Chinese Journal of Engineering http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Optimal Demand Side Bidding with Carbon Emission by Using MRS Strategy Tue, 22 Apr 2014 06:41:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/746924/ A new moderate-random-search strategy (MRPSO) is used for an optimal bidding strategy of a supplier, considering linear bidding curve model with a precise model and emission as constraints, and who delivered electricity to end users in oligopolistic dynamic electricity is studied. Bidding strategy of a supplier is solved by MRPSO, where mean best position () boosts the diversity and the exploration ability of particle. The MRPSO adopts an attractor as the main moving direction of particles, which replaces the velocity update procedure in the particle swarm optimization. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is tested with linear bidding model and the results are compared with the solutions obtained using classical PSO. In this paper, a comparative study has been done by a competitive bidding model tested on IEEE 14- and IEEE 39-bus systems and results motivate the suppliers towards opting green technologies. Kaustubh Dwivedi, Yogendra Kumar, and Ganga Agnihotri Copyright © 2014 Kaustubh Dwivedi et al. All rights reserved. Transient Thermoelastic Analysis of Pressurized Rotating Disks Subjected to Arbitrary Boundary and Initial Conditions Thu, 17 Apr 2014 11:38:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/894902/ This paper focuses on exact analytical solution of transient thermoelastic behaviors of rotating pressurized disks subjected to arbitrary boundary and initial conditions. The pressure, inner radius, and outer radius are considered constant. The basic thermoelasticity theory under generalized assumptions is used to solve the thermoelastic problem. Using the method of the separation of variables, the relations of temperature and transient thermal stresses in the radial direction are obtained. In the case study, the disk is considered under heat flux. Some useful discussions and numerical examples are presented. The analytical results were compared with those of the finite element method and good agreement was found. The relations obtained in this paper can be applied to any arbitrary boundary and initial conditions. Mohammad Zamani Nejad and Azam Afshin Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Zamani Nejad and Azam Afshin. All rights reserved. On a Homotopy Perturbation Treatment of Steady Laminar Forced Convection Flow over a Nonlinearly Stretching Porous Sheet Tue, 08 Apr 2014 07:07:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/297163/ The steady two-dimensional laminar forced convection boundary layer flow of an incompressible viscous Newtonian fluid over a nonlinearly stretching porous (permeable) sheet with suction is considered. The sheet’s permeability is also considered to be nonlinear. The boundary layer equations are transformed by similarity transformations to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE). Then the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is used to solve the resultant nonlinear ODE. The dimensionless entrainment parameter and the dimensionless sheet surface shear stress are obtained for various values of the suction parameter and the nonlinearity factor of sheet stretching and permeability. The results indicate that the dimensionless sheet surface shear stress decreases with the increase of suction parameter. The results of present HPM solution are compared to the values obtained in a previous study by the homotopy analysis method (HAM). The HPM results show that they are in good agreement with the HAM results within 2% error. Nemat Dalir and Salman Nourazar Copyright © 2014 Nemat Dalir and Salman Nourazar. All rights reserved. Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Management System in a Developing Country Thu, 27 Mar 2014 09:07:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/561935/ This study represents a few basic steps of municipal solid waste management practiced in the six major cities of Bangladesh, namely, Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Barisal, and Sylhet. A six-month field study was conducted to identify the solid wastes management steps such as storage at source, separation, on-site storage, collection, transportation, treatment, reuse, recycling, and ultimate disposal. This study addresses the role of the city authority to meet the demand of the city dwellers in solving this emerging socioenvironmental issue and the initiatives taken by some nongovernmental organizations and community based organizations. The problems and constraints of the solid wastes management system are also identified to find a sustainable management concept for the urban areas of Bangladesh. A. Ahsan, M. Alamgir, M. M. El-Sergany, S. Shams, M. K. Rowshon, and N. N. Nik Daud Copyright © 2014 A. Ahsan et al. All rights reserved. A CAS Approach to Handle the Anisotropic Hooke’s Law for Cancellous Bone and Wood Sun, 23 Mar 2014 12:16:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/487314/ The present research entirely relies on the Computer Algebric Systems (CAS) to develop techniques for the data analysis of the sets of elastic constant data measurements. In particular, this study deals with the development of some appropriate programming codes that favor the data analysis of known values of elastic constants for cancellous bone, hardwoods, and softwood species. More precisely, a “Mathematica” code, which has an ability to unfold a fourth-order elasticity tensor is discussed. Also, an effort towards the fabrication of an appropriate “MAPLE” code has been exposed, that can calculate not only the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for cancellous bone, hardwoods, and softwood species, but also computes the nominal average of eigenvectors, average eigenvectors, average eigenvalues, and the average elasticity matrices for these materials. Further, using such a MAPLE code, the histograms corresponding to average elasticity matrices of 15 hardwood species have been plotted and the graphs for I, II, III, IV, V, and VI eigenvalues of each hardwood species against their apparent densities are also drawn. Sandeep Kumar Copyright © 2014 Sandeep Kumar. All rights reserved. Elitist Genetic Algorithm Based Energy Balanced Routing Strategy to Prolong Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks Sun, 16 Mar 2014 07:11:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/437625/ Wireless sensor networks have gained worldwide attention in recent years due to the advances made in wireless communication. Unequal energy dissipation causes the nodes to fail. The factors causing the unequal energy dissipation are, firstly, the distance between the nodes and base station and, secondly, the distance between the nodes themselves. Using traditional methods, it is difficult to obtain the high precision of solution as the problem is NP hard. The routing in wireless networks is a combinatorial optimization problem; hence, genetic algorithms can provide optimized solution to energy efficient shortest path. The proposed algorithm has its inherent advantage that it keeps the elite solutions in the next generation so as to quickly converge towards the global optima also during path selection; it takes into account the energy balance of the network, so that the life time of the network can be prolonged. The results show that the algorithm is efficient for finding the optimal energy constrained route as they can converge faster than other traditional methods used for combinatorial optimization problems. Vinay Kumar Singh and Vidushi Sharma Copyright © 2014 Vinay Kumar Singh and Vidushi Sharma. All rights reserved. Investigation of Solar Drying of Ginger (Zingiber officinale): Emprical Modelling, Drying Characteristics, and Quality Study Thu, 13 Mar 2014 14:09:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/305823/ Drying is a simultaneous heat and mass transfer energy intensive operation, widely used as a food preservation technique. In view of improper postharvest methods, energy constraint, and environmental impact of conventional drying methods, solar drying could be a practical, economical, and environmentally reliable alternative. In the present paper applicability of mixed mode solar cabinet dryer was investigated for drying of commercially important and export oriented ginger. Freshly harvested ginger slices were successfully dried from initial moisture content of 621.50 to 12.19% (d.b.) and their drying characteristics, quality parameters, and kinetics were evaluated. The results showed that present solar dryer could be successfully applied for drying of ginger in view of quality, reduced drying time, and zero energy requirement as compared to conventional open sun drying and convective drying techniques, respectively. Drying curves showed that drying occurred in falling rate period and no constant period was observed. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick’s second law and found to be  m2/s. The drying data was fitted to five thin layer drying models and compared using statistical criteria. Page model was found to be most suitable to describe the drying kinetics of ginger in solar dryer under natural convection among the tested models. A. Waheed Deshmukh, Mahesh N. Varma, Chang Kyoo Yoo, and Kailas L. Wasewar Copyright © 2014 A. Waheed Deshmukh et al. All rights reserved. Analyzing the Heat Transfer Property of Heat Pipe Influenced by Integrated Cooling Apparatus Tue, 11 Mar 2014 09:06:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/409074/ Heat pipe with discrete heat transfer property is often called thermal superconductor because it has extremely large thermal conductivity. This special heat transfer property is destroyed by integrating cooling apparatus and further reducing the cooling power of a heat pipe cooler. This paper experimentally studied the heat transfer property of heat pipe influenced by integrated cooling apparatus. To simplify the investigating process, a home-made square heat pipe with the dimensions of  mm3 was built with two pieces of copper plates and two pieces of glass plates face to face, respectively. The two pieces of copper plates were constructed with inside walls of capillary structure and the two pieces of glasses were with antifog inside walls for observing the inner phenomenon. Moreover, isothermal circulating cooling water was applied outside the heat pipe instead of cooling fin. The results show that heat vapor in the heat pipe is condensed earlier and cannot reach the remote section of condenser. In other words, the heat transfer property of heat pipe is destroyed by integrating cooling water. This phenomenon causes the unfavorable cooling power of the heat pipe cooler. Chen-Ching Ting and Chien-Chih Chen Copyright © 2014 Chen-Ching Ting and Chien-Chih Chen. All rights reserved. Transient Stability Improvement of a Power System with Parametric Uncertainties Using a Robust Optimal H2 State Feedback Controller Tue, 11 Mar 2014 08:03:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/131680/ In recent years, improvement of dynamic behavior of power systems has interested many researchers and to achieve it, various control methods are proposed. In this paper, in order to improve transient stability of power system, a robust optimal H2 state feedback is employed. In order to appropriate formulation of the problem, linear matrix inequality (LMI) theory is used. To achieve the best answer, controller parameters are tuned using particle swarm algorithm. The obtained results of the proposed method are compared to conventional power system stabilizer. Mehdi Mohseni Mirabadi, Navid Reza Abjadi, Said Hoghoughi-Isfahani, and Shahrokh Shojaeian Copyright © 2014 Mehdi Mohseni Mirabadi et al. All rights reserved. Process Parameters Optimization of Silica Sand Nanoparticles Production Using Low Speed Ball Milling Method Wed, 26 Feb 2014 13:20:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/802459/ Experiments are designed using Taguchi method to find the optimum parameters for silica sand nanoparticles production using low speed ball milling. Orthogonal array and signal-to-noise ratio are applied to study performance characteristics of machining parameters which are the ball to powder weight ratio, volume of milling jar, and rotation speed. Results obtained from signal-to-noise ratio analysis showed that ball to powder weight ratio is the most influential parameter. Zulkhairi Rizlan and Othman Mamat Copyright © 2014 Zulkhairi Rizlan and Othman Mamat. All rights reserved. Design Multipurpose Circuits with Minimum Garbage Outputs Using CMVMIN Gate Wed, 26 Feb 2014 12:36:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/532121/ Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) suggest an emerging computing paradigm for nanotechnology. The QCA offers novel approach in electronics for information processing and communication. QCA have recently become the focus of interest in the field of low power nanocomputing and nanotechnology. The fundamental logic elements of this technology are the majority voter (MV) and the inverter (INV). This paper presents a novel design with less garbage output and minimum quantum cost in nanotechnology. In the paper we show how to create multipurpose reversible gates. By development of suitable gates in logic circuits as an example, we can combine MFA and HS in one design using CMVMIN gate. We offer CMVMIN gate implementations to be used in multipurpose circuit. We can produce concurrent half adder/subtractor and one bit comparator in one design using reversible logic gates and CMVMIN gates. Also, a decoder from recent architecture has been shown independently. We investigate the result of the proposed design using truth table. A significant improvement in quality of the calculated parameters and variety of required outputs has been achieved. Bahram Dehghan Copyright © 2014 Bahram Dehghan. All rights reserved. Hardware Neural Networks Modeling for Computing Different Performance Parameters of Rectangular, Circular, and Triangular Microstrip Antennas Wed, 26 Feb 2014 12:30:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/924927/ In the last one decade, neural networks-based modeling has been used for computing different performance parameters of microstrip antennas because of learning and generalization features. Most of the created neural models are based on software simulation. As the neural networks show massive parallelism inherently, a parallel hardware needs to be created for creating faster computing machine by taking the advantages of the parallelism of the neural networks. This paper demonstrates a generalized neural networks model created on field programmable gate array- (FPGA-) based reconfigurable hardware platform for computing different performance parameters of microstrip antennas. Thus, the proposed approach provides a platform for developing low-cost neural network-based FPGA simulators for microwave applications. Also, the results obtained by this approach are in very good agreement with the measured results available in the literature. Taimoor Khan and Asok De Copyright © 2014 Taimoor Khan and Asok De. All rights reserved. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Magnetorheological (MR) Damper Tue, 25 Feb 2014 07:17:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/915694/ The design of a MR damper, consisting of piston and cylinder arrangement, is presented in this paper. In this paper, a 2D axisymmetric model based on finite element method (FEM) concept has been developed on the ANSYS platform to analyze and examine the MR damper characteristics. Based on the FEM model, a prototype of the MR damper is fabricated and tested experimentally in the semi active vibration laboratory of the department. The comparison of both these model analyses indicates that the FEM based model is effectively portraying the experimental behavior of the MR damper in terms of its damping force. The results obtained in this paper will be helpful for the designers to create more efficient and reliable MR dampers and also to predict its damping force characteristics. S. K. Mangal and Ashwani Kumar Copyright © 2014 S. K. Mangal and Ashwani Kumar. All rights reserved. Study of Knocking Effect in Compression Ignition Engine with Hydrogen as a Secondary Fuel Mon, 24 Feb 2014 13:15:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/102390/ The aim of this project is detecting knock during combustion of biodiesel-hydrogen fuel and also the knock is suppressed by timed injection of diethyl ether (DEE) with biodiesel-hydrogen fuel for different loads. Hydrogen fuel is an effective alternate fuel in making a pollution-free environment with higher efficiency. The usage of hydrogen in compression ignition engine leads to production of knocking or detonation because of its lower ignition energy, wider flammability range, and shorter quenching distance. Knocking combustion causes major engine damage, and also reduces the efficiency. The method uses the measurement and analysis of cylinder pressure signal for various loads. The pressure signal is to be converted into frequency domain that shows the accurate knocking combustion of fuel mixtures. The variation of pressure signal is gradually increased and smoothly reduced to minimum during normal combustion. The rapid rise of pressure signal has occurred during knocking combustion. The experimental setup was mainly available for evaluating the feasibility of normal combustion by comparing with the signals from both fuel mixtures in compression ignition engine. This method provides better results in predicting the knocking feature of biodiesel-hydrogen fuel and the usage of DEE provides complete combustion of fuels with higher performance, and lower emission. R. Sivabalakrishnan and C. Jegadheesan Copyright © 2014 R. Sivabalakrishnan and C. Jegadheesan. All rights reserved. Nonreplicated Static Data Allocation in Distributed Databases Using Biogeography-Based Optimization Sun, 23 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/785321/ Allocation of data is one of the key design issues of distributed database. A major cost of query execution in a distributed database system is the data transfer cost from one site to another site. The allocation of fragments among the different sites over the network plays an important role in performance of the distributed database system. The main objective of a data allocation in distributed database is to place the data fragments at different sites in such a way, so that the total data transfer cost can be minimized while executing a set of queries. In this paper, a new biogeography-based optimization (BBO) algorithm has been used to allocate the fragments during the design of distributed database system. The goal of this paper is to design a fragments allocation algorithm, so that the total data transmission cost can be minimized. To show the performance of proposed algorithm, results of biogeography-based optimization algorithm for data allocation are compared with genetic algorithm. Arjan Singh, Karanjeet Singh Kahlon, and Rajinder Singh Virk Copyright © 2014 Arjan Singh et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Collocated/Noncollocated Sensors and Actuators along with Feedback Gain Using Hybrid Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm-Artificial Neural Network Thu, 20 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/692140/ A multiobjective optimization procedure is proposed to deal with the optimal number and locations of collocated/noncollocated sensors and actuators and determination of LQR controller gain simultaneously using hybrid multiobjective genetic algorithm-artificial neural network (GA-ANN). Multiobjective optimization problem has been formulated using trade-off objective functions ensuring good observability/controllability of the structure while minimizing the spillover effect and maximizing closed loop average damping ratio. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to train the input as varying numbers and placements of sensors and actuators and the outputs are taken as the three objective functions (i.e., controllability, observability, and closed loop average damping ratio), thus forming three ANN models. The trained mathematical models of ANN are fed into the multiobjective GA. The hybrid multiobjective GA-ANN maintains the trade-off among the three objective functions. The ANN3 model is used experimentally to provide the control inputs to the piezoactuators. It is shown that the proposed method is effective in ascertaining the optimal number and placement of actuators and sensors with consideration of controllability, observability, and spillover prevention such that the performance on dynamic responses is also satisfied. It is also observed that damping ratio obtained with hybrid multiobjective GA-ANN and found with ANN experimentally/online holds well in agreement. Deepak Chhabra, Gian Bhushan, and Pankaj Chandna Copyright © 2014 Deepak Chhabra et al. All rights reserved. Probabilistic Evaluation of Service Life for Reinforced Concrete Structures Tue, 18 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/648438/ Degradation of performance and deterioration of different components of reinforced concrete (RC) structures increase with the age of structure. This deterioration of reinforced component depends on several parameters. However, modeling service life of RC structure by considering all the parameters is a difficult job, as most of the parameters are uncertain in nature. Probabilistic models account well for the uncertainties in the parameters responsible for deterioration of RC structures. This paper presents a review of several recent service life models developed using probability based concepts. Sanjeev Kumar Verma, Sudhir Singh Bhadauria, and Saleem Akhtar Copyright © 2014 Sanjeev Kumar Verma et al. All rights reserved. A Finite Difference Solution of a Simply Supported Beam of Orthotropic Composite Materials Using Displacement Potential Formulation Thu, 13 Feb 2014 16:00:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/961503/ Here an efficient displacement potential formulation based finite difference technique is used to solve the elastic field of a simply supported beam of orthotropic composite materials. A simply supported beam made of orthotropic composite material under uniformly distributed loading is considered and its elastic behaviors under such loading conditions are analyzed considering plane stress condition. The solutions of the problem satisfy the force equilibrium conditions as well as boundary conditions. For understanding the elastic behavior of a simply supported beam, the displacement and stress components of some important sections of the beam are shown graphically. Effects of different orthotropic composite materials on the solutions are also analyzed. Besides, at a particular section of the beam, the comparative analysis of the elastic field is carried out by using the FDM and FEM methods. S. K. Deb Nath Copyright © 2014 S. K. Deb Nath. All rights reserved. Routing in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey Wed, 12 Feb 2014 12:13:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/579874/ Recently, industrial wireless sensor networks have attracted more attention, due to their large benefits in terms of faster installation, cost savings, and flexibility. Nevertheless, the acceptance of wireless sensor networks by the industrial community is not without its difficulties. In fact, several research efforts have been made in this field and a number of state-of-the-art reviews exist, presenting the current standards, the challenges, and the design principles. However, a comprehensive review on routing protocols appears to be missing. In this paper, we give a survey on routing protocols for industrial monitoring applications of the wireless sensor networks technology, and we present their limitations and weaknesses according to the industrial requirements. Amal Tiab and Louiza Bouallouche-Medjkoune Copyright © 2014 Amal Tiab and Louiza Bouallouche-Medjkoune. All rights reserved. Development of a New Cascade Voltage-Doubler for Voltage Multiplication Tue, 11 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/948586/ For more than eight decades, cascade voltage-doubler circuits are used as a method to produce DC output voltage higher than the input voltage. In this paper, the topological developments of cascade voltage-doublers are reviewed. A new circuit configuration for cascade voltage-doubler is presented. This circuit can produce a higher value of the DC output voltage and better output quality compared to the conventional cascade voltage-doubler circuits, with the same number of stages. Arash Toudeshki, Norman Mariun, Hashim Hizam, and Noor Izzri Abdul Wahab Copyright © 2014 Arash Toudeshki et al. All rights reserved. Suboptimal Control Using Model Order Reduction Mon, 03 Feb 2014 12:56:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/797581/ A Padé approximation based technique for designing a suboptimal controller is presented. The technique uses matching of both time moments and Markov parameters for model order reduction. In this method, the suboptimal controller is first derived for reduced order model and then implemented for higher order plant by partial feedback of measurable states. Avadh Pati, Awadhesh Kumar, and Dinesh Chandra Copyright © 2014 Avadh Pati et al. All rights reserved. PD-SVM Integrated Controller for Robotic Manipulator Tracking Control Mon, 03 Feb 2014 12:40:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/295210/ Highly precise tracking of a robotic manipulator in presence of uncertainties like noise, disturbances, and friction has been addressed in this particular paper. An integrated proportional derivative and support vector machine (SVMPD) controller has been proposed for manipulator tracking. To illustrate the efficiency of the proposed controller, simulations have been done on a 2-DOF manipulator system. Performance of the proposed controller has been checked and verified with respect to to a simple PID controller and the radial bias neural network proportional integral derivative (RBNNPD) controller. It has been proved that the proposed controller can achieve better tracking performance as compared to other controllers as the range of errors is less and the time taken by the controller has reduced up to 14 times as compared to RBNN. Neha Kapoor and Jyoti Ohri Copyright © 2014 Neha Kapoor and Jyoti Ohri. All rights reserved. Hybrid Effect of Nanosilicates and MWNT on Mechanical, Thermal, and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene Thu, 23 Jan 2014 09:29:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/270527/ A two-step process was used to prepare PP/MAPP/C15A/MWNT ternary nanocomposites system. The effect of the addition of MWNT on the delamination of clay layers in the polymer matrix has been studied through XRD. The similar crystallinity level was noticed after the addition of clay and MWNT together in the PP matrix through XRD. Higher mechanical properties of the ternary nanocomposites system were noticed than neat PP and its binary nanocomposites systems. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) technique was utilized to investigate the effect of both nanofillers on crystallization temperature (). And a shift in towards higher temperature was noticed in all the nanocomposites. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed an improved thermal stability of the ternary nanocomposites system. The dynamic mechanical response of PP and its binary and ternary nanocomposite systems was evaluated. The dispersion of the nanoparticles was investigated employing transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The combined effect of clay and MWNT on the properties of PP was investigated and summarized. Priyanka Pandey, Smita Mohanty, and Sanjay K. Nayak Copyright © 2014 Priyanka Pandey et al. All rights reserved. Hybrid Integration of Taguchi Parametric Design, Grey Relational Analysis, and Principal Component Analysis Optimization for Plastic Gear Production Tue, 14 Jan 2014 09:58:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/351206/ The identification of optimal processing parameters is an important practice in the plastic injection moulding industry because of the significant effect of such parameters on plastic part quality and cost. However, the optimization design of injection moulding process parameters can be difficult because more than one quality characteristic is used in the evaluation. This study systematically develops a hybrid optimization method for multiple quality characteristics by integrating the Taguchi parameter design, grey relational analysis, and principal component analysis. A plastic gear is used to demonstrate the efficiency and validity of the proposed hybrid optimization method in controlling all influential injection moulding processing parameters during plastic gear manufacturing. To minimize the shrinkage behaviour in tooth thickness, addendum circle, and dedendum circle of moulded gear, the optimal combination of different process parameters is determined. The case study demonstrates that the proposed optimization method can produce plastic-moulded gear with minimum shrinkage behaviour of 1.8%, 1.53%, and 2.42% in tooth thickness, addendum circle, and dedendum circle, respectively; these values are less than the values in the main experiment. Therefore, shrinkage-related defects that lead to severe failure in plastic gears can be effectively minimized while satisfying the demand of the global plastic gear industry. Nik Mizamzul Mehat, Shahrul Kamaruddin, and Abdul Rahim Othman Copyright © 2014 Nik Mizamzul Mehat et al. All rights reserved. SSDLP: Sharing Secret Data between Leader and Participant Tue, 14 Jan 2014 08:16:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/736750/ This paper investigates the problem of sharing the secret document containing a secret data between leader and participant(s) depending on specific conditions and rules. The participant(s) can retrieve part of the secret document but will not be able to retrieve any secret data without the leader. At the same time, the leader may have a little information about the secret document but cannot retrieve the secret data and the secret document without cooperating with participant(s). To evaluate the proposed model and the system efficiency, four tests are suggested, which are concatenation and sharing data test, leader visual test, information entropy analysis, and correlation analysis. Results show that the proposed model is efficient in sharing the data between the leader and participant(s) and the model can achieve our concept of the data sharing between leader and participant(s). However, by analyzing the proposed model using numerical tests and visual tests, the results show that the visual tests will not give attackers useful information about the original data, while the numerical tests show that the entropy attacks are not possible and the correlation between the adjacent pixels will not give useful information. Finally, the results show that the proposed model is strong against different types of attacks. Hazem Al-Najjar and Nadia Al-Rousan Copyright © 2014 Hazem Al-Najjar and Nadia Al-Rousan. All rights reserved. Experimental Investigation on Usage of Palm Oil as a Lubricant to Substitute Mineral Oil in CI Engines Tue, 14 Jan 2014 07:39:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/643521/ Due to growing environmental concerns, vegetable oils are finding their way into lubricants for industrial and transportation applications. The substitution of mineral oil with vegetable oil as a base stock for an environment friendly lubricant in a CI engine is explored in this study without adding any additives. The experiments have been conducted with a mixture of palm oil and mineral oil, at different compositions. Blends of palm oil and mineral oil in different compositions, 0, 25, and 50 (by vol %) were added to base SAE20W40 mineral oil to obtain different lubricant blends. The parameters evaluated include brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency, and mechanical efficiency and exhaust emissions. The engine performance and emission tests were carried out on a single cylinder, water cooled, 4-stroke CI engine. Compared to mineral oil, the palm oil-based lubricant revealed appreciable expedience on engine and emission performance. K. S. V. Krishna Reddy, Naval Kabra, Umesh Kunchum, and T. Vijayakumar Copyright © 2014 K. S. V. Krishna Reddy et al. All rights reserved. Area Efficient Implementation of MTI Processing Module on a Reconfigurable Platform Sun, 12 Jan 2014 08:27:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/167184/ This paper presents an area efficient Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based digital design of a processing module for MTI radar. Signal contaminated with noise and clutter is modelled to test the efficacy of the design algorithms. For flexibility of design and to achieve optimized results, we have combined the high-level utility of MATLAB with the flexibility and optimization on FPGA for this implementation. Two- and three-pulse cancellers are chosen for design due to its simplicity in both concept and implementation. The results obtained are efficient in terms of enhanced throughput per Slice (TPA) of 1.146, that is, occupying fewer area resources on hardware while achieving optimized speed. The outcomes show that this design of MTI radar processor has many advantages, such as high processing precision, strong processing ability, real time, and low cost. All these advantages greatly contribute to the design requirements and make it appropriate for the application of high-speed signal processing. Munaza Yousuf, Arshad Aziz, and Riaz Mahmud Copyright © 2014 Munaza Yousuf et al. All rights reserved. Architecting Service Based Sensor Networks for the Intelligent Assimilation Thu, 09 Jan 2014 16:11:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2014/701829/ The aim of this paper is to propose an architectural model for assimilating distributed sensor networks through cloud paradigm. This strategy can be applied to monitor and control the physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, and level. It is proposed to consider the use of service oriented architecture to program and deploy the sensed parameters. The service oriented architecture for sensor network has been implemented in such a way that, for every specific requirement of the monitor center, the assimilation agent invokes the services of the sensors through a registry and the specific changes in the sensed parameters are also notified as auditable event using push interaction pattern of SOA. The assimilation agent serves as an intelligent component by providing authentication services. This SOA is extended to integrate different types of sensor networks through cloud environment. Hence several sensors can be networked together to monitor different process parameters and they have been assimilated with Internet by registering them as services, hence a complete distributed assimilation environment is exploited. R. S. Ponmagal Copyright © 2014 R. S. Ponmagal. All rights reserved. Automated Facial Expression Recognition Using Gradient-Based Ternary Texture Patterns Wed, 25 Dec 2013 08:49:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2013/831747/ Recognition of human expression from facial image is an interesting research area, which has received increasing attention in the recent years. A robust and effective facial feature descriptor is the key to designing a successful expression recognition system. Although much progress has been made, deriving a face feature descriptor that can perform consistently under changing environment is still a difficult and challenging task. In this paper, we present the gradient local ternary pattern (GLTP)—a discriminative local texture feature for representing facial expression. The proposed GLTP operator encodes the local texture of an image by computing the gradient magnitudes of the local neighborhood and quantizing those values in three discrimination levels. The location and occurrence information of the resulting micropatterns is then used as the face feature descriptor. The performance of the proposed method has been evaluated for the person-independent face expression recognition task. Experiments with prototypic expression images from the Cohn-Kanade (CK) face expression database validate that the GLTP feature descriptor can effectively encode the facial texture and thus achieves improved recognition performance than some well-known appearance-based facial features. Faisal Ahmed and Emam Hossain Copyright © 2013 Faisal Ahmed and Emam Hossain. All rights reserved. Peristaltic Motion of Viscoelastic Fluid with Fractional Second Grade Model in Curved Channels Mon, 23 Dec 2013 09:53:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cje/2013/582390/ Exact analytic solutions are obtained for the flow of a viscoelastic fluid with fractional second grade model by peristalsis through a curved channel. The flow has been investigated under the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximation. The streamlines for trapped bolus of Newtonian fluid are analyzed graphically. The fractional calculus approach is used to get analytic solutions of the problem. The influence of fractional parameter, material constant, amplitude, and curvature parameter on the pressure and friction force across one wavelength are discussed numerically with the help of graphs. V. K. Narla, K. M. Prasad, and J. V. Ramanamurthy Copyright © 2013 V. K. Narla et al. All rights reserved.