Chinese Journal of Engineering The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Numerical Evaluations of Functionally Graded RC Slabs Wed, 10 Sep 2014 08:12:32 +0000 Nowadays, using fibrous materials is used widely in strengthening applications such as cross-section enlargement and using functionally graded reinforced concrete. Functionally graded reinforced concrete is used as multireinforced concrete layers that can be reinforced by different fiber types. The objective of this research was to address the structural benefits of functionally graded concrete materials by performing analytical simulations. In order to achieve this purpose, in the first stage of this study, three functionally graded reinforced concretes by steel and polypropylene (PP) were experimentally tested under flexural loading. Inverse analysis was applied to obtain the used material properties of reinforced concrete by FEMIX software. After obtaining the material properties, to assess the performance of proposed slabs, some other cases were proposed and numerically evaluated under flexural and shear loading. The results showed that increasing steel fiber in reinforced entire cross section led to achieve better shear and flexural performance while the best performance of reinforced functionally graded slabs was achieved for slab at 1% fiber content. In the second stage, nineteen reinforced functionally graded RC slabs with steel bars were simulated and assessed and some other cases were considered which were not experimentally tested. M. Mastali, M. Mastali, Z. Abdollahnejad, M. Ghasemi Naghibdehi, and M. K. Sharbatdar Copyright © 2014 M. Mastali et al. All rights reserved. A New Mathematical Inventory Model with Stochastic and Fuzzy Deterioration Rate under Inflation Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:03:19 +0000 This paper develops an inventory model for items with uncertain deterioration rate, time-dependent demand rate with nonincreasing function, and allowable shortage under fuzzy inflationary situation. The goods are not deteriorating upon reception, but the deteriorating starts after elapsing a specified time. The lead time and inflation rate are both uncertain in the model. The resultant effect of inflation and time value of money is assumed to be fuzzy in nature and also we consider lead time as a fuzzy function of order quantity. Furthermore the following different deterioration rates have been considered: for the first case we consider fuzzy deterioration rate and for the second case we assume that the deterioration rate is time dependent and follows Weibull distribution with three known parameters. Since the inflation rate, deterioration rate, and the lead time are fuzzy numbers, the objective function becomes fuzzy. Therefore the estimate of total costs for each case is derived using signed distance technique for defuzzification. The optimal replenishment policy for the model is to minimize the total present value of inventory system costs, derived for both the above mentioned policies. Numerical examples are then presented to illustrate how the proposed model is applied. Bahar Naserabadi, Abolfazl Mirzazadeh, and Sara Nodoust Copyright © 2014 Bahar Naserabadi et al. All rights reserved. The Design of an Urban Roadside Automatic Sprinkling System: Mitigation of PM2.5–10 in Ambient Air in Megacities Wed, 23 Jul 2014 09:48:20 +0000 The objective of this research paper is to describe the system architecture for an urban roadside automatic mist-generating system. Its primary purpose is to mitigate particulate matter especially PM2.5–10. In this paper, four graphs are provided to exhibit the constituent elements of this system. This paper also discusses the functional extensions of this system for alternative uses in civil engineering which include winter road deicing and desnowing with added salt; clean-up of street dust; lowering of temperature of a “hot island” during the summer; the addition of humidity in an arid area; and the suppression of flu virus in the winter season. The structure and function of this system are comprehensively discussed in this paper. This system is compared to existing and other proposed systems in terms of control options, efficiency, and primary functional issues. The unique design of the road automatic sprinkling system renders itself a prominent option. Although there are no data available for this conceptual system, some expected qualitative and quantitative outcomes are provided and justified. The paper concludes with some potential research areas and challenges associated with this system architecture. Shiyong Liu, Konstantinos Triantis, and Lan Zhang Copyright © 2014 Shiyong Liu et al. All rights reserved. A Review on the Development of Rotman Lens Antenna Thu, 17 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Rotman lenses are the beguiling devices used by the beamforming networks (BFNs). These lenses are generally used in the radar surveillance systems to see targets in multiple directions due to its multibeam capability without physically moving the antenna system. Now a days these lenses are being integrated into many radars and electronic warfare systems around the world. The antenna should be capable of producing multiple beams which can be steered without changing the orientation of the antenna. Microwave lenses are the one who support low-phase error, wideband, and wide-angle scanning. They are the true time delay (TTD) devices producing frequency independent beam steering. The emerging printed lenses in recent years have facilitated the advancement of designing high performance but low-profile, light-weight, and small-size and networks (BFNs). This paper will review and analyze various design concepts used over the years to improve the scanning capability of the lens developed by various researchers. Shruti Vashist, M. K. Soni, and P. K. Singhal Copyright © 2014 Shruti Vashist et al. All rights reserved. Trabecular Bone Image Segmentation Using Wavelet and Marker-Controlled Watershed Transformation Sun, 13 Jul 2014 07:04:46 +0000 This paper presents a new strategy for the segmentation of trabecular bone image. This kind of image is acquired with microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) to assess bone microarchitecture based chiefly on bone mineral density (BMD) measurements to improve fracture risk prediction. Disease osteoporosis can be predicted from features of CT image where a bone region may consist of several disjoint pieces. It relies on a multiresolution representation of the image by the wavelet transform to compute the multiscale morphological gradient. The coefficients of detail found at the different scales are used to determine the markers and homogeneous regions that are extracted with the watershed algorithm. The method reduces the tendency of the watershed algorithm to oversegment and results in closed homogeneous regions. The performance of the proposed segmentation scheme is presented via experimental results obtained with a broad series of images. Wafa Abid Fourati and Mohamed Salim Bouhlel Copyright © 2014 Wafa Abid Fourati and Mohamed Salim Bouhlel. All rights reserved. A Novel Design of Parasitically Gap Coupled Patches Forming an Elliptical Patch Antenna for Broadband Performance Tue, 01 Jul 2014 09:47:34 +0000 A novel single layer assembly of gap coupled elements in elliptical shape is proposed in this communication to achieve broadband performance. Among the five patches considered in the present assembly, two pairs of patches having different patch areas are arranged around an edge truncated elliptical patch. The central edge truncated elliptical patch is fed through an inset feed arrangement and the other patches are parasitically gap coupled to the central patch. With such an arrangement, an enhanced impedance bandwidth of 2.45 GHz (or 36.2%) with respect to central frequency 6.1 GHz is achieved. Three resonant modes are excited with this arrangement giving improved bandwidth and gain in comparison to a conventional elliptical patch antenna. The simulated radiation patterns of proposed arrangement of patches suggest that these are identical in shape and direction of maximum radiations is directed normally to assembly of patches. Vijay Sharma Copyright © 2014 Vijay Sharma. All rights reserved. Broadband Semielliptical Patch Antenna with Semicircular Ring Slot for WiMax Application Thu, 19 Jun 2014 12:18:50 +0000 This paper reports the design and analysis of a semielliptical patch antenna modified by cutting semicircular ring slot in patch geometry and obtained results are discussed. The reported antenna is designed on a multilayered substrate material having two glass epoxy FR-4 substrates separated by a thin foam substrate having thickness 1.0 mm. The size of ground plane is 75 m5 mm, whereas the patch dimension along major and minor axes is 23.0 mm and 14.0 mm, respectively. The two modes corresponding to resonance frequencies 3.39 GHz and 3.73 GHz are excited to provide wide impedance bandwidth 21.1% with respect to central frequency with stable radiation patterns. The antenna shows circular polarization with axial ratio bandwidth 5.5% and minimum axial ratio value 1.65 dBi. The radiation patterns of proposed antenna are normal to the surface of patch and are almost identical in shape as required for practical applications. The proposed antenna covers entire median band of WiMax communication systems ranges from 3.40 GHz to 3.6 GHz. Brajraj Shrama, Vijay Sharma, K. B. Sharma, and D. Bhatnagar Copyright © 2014 Brajraj Shrama et al. All rights reserved. Cathodic Protection of Pipeline Using Distributed Control System Mon, 16 Jun 2014 08:10:39 +0000 Distributed control system (DCS) is available in most of the compressor stations of cross-country pipeline systems. Programmable logic controller (PLC) is used in all the intermediate pigging (IP) stations/sectional valve (SV) stations to collect the field data and to control the remote actuated valves. This paper presents how DCS or PLC can be used for cathodic protection of gas pipelines. Virtual instrumentation (VI) software is used here for simulation and real-time implementation purpose. Analog input channels available in DCS/PLC can be used to measure pipe to soil potential (PSP) with the help of half-cell and voltage transducer. Logic blocks available in DCS can be used as low selector switch to select the lowest PSP. Proportional-integral (PI) controller available in DCS/PLC can be used for taking the controlling action. PI controller output varies the firing angle of AC phase controller. Phase controller output is rectified, filtered, and fed to the pipeline as cathodic protection current. Proposed scheme utilizes existing infrastructure to control pipeline corrosion. Gopalakrishnan Jayapalan, Ganga Agnihotri, and D. M. Deshpande Copyright © 2014 Gopalakrishnan Jayapalan et al. All rights reserved. Team Robot Motion Planning in Dynamics Environments Using a New Hybrid Algorithm (Honey Bee Mating Optimization-Tabu List) Thu, 29 May 2014 12:13:06 +0000 This paper describes a new hybrid algorithm extracted from honey bee mating optimization (HBMO) algorithm (for robot travelling distance minimization) and tabu list technique (for obstacle avoidance) for team robot system. This algorithm was implemented in a C++ programming language on a Pentium computer and simulated on simple cylindrical robots in a simulation software. The environment in this simulation was dynamic with moving obstacles and goals. The results of simulation have shown validity and reliability of new algorithm. The outcomes of simulation have shown better performance than ACO and PSO algorithm (society, nature algorithms) with respect to two well-known metrics included, ATPD (average total path deviation) and AUTD (average uncovered target distance). Mohammad Abaee Shoushtary, Hasan Hoseini Nasab, and Mohammad Bagher Fakhrzad Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Abaee Shoushtary et al. All rights reserved. Time-Dependant Responses of High-Definition Induction Log and Case Studies Mon, 19 May 2014 06:54:59 +0000 The process of drilling mud filtrate invading into a reservoir is time dependant. It causes dynamic invasion profiles of formation parameters such as water saturation, salinity, and formation resistivity. Thus, the responses of a high-definition induction log (HDIL) tool are time dependent. The logging time should be considered as an important parameter during logging interpretation for the purposes of determining true formation resistivity, estimating initial water saturation, and evaluating a reservoir. The time-dependent HDIL responses are helpful for log analysts to understand the invasion process physically. Field examples were illustrated for the application of present method. Jianhua Zhang and Zhenhua Liu Copyright © 2014 Jianhua Zhang and Zhenhua Liu. All rights reserved. Siting and Sizing of DG in Medium Primary Radial Distribution System with Enhanced Voltage Stability Tue, 29 Apr 2014 10:18:00 +0000 This paper intends to enumerate the impact of distributed generation (DG) on distribution system in terms of active as well as reactive power loss reduction and improved voltage stability. The novelty of the method proposed in this paper is the simple and effective way of sizing and siting of DG in a distribution system by using two-port Z-bus parameters. The validity of the method is verified by comparing the results with already published methods. Comparative study presented has shown that the proposed method leads existing methods in terms of its simplicity, undemanding calculation procedures, and less computational efforts and so does the time. The method is implemented on IEEE 69-bus test radial distribution system and results show significant reduction in distribution power losses with improved voltage profile of the system. Simulation is carried out in MATLAB environment for execution of the proposed algorithm. Sanjay Jain, Ganga Agnihotri, Shilpa Kalambe, and Renuka Kamdar Copyright © 2014 Sanjay Jain et al. All rights reserved. Optimal Demand Side Bidding with Carbon Emission by Using MRS Strategy Tue, 22 Apr 2014 06:41:56 +0000 A new moderate-random-search strategy (MRPSO) is used for an optimal bidding strategy of a supplier, considering linear bidding curve model with a precise model and emission as constraints, and who delivered electricity to end users in oligopolistic dynamic electricity is studied. Bidding strategy of a supplier is solved by MRPSO, where mean best position () boosts the diversity and the exploration ability of particle. The MRPSO adopts an attractor as the main moving direction of particles, which replaces the velocity update procedure in the particle swarm optimization. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is tested with linear bidding model and the results are compared with the solutions obtained using classical PSO. In this paper, a comparative study has been done by a competitive bidding model tested on IEEE 14- and IEEE 39-bus systems and results motivate the suppliers towards opting green technologies. Kaustubh Dwivedi, Yogendra Kumar, and Ganga Agnihotri Copyright © 2014 Kaustubh Dwivedi et al. All rights reserved. Transient Thermoelastic Analysis of Pressurized Rotating Disks Subjected to Arbitrary Boundary and Initial Conditions Thu, 17 Apr 2014 11:38:24 +0000 This paper focuses on exact analytical solution of transient thermoelastic behaviors of rotating pressurized disks subjected to arbitrary boundary and initial conditions. The pressure, inner radius, and outer radius are considered constant. The basic thermoelasticity theory under generalized assumptions is used to solve the thermoelastic problem. Using the method of the separation of variables, the relations of temperature and transient thermal stresses in the radial direction are obtained. In the case study, the disk is considered under heat flux. Some useful discussions and numerical examples are presented. The analytical results were compared with those of the finite element method and good agreement was found. The relations obtained in this paper can be applied to any arbitrary boundary and initial conditions. Mohammad Zamani Nejad and Azam Afshin Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Zamani Nejad and Azam Afshin. All rights reserved. On a Homotopy Perturbation Treatment of Steady Laminar Forced Convection Flow over a Nonlinearly Stretching Porous Sheet Tue, 08 Apr 2014 07:07:47 +0000 The steady two-dimensional laminar forced convection boundary layer flow of an incompressible viscous Newtonian fluid over a nonlinearly stretching porous (permeable) sheet with suction is considered. The sheet’s permeability is also considered to be nonlinear. The boundary layer equations are transformed by similarity transformations to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE). Then the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is used to solve the resultant nonlinear ODE. The dimensionless entrainment parameter and the dimensionless sheet surface shear stress are obtained for various values of the suction parameter and the nonlinearity factor of sheet stretching and permeability. The results indicate that the dimensionless sheet surface shear stress decreases with the increase of suction parameter. The results of present HPM solution are compared to the values obtained in a previous study by the homotopy analysis method (HAM). The HPM results show that they are in good agreement with the HAM results within 2% error. Nemat Dalir and Salman Nourazar Copyright © 2014 Nemat Dalir and Salman Nourazar. All rights reserved. Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Management System in a Developing Country Thu, 27 Mar 2014 09:07:49 +0000 This study represents a few basic steps of municipal solid waste management practiced in the six major cities of Bangladesh, namely, Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Barisal, and Sylhet. A six-month field study was conducted to identify the solid wastes management steps such as storage at source, separation, on-site storage, collection, transportation, treatment, reuse, recycling, and ultimate disposal. This study addresses the role of the city authority to meet the demand of the city dwellers in solving this emerging socioenvironmental issue and the initiatives taken by some nongovernmental organizations and community based organizations. The problems and constraints of the solid wastes management system are also identified to find a sustainable management concept for the urban areas of Bangladesh. A. Ahsan, M. Alamgir, M. M. El-Sergany, S. Shams, M. K. Rowshon, and N. N. Nik Daud Copyright © 2014 A. Ahsan et al. All rights reserved. A CAS Approach to Handle the Anisotropic Hooke’s Law for Cancellous Bone and Wood Sun, 23 Mar 2014 12:16:33 +0000 The present research entirely relies on the Computer Algebric Systems (CAS) to develop techniques for the data analysis of the sets of elastic constant data measurements. In particular, this study deals with the development of some appropriate programming codes that favor the data analysis of known values of elastic constants for cancellous bone, hardwoods, and softwood species. More precisely, a “Mathematica” code, which has an ability to unfold a fourth-order elasticity tensor is discussed. Also, an effort towards the fabrication of an appropriate “MAPLE” code has been exposed, that can calculate not only the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for cancellous bone, hardwoods, and softwood species, but also computes the nominal average of eigenvectors, average eigenvectors, average eigenvalues, and the average elasticity matrices for these materials. Further, using such a MAPLE code, the histograms corresponding to average elasticity matrices of 15 hardwood species have been plotted and the graphs for I, II, III, IV, V, and VI eigenvalues of each hardwood species against their apparent densities are also drawn. Sandeep Kumar Copyright © 2014 Sandeep Kumar. All rights reserved. Elitist Genetic Algorithm Based Energy Balanced Routing Strategy to Prolong Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks Sun, 16 Mar 2014 07:11:19 +0000 Wireless sensor networks have gained worldwide attention in recent years due to the advances made in wireless communication. Unequal energy dissipation causes the nodes to fail. The factors causing the unequal energy dissipation are, firstly, the distance between the nodes and base station and, secondly, the distance between the nodes themselves. Using traditional methods, it is difficult to obtain the high precision of solution as the problem is NP hard. The routing in wireless networks is a combinatorial optimization problem; hence, genetic algorithms can provide optimized solution to energy efficient shortest path. The proposed algorithm has its inherent advantage that it keeps the elite solutions in the next generation so as to quickly converge towards the global optima also during path selection; it takes into account the energy balance of the network, so that the life time of the network can be prolonged. The results show that the algorithm is efficient for finding the optimal energy constrained route as they can converge faster than other traditional methods used for combinatorial optimization problems. Vinay Kumar Singh and Vidushi Sharma Copyright © 2014 Vinay Kumar Singh and Vidushi Sharma. All rights reserved. Investigation of Solar Drying of Ginger (Zingiber officinale): Emprical Modelling, Drying Characteristics, and Quality Study Thu, 13 Mar 2014 14:09:52 +0000 Drying is a simultaneous heat and mass transfer energy intensive operation, widely used as a food preservation technique. In view of improper postharvest methods, energy constraint, and environmental impact of conventional drying methods, solar drying could be a practical, economical, and environmentally reliable alternative. In the present paper applicability of mixed mode solar cabinet dryer was investigated for drying of commercially important and export oriented ginger. Freshly harvested ginger slices were successfully dried from initial moisture content of 621.50 to 12.19% (d.b.) and their drying characteristics, quality parameters, and kinetics were evaluated. The results showed that present solar dryer could be successfully applied for drying of ginger in view of quality, reduced drying time, and zero energy requirement as compared to conventional open sun drying and convective drying techniques, respectively. Drying curves showed that drying occurred in falling rate period and no constant period was observed. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick’s second law and found to be  m2/s. The drying data was fitted to five thin layer drying models and compared using statistical criteria. Page model was found to be most suitable to describe the drying kinetics of ginger in solar dryer under natural convection among the tested models. A. Waheed Deshmukh, Mahesh N. Varma, Chang Kyoo Yoo, and Kailas L. Wasewar Copyright © 2014 A. Waheed Deshmukh et al. All rights reserved. Analyzing the Heat Transfer Property of Heat Pipe Influenced by Integrated Cooling Apparatus Tue, 11 Mar 2014 09:06:56 +0000 Heat pipe with discrete heat transfer property is often called thermal superconductor because it has extremely large thermal conductivity. This special heat transfer property is destroyed by integrating cooling apparatus and further reducing the cooling power of a heat pipe cooler. This paper experimentally studied the heat transfer property of heat pipe influenced by integrated cooling apparatus. To simplify the investigating process, a home-made square heat pipe with the dimensions of  mm3 was built with two pieces of copper plates and two pieces of glass plates face to face, respectively. The two pieces of copper plates were constructed with inside walls of capillary structure and the two pieces of glasses were with antifog inside walls for observing the inner phenomenon. Moreover, isothermal circulating cooling water was applied outside the heat pipe instead of cooling fin. The results show that heat vapor in the heat pipe is condensed earlier and cannot reach the remote section of condenser. In other words, the heat transfer property of heat pipe is destroyed by integrating cooling water. This phenomenon causes the unfavorable cooling power of the heat pipe cooler. Chen-Ching Ting and Chien-Chih Chen Copyright © 2014 Chen-Ching Ting and Chien-Chih Chen. All rights reserved. Transient Stability Improvement of a Power System with Parametric Uncertainties Using a Robust Optimal H2 State Feedback Controller Tue, 11 Mar 2014 08:03:04 +0000 In recent years, improvement of dynamic behavior of power systems has interested many researchers and to achieve it, various control methods are proposed. In this paper, in order to improve transient stability of power system, a robust optimal H2 state feedback is employed. In order to appropriate formulation of the problem, linear matrix inequality (LMI) theory is used. To achieve the best answer, controller parameters are tuned using particle swarm algorithm. The obtained results of the proposed method are compared to conventional power system stabilizer. Mehdi Mohseni Mirabadi, Navid Reza Abjadi, Said Hoghoughi-Isfahani, and Shahrokh Shojaeian Copyright © 2014 Mehdi Mohseni Mirabadi et al. All rights reserved. Process Parameters Optimization of Silica Sand Nanoparticles Production Using Low Speed Ball Milling Method Wed, 26 Feb 2014 13:20:05 +0000 Experiments are designed using Taguchi method to find the optimum parameters for silica sand nanoparticles production using low speed ball milling. Orthogonal array and signal-to-noise ratio are applied to study performance characteristics of machining parameters which are the ball to powder weight ratio, volume of milling jar, and rotation speed. Results obtained from signal-to-noise ratio analysis showed that ball to powder weight ratio is the most influential parameter. Zulkhairi Rizlan and Othman Mamat Copyright © 2014 Zulkhairi Rizlan and Othman Mamat. All rights reserved. Design Multipurpose Circuits with Minimum Garbage Outputs Using CMVMIN Gate Wed, 26 Feb 2014 12:36:33 +0000 Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) suggest an emerging computing paradigm for nanotechnology. The QCA offers novel approach in electronics for information processing and communication. QCA have recently become the focus of interest in the field of low power nanocomputing and nanotechnology. The fundamental logic elements of this technology are the majority voter (MV) and the inverter (INV). This paper presents a novel design with less garbage output and minimum quantum cost in nanotechnology. In the paper we show how to create multipurpose reversible gates. By development of suitable gates in logic circuits as an example, we can combine MFA and HS in one design using CMVMIN gate. We offer CMVMIN gate implementations to be used in multipurpose circuit. We can produce concurrent half adder/subtractor and one bit comparator in one design using reversible logic gates and CMVMIN gates. Also, a decoder from recent architecture has been shown independently. We investigate the result of the proposed design using truth table. A significant improvement in quality of the calculated parameters and variety of required outputs has been achieved. Bahram Dehghan Copyright © 2014 Bahram Dehghan. All rights reserved. Hardware Neural Networks Modeling for Computing Different Performance Parameters of Rectangular, Circular, and Triangular Microstrip Antennas Wed, 26 Feb 2014 12:30:51 +0000 In the last one decade, neural networks-based modeling has been used for computing different performance parameters of microstrip antennas because of learning and generalization features. Most of the created neural models are based on software simulation. As the neural networks show massive parallelism inherently, a parallel hardware needs to be created for creating faster computing machine by taking the advantages of the parallelism of the neural networks. This paper demonstrates a generalized neural networks model created on field programmable gate array- (FPGA-) based reconfigurable hardware platform for computing different performance parameters of microstrip antennas. Thus, the proposed approach provides a platform for developing low-cost neural network-based FPGA simulators for microwave applications. Also, the results obtained by this approach are in very good agreement with the measured results available in the literature. Taimoor Khan and Asok De Copyright © 2014 Taimoor Khan and Asok De. All rights reserved. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Magnetorheological (MR) Damper Tue, 25 Feb 2014 07:17:21 +0000 The design of a MR damper, consisting of piston and cylinder arrangement, is presented in this paper. In this paper, a 2D axisymmetric model based on finite element method (FEM) concept has been developed on the ANSYS platform to analyze and examine the MR damper characteristics. Based on the FEM model, a prototype of the MR damper is fabricated and tested experimentally in the semi active vibration laboratory of the department. The comparison of both these model analyses indicates that the FEM based model is effectively portraying the experimental behavior of the MR damper in terms of its damping force. The results obtained in this paper will be helpful for the designers to create more efficient and reliable MR dampers and also to predict its damping force characteristics. S. K. Mangal and Ashwani Kumar Copyright © 2014 S. K. Mangal and Ashwani Kumar. All rights reserved. Study of Knocking Effect in Compression Ignition Engine with Hydrogen as a Secondary Fuel Mon, 24 Feb 2014 13:15:58 +0000 The aim of this project is detecting knock during combustion of biodiesel-hydrogen fuel and also the knock is suppressed by timed injection of diethyl ether (DEE) with biodiesel-hydrogen fuel for different loads. Hydrogen fuel is an effective alternate fuel in making a pollution-free environment with higher efficiency. The usage of hydrogen in compression ignition engine leads to production of knocking or detonation because of its lower ignition energy, wider flammability range, and shorter quenching distance. Knocking combustion causes major engine damage, and also reduces the efficiency. The method uses the measurement and analysis of cylinder pressure signal for various loads. The pressure signal is to be converted into frequency domain that shows the accurate knocking combustion of fuel mixtures. The variation of pressure signal is gradually increased and smoothly reduced to minimum during normal combustion. The rapid rise of pressure signal has occurred during knocking combustion. The experimental setup was mainly available for evaluating the feasibility of normal combustion by comparing with the signals from both fuel mixtures in compression ignition engine. This method provides better results in predicting the knocking feature of biodiesel-hydrogen fuel and the usage of DEE provides complete combustion of fuels with higher performance, and lower emission. R. Sivabalakrishnan and C. Jegadheesan Copyright © 2014 R. Sivabalakrishnan and C. Jegadheesan. All rights reserved. Nonreplicated Static Data Allocation in Distributed Databases Using Biogeography-Based Optimization Sun, 23 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Allocation of data is one of the key design issues of distributed database. A major cost of query execution in a distributed database system is the data transfer cost from one site to another site. The allocation of fragments among the different sites over the network plays an important role in performance of the distributed database system. The main objective of a data allocation in distributed database is to place the data fragments at different sites in such a way, so that the total data transfer cost can be minimized while executing a set of queries. In this paper, a new biogeography-based optimization (BBO) algorithm has been used to allocate the fragments during the design of distributed database system. The goal of this paper is to design a fragments allocation algorithm, so that the total data transmission cost can be minimized. To show the performance of proposed algorithm, results of biogeography-based optimization algorithm for data allocation are compared with genetic algorithm. Arjan Singh, Karanjeet Singh Kahlon, and Rajinder Singh Virk Copyright © 2014 Arjan Singh et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Collocated/Noncollocated Sensors and Actuators along with Feedback Gain Using Hybrid Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm-Artificial Neural Network Thu, 20 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A multiobjective optimization procedure is proposed to deal with the optimal number and locations of collocated/noncollocated sensors and actuators and determination of LQR controller gain simultaneously using hybrid multiobjective genetic algorithm-artificial neural network (GA-ANN). Multiobjective optimization problem has been formulated using trade-off objective functions ensuring good observability/controllability of the structure while minimizing the spillover effect and maximizing closed loop average damping ratio. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to train the input as varying numbers and placements of sensors and actuators and the outputs are taken as the three objective functions (i.e., controllability, observability, and closed loop average damping ratio), thus forming three ANN models. The trained mathematical models of ANN are fed into the multiobjective GA. The hybrid multiobjective GA-ANN maintains the trade-off among the three objective functions. The ANN3 model is used experimentally to provide the control inputs to the piezoactuators. It is shown that the proposed method is effective in ascertaining the optimal number and placement of actuators and sensors with consideration of controllability, observability, and spillover prevention such that the performance on dynamic responses is also satisfied. It is also observed that damping ratio obtained with hybrid multiobjective GA-ANN and found with ANN experimentally/online holds well in agreement. Deepak Chhabra, Gian Bhushan, and Pankaj Chandna Copyright © 2014 Deepak Chhabra et al. All rights reserved. Probabilistic Evaluation of Service Life for Reinforced Concrete Structures Tue, 18 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Degradation of performance and deterioration of different components of reinforced concrete (RC) structures increase with the age of structure. This deterioration of reinforced component depends on several parameters. However, modeling service life of RC structure by considering all the parameters is a difficult job, as most of the parameters are uncertain in nature. Probabilistic models account well for the uncertainties in the parameters responsible for deterioration of RC structures. This paper presents a review of several recent service life models developed using probability based concepts. Sanjeev Kumar Verma, Sudhir Singh Bhadauria, and Saleem Akhtar Copyright © 2014 Sanjeev Kumar Verma et al. All rights reserved. A Finite Difference Solution of a Simply Supported Beam of Orthotropic Composite Materials Using Displacement Potential Formulation Thu, 13 Feb 2014 16:00:22 +0000 Here an efficient displacement potential formulation based finite difference technique is used to solve the elastic field of a simply supported beam of orthotropic composite materials. A simply supported beam made of orthotropic composite material under uniformly distributed loading is considered and its elastic behaviors under such loading conditions are analyzed considering plane stress condition. The solutions of the problem satisfy the force equilibrium conditions as well as boundary conditions. For understanding the elastic behavior of a simply supported beam, the displacement and stress components of some important sections of the beam are shown graphically. Effects of different orthotropic composite materials on the solutions are also analyzed. Besides, at a particular section of the beam, the comparative analysis of the elastic field is carried out by using the FDM and FEM methods. S. K. Deb Nath Copyright © 2014 S. K. Deb Nath. All rights reserved. Routing in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey Wed, 12 Feb 2014 12:13:38 +0000 Recently, industrial wireless sensor networks have attracted more attention, due to their large benefits in terms of faster installation, cost savings, and flexibility. Nevertheless, the acceptance of wireless sensor networks by the industrial community is not without its difficulties. In fact, several research efforts have been made in this field and a number of state-of-the-art reviews exist, presenting the current standards, the challenges, and the design principles. However, a comprehensive review on routing protocols appears to be missing. In this paper, we give a survey on routing protocols for industrial monitoring applications of the wireless sensor networks technology, and we present their limitations and weaknesses according to the industrial requirements. Amal Tiab and Louiza Bouallouche-Medjkoune Copyright © 2014 Amal Tiab and Louiza Bouallouche-Medjkoune. All rights reserved.