 10–20 fold higher than the general population, approximately 50% of these deaths are due to cardiovascular (CV) disease. CV risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, are strongly associated with poor outcome. Many other nontraditional risk factors such as inflammation, infection, oxidative stress, anemia, and malnutrition are also present. In this review we will focus on the role of oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease. Subha Palaneeswari Meenakshi Sundaram, Sivakumar Nagarajan, and Arcot Jagdeeshwaran Manjula Devi Copyright © 2014 Subha Palaneeswari Meenakshi Sundaram et al. All rights reserved. Mimosine As Well As Serum Starvation Can Be Used for Cell Cycle Synchronization of Sheep Granulosa Cells Thu, 02 Jan 2014 08:59:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/851736/ This study was evaluated the effect of different synchronization protocols such as serum starvation for 1–3 days, confluency and chemical inhibitors on synchronization accuracy at G0/G1, apoptosis, and DNA synthesis in sheep granulosa cells. The cells were obtained from ovarian antral follicles of slaughtered sheep and used at first and fifth passages. Flow cytometry analysis showed that confluent cells, serum starvation for 24, 48, and 72 hours, and mimosine treatment significantly increased G0/G1 phase cells when compared to normally growing cells (). Nocodazole treatment increased the cell population in the G0/G1 stage when compared with the control group but did not change the G2/M stage population. Treatment of cells with mimosine, nocodazole, and serum starvation in three groups resulted in proliferation arrest (). Serum starvation for 72 hours significantly promoted apoptosis in granulosa cells (). The results of the primary culture and 5th passage were the same. The use of 48-hour serum starvation and mimosine treatments has been recommended because cell death in these groups was very similar to the control group. Fatemeh Sadeghian-Nodoushan, Poopak Eftekhari-Yazdi, Azam Dalman, Hossein Eimani, and Houri Sepehri Copyright © 2014 Fatemeh Sadeghian-Nodoushan et al. All rights reserved. Cow Dung Substrate for the Potential Production of Alkaline Proteases by Pseudomonas putida Strain AT in Solid-State Fermentation Wed, 01 Jan 2014 22:17:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjb/2014/217434/ Cow dung and agroresidues were used as the substrates for the production of alkaline proteases by Pseudomonas putida strain AT in solid-state fermentation. Among the various substrates evaluated, cow dung supported maximum ( U/g) protease production. The optimum conditions for the production of alkaline proteases were a fermentation period of 48 h, 120% (v/w) moisture, pH 9, and the addition of 6% (v/w) inoculum, 1.5% (w/w) trehalose, and 2.0% (w/w) yeast extract to the cow dung substrate. The enzyme was active over a range of temperatures (50–70°C) and pHs (8–10), with maximum activity at 60°C and pH 9. These enzymes showed stability towards surfactants, detergents, and solvent and digested various natural proteins. Ponnuswamy Vijayaraghavan, Sreekumar Saranya, and Samuel Gnana Prakash Vincent Copyright © 2014 Ponnuswamy Vijayaraghavan et al. All rights reserved.