Table 1: International clinical DR severity scale [5, 6].

Severity levelFindings observable

No DRNo abnormalities

Mild NPDRThis is the earliest stage of retinopathy and vision is usually normal except in some cases. Small swellings known as micro-aneurysms or flame-shaped hemorrhages start to develop in the fundus quadrants

Moderate NPDRThere will be micro-aneurysms or hemorrhages of greater severity in one to three quadrants and leakage might occur, resulting cotton wool spots and exudates and so fourth to be present in the retina

Severe NPDRAny of the following:
 (i) Severe (more than 20) hemorrhages and MAs in all four quadrants of the fundus
 (ii) Definite venous beading in at least two quadrants
 (iii) Severe damage to the small blood vessels in at least one quadrant but no signs of any PDR

PDROne or more of the following:
 Neovascularization
 Vitreous/preretinal hemorrhage