Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Dynamical Behaviors in a Stochastic SIS Epidemic Model with Nonlinear Incidence Thu, 23 Jun 2016 12:24:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/5218163/ A stochastic SIS-type epidemic model with general nonlinear incidence and disease-induced mortality is investigated. It is proved that the dynamical behaviors of the model are determined by a certain threshold value . That is, when and together with an additional condition, the disease is extinct with probability one, and when , the disease is permanent in the mean in probability, and when there is not disease-related death, the disease oscillates stochastically about a positive number. Furthermore, when , the model admits positive recurrence and a unique stationary distribution. Particularly, the effects of the intensities of stochastic perturbation for the dynamical behaviors of the model are discussed in detail, and the dynamical behaviors for the stochastic SIS epidemic model with standard incidence are established. Finally, the numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the proposed open problems. Ramziya Rifhat, Qing Ge, and Zhidong Teng Copyright © 2016 Ramziya Rifhat et al. All rights reserved. Human Activity Recognition in AAL Environments Using Random Projections Mon, 20 Jun 2016 08:39:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/4073584/ Automatic human activity recognition systems aim to capture the state of the user and its environment by exploiting heterogeneous sensors attached to the subject’s body and permit continuous monitoring of numerous physiological signals reflecting the state of human actions. Successful identification of human activities can be immensely useful in healthcare applications for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), for automatic and intelligent activity monitoring systems developed for elderly and disabled people. In this paper, we propose the method for activity recognition and subject identification based on random projections from high-dimensional feature space to low-dimensional projection space, where the classes are separated using the Jaccard distance between probability density functions of projected data. Two HAR domain tasks are considered: activity identification and subject identification. The experimental results using the proposed method with Human Activity Dataset (HAD) data are presented. Robertas Damaševičius, Mindaugas Vasiljevas, Justas Šalkevičius, and Marcin Woźniak Copyright © 2016 Robertas Damaševičius et al. All rights reserved. A Multiphase Flow in the Antroduodenal Portion of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Mathematical Model Sun, 19 Jun 2016 09:30:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/5164029/ A group of authors has developed a multilevel mathematical model that focuses on functional disorders in a human body associated with various chemical, physical, social, and other factors. At this point, the researchers have come up with structure, basic definitions and concepts of a mathematical model at the “macrolevel” that allow describing processes in a human body as a whole. Currently we are working at the “mesolevel” of organs and systems. Due to complexity of the tasks, this paper deals with only one meso-fragment of a digestive system model. It describes some aspects related to modeling multiphase flow in the antroduodenal portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Biochemical reactions, dissolution of food particles, and motor, secretory, and absorbing functions of the tract are taken into consideration. The paper outlines some results concerning influence of secretory function disorders on food dissolution rate and tract contents acidity. The effect which food density has on inflow of food masses from a stomach to a bowel is analyzed. We assume that the future development of the model will include digestive enzymes and related reactions of lipolysis, proteolysis, and carbohydrates breakdown. P. V. Trusov, N. V. Zaitseva, and M. R. Kamaltdinov Copyright © 2016 P. V. Trusov et al. All rights reserved. Modeling the Mechanical Consequences of Age-Related Trabecular Bone Loss by XFEM Simulation Wed, 15 Jun 2016 15:35:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/3495152/ The elderly are more likely to suffer from fracture because of age-related trabecular bone loss. Different bone loss locations and patterns have different effects on bone mechanical properties. Extended finite element method (XFEM) can simulate fracture process and was suited to investigate the effects of bone loss on trabecular bone. Age-related bone loss is indicated by trabecular thinning and loss and may occur at low-strain locations or other random sites. Accordingly, several ideal normal and aged trabecular bone models were created based on different bone loss locations and patterns; then, fracture processes from crack initiation to complete failure of these models were observed by XFEM; finally, the effects of different locations and patterns on trabecular bone were compared. Results indicated that bone loss occurring at low-strain locations was more detrimental to trabecular bone than that occurring at other random sites; meanwhile, the decrease in bone strength caused by trabecular loss was higher than that caused by trabecular thinning, and the effects of vertical trabecular loss on mechanical properties were more severe than horizontal trabecular loss. This study provided a numerical method to simulate trabecular bone fracture and distinguished different effects of the possible occurrence of bone loss locations and patterns on trabecular bone. Ruoxun Fan, He Gong, Xianbin Zhang, Jun Liu, Zhengbin Jia, and Dong Zhu Copyright © 2016 Ruoxun Fan et al. All rights reserved. Patient-Specific Computational Models of Coronary Arteries Using Monoplane X-Ray Angiograms Wed, 15 Jun 2016 13:19:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/2695962/ Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease in western countries. Early detection and diagnosis of CAD is quintessential to preventing mortality and subsequent complications. We believe hemodynamic data derived from patient-specific computational models could facilitate more accurate prediction of the risk of atherosclerosis. We introduce a semiautomated method to build 3D patient-specific coronary vessel models from 2D monoplane angiogram images. The main contribution of the method is a robust segmentation approach using dynamic programming combined with iterative 3D reconstruction to build 3D mesh models of the coronary vessels. Results indicate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed pipeline. In conclusion, patient-specific modelling of coronary vessels is of vital importance for developing accurate computational flow models and studying the hemodynamic effects of the presence of plaques on the arterial walls, resulting in lumen stenoses, as well as variations in the angulations of the coronary arteries. Ali Zifan and Panos Liatsis Copyright © 2016 Ali Zifan and Panos Liatsis. All rights reserved. A Simulation Study to Assess the Effect of the Number of Response Categories on the Power of Ordinal Logistic Regression for Differential Item Functioning Analysis in Rating Scales Wed, 15 Jun 2016 12:12:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/5080826/ Objective. The present study uses simulated data to find what the optimal number of response categories is to achieve adequate power in ordinal logistic regression (OLR) model for differential item functioning (DIF) analysis in psychometric research. Methods. A hypothetical ten-item quality of life scale with three, four, and five response categories was simulated. The power and type I error rates of OLR model for detecting uniform DIF were investigated under different combinations of ability distribution (), sample size, sample size ratio, and the magnitude of uniform DIF across reference and focal groups. Results. When was distributed identically in the reference and focal groups, increasing the number of response categories from 3 to 5 resulted in an increase of approximately 8% in power of OLR model for detecting uniform DIF. The power of OLR was less than 0.36 when ability distribution in the reference and focal groups was highly skewed to the left and right, respectively. Conclusions. The clearest conclusion from this research is that the minimum number of response categories for DIF analysis using OLR is five. However, the impact of the number of response categories in detecting DIF was lower than might be expected. Elahe Allahyari, Peyman Jafari, and Zahra Bagheri Copyright © 2016 Elahe Allahyari et al. All rights reserved. Toward Psychoinformatics: Computer Science Meets Psychology Tue, 14 Jun 2016 09:38:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/2983685/ The present paper provides insight into an emerging research discipline called Psychoinformatics. In the context of Psychoinformatics, we emphasize the cooperation between the disciplines of psychology and computer science in handling large data sets derived from heavily used devices, such as smartphones or online social network sites, in order to shed light on a large number of psychological traits, including personality and mood. New challenges await psychologists in light of the resulting “Big Data” sets, because classic psychological methods will only in part be able to analyze this data derived from ubiquitous mobile devices, as well as other everyday technologies. As a consequence, psychologists must enrich their scientific methods through the inclusion of methods from informatics. The paper provides a brief review of one area of this research field, dealing mainly with social networks and smartphones. Moreover, we highlight how data derived from Psychoinformatics can be combined in a meaningful way with data from human neuroscience. We close the paper with some observations of areas for future research and problems that require consideration within this new discipline. Christian Montag, Éilish Duke, and Alexander Markowetz Copyright © 2016 Christian Montag et al. All rights reserved. Abnormal EEG Complexity and Functional Connectivity of Brain in Patients with Acute Thalamic Ischemic Stroke Tue, 14 Jun 2016 09:24:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/2582478/ Ischemic thalamus stroke has become a serious cardiovascular and cerebral disease in recent years. To date the existing researches mostly concentrated on the power spectral density (PSD) in several frequency bands. In this paper, we investigated the nonlinear features of EEG and brain functional connectivity in patients with acute thalamic ischemic stroke and healthy subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) in resting condition with eyes closed was recorded for 12 stroke patients and 11 healthy subjects as control group. Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC), Sample Entropy (SampEn), and brain network using partial directed coherence (PDC) were calculated for feature extraction. Results showed that patients had increased mean LZC and SampEn than the controls, which implied the stroke group has higher EEG complexity. For the brain network, the stroke group displayed a trend of weaker cortical connectivity, which suggests a functional impairment of information transmission in cortical connections in stroke patients. These findings suggest that nonlinear analysis and brain network could provide essential information for better understanding the brain dysfunction in the stroke and assisting monitoring or prognostication of stroke evolution. Shuang Liu, Jie Guo, Jiayuan Meng, Zhijun Wang, Yang Yao, Jiajia Yang, Hongzhi Qi, and Dong Ming Copyright © 2016 Shuang Liu et al. All rights reserved. Circular Helix-Like Curve: An Effective Tool of Biological Sequence Analysis and Comparison Tue, 14 Jun 2016 09:10:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/3262813/ This paper constructed a novel injection from a DNA sequence to a 3D graph, named circular helix-like curve (CHC). The presented graphical representation is available for visualizing characterizations of a single DNA sequence and identifying similarities and differences among several DNAs. A 12-dimensional vector extracted from CHC, as a numerical characterization of CHC, was applied to analyze phylogenetic relationships of 11 species, 74 ribosomal RNAs, 48 Hepatitis E viruses, and 18 eutherian mammals, respectively. Successful experiments illustrated that CHC is an effective tool of biological sequence analysis and comparison. Yushuang Li and Wenli Xiao Copyright © 2016 Yushuang Li and Wenli Xiao. All rights reserved. Automatic Identification of Interictal Epileptiform Discharges in Secondary Generalized Epilepsy Thu, 09 Jun 2016 06:39:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/8701973/ Ictal epileptiform discharges (EDs) are characteristic signal patterns of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) or intracranial EEG (iEEG) recorded from patients with epilepsy, which assist with the diagnosis and characterization of various types of epilepsy. The EEG signal, however, is often recorded from patients with epilepsy for a long period of time, and thus detection and identification of EDs have been a burden on medical doctors. This paper proposes a new method for automatic identification of two types of EDs, repeated sharp-waves (sharps), and runs of sharp-and-slow-waves (SSWs), which helps to pinpoint epileptogenic foci in secondary generalized epilepsy such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). In the experiments with iEEG data acquired from a patient with LGS, our proposed method detected EDs with an accuracy of 93.76% and classified three different signal patterns with a mean classification accuracy of 87.69%, which was significantly higher than that of a conventional wavelet-based method. Our study shows that it is possible to successfully detect and discriminate sharps and SSWs from background EEG activity using our proposed method. Won-Du Chang, Ho-Seung Cha, Chany Lee, Hoon-Chul Kang, and Chang-Hwan Im Copyright © 2016 Won-Du Chang et al. All rights reserved. Image Reconstruction Using Analysis Model Prior Thu, 09 Jun 2016 06:34:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/7571934/ The analysis model has been previously exploited as an alternative to the classical sparse synthesis model for designing image reconstruction methods. Applying a suitable analysis operator on the image of interest yields a cosparse outcome which enables us to reconstruct the image from undersampled data. In this work, we introduce additional prior in the analysis context and theoretically study the uniqueness issues in terms of analysis operators in general position and the specific 2D finite difference operator. We establish bounds on the minimum measurement numbers which are lower than those in cases without using analysis model prior. Based on the idea of iterative cosupport detection (ICD), we develop a novel image reconstruction model and an effective algorithm, achieving significantly better reconstruction performance. Simulation results on synthetic and practical magnetic resonance (MR) images are also shown to illustrate our theoretical claims. Yu Han, Huiqian Du, Fan Lam, Wenbo Mei, and Liping Fang Copyright © 2016 Yu Han et al. All rights reserved. Towards Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides Based on Abstracts Meaning Sun, 05 Jun 2016 06:52:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/1505261/ We present an Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides (ISAP) approach based on abstracts meaning. Laboratories and researchers have significantly increased the report of their discoveries related to antibacterial peptides in primary publications. It is important to find antibacterial peptides that have been reported in primary publications because they can produce antibiotics of different generations that attack and destroy the bacteria. Unfortunately, researchers used heterogeneous forms of natural language to describe their discoveries (sometimes without the sequence of the peptides). Thus, we propose that learning the words meaning instead of the antibacterial peptides sequence is possible to identify and predict antibacterial peptides reported in the PubMed engine. The ISAP approach consists of two stages: training and discovering. ISAP founds that the 35% of the abstracts sample had antibacterial peptides and we tested in the updated Antimicrobial Peptide Database 2 (APD2). ISAP predicted that 45% of the abstracts had antibacterial peptides. That is, ISAP found that 810 antibacterial peptides were not classified like that, so they are not reported in APD2. As a result, this new search tool would complement the APD2 with a set of peptides that are candidates to be antibacterial. Finally, 20% of the abstracts were not semantic related to APD2. Liliana I. Barbosa-Santillán, Juan J. Sánchez-Escobar, M. Angeles Calixto-Romo, and Luis F. Barbosa-Santillán Copyright © 2016 Liliana I. Barbosa-Santillán et al. All rights reserved. Classification of Motor Imagery EEG Signals with Support Vector Machines and Particle Swarm Optimization Mon, 30 May 2016 14:54:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/4941235/ Support vector machines are powerful tools used to solve the small sample and nonlinear classification problems, but their ultimate classification performance depends heavily upon the selection of appropriate kernel and penalty parameters. In this study, we propose using a particle swarm optimization algorithm to optimize the selection of both the kernel and penalty parameters in order to improve the classification performance of support vector machines. The performance of the optimized classifier was evaluated with motor imagery EEG signals in terms of both classification and prediction. Results show that the optimized classifier can significantly improve the classification accuracy of motor imagery EEG signals. Yuliang Ma, Xiaohui Ding, Qingshan She, Zhizeng Luo, Thomas Potter, and Yingchun Zhang Copyright © 2016 Yuliang Ma et al. All rights reserved. The Mechanical Analysis of the Biofilm Streamer Nucleation and Geometry Characterization in Microfluidic Channels Mon, 30 May 2016 13:46:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/7819403/ Bacteria can form biofilm streamers in microfluidic channels with various geometries. Experiments show that the streamer geometry, such as its shape or thickness, depends on the fluid velocity and the geometry and curvature of the microfluidic channel. In the paper, a mechanical analysis of the flow field is made in different channels, which shows that the secondary flow in the channel is the reason for streamer nucleation and that the shear stress distribution decides the streamer geometry including shape and thickness. Through a finite elements simulation, we obtain the secondary flow forming positions in both static and rotating channels: positions that are the location of nucleation of the streamer. Thick or wide biofilm streamers occur at the points of minimum shear stress in static channels. Furthermore, in rotating channels, spiral-like streamers form, due to the helical shape of the minimum shear stress distribution. The findings may allow the prevention of biofilm formation and also the removal of bacteria adhered onto certain surfaces in channels with small cross sections. The analysis also indicates how one can obtain desirable biofilm streamers by control of the channel geometry and the loading conditions. Xiaoling Wang, Mudong Hao, Xin Du, Guoqing Wang, and Jun-ichi Matsushita Copyright © 2016 Xiaoling Wang et al. All rights reserved. Eradication of Ebola Based on Dynamic Programming Wed, 25 May 2016 11:58:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/1580917/ This paper mainly studies the eradication of the Ebola virus, proposing a scientific system, including three modules for the eradication of Ebola virus. Firstly, we build a basic model combined with nonlinear incidence rate and maximum treatment capacity. Secondly, we use the dynamic programming method and the Dijkstra Algorithm to set up M-S (storage) and several delivery locations in West Africa. Finally, we apply the previous results to calculate the total cost, production cost, storage cost, and shortage cost. Jia-Ming Zhu, Lu Wang, and Jia-Bao Liu Copyright © 2016 Jia-Ming Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Segmentation of White Blood Cell from Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Images Using Dual-Threshold Method Sun, 22 May 2016 10:07:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/9514707/ We propose a dual-threshold method based on a strategic combination of RGB and HSV color space for white blood cell (WBC) segmentation. The proposed method consists of three main parts: preprocessing, threshold segmentation, and postprocessing. In the preprocessing part, we get two images for further processing: one contrast-stretched gray image and one H component image from transformed HSV color space. In the threshold segmentation part, a dual-threshold method is proposed for improving the conventional single-threshold approaches and a golden section search method is used for determining the optimal thresholds. For the postprocessing part, mathematical morphology and median filtering are utilized to denoise and remove incomplete WBCs. The proposed method was tested in segmenting the lymphoblasts on a public Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) image dataset. The results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than single-threshold approach independently performed in RGB and HSV color space and the overall single WBC segmentation accuracy reaches 97.85%, showing a good prospect in subsequent lymphoblast classification and ALL diagnosis. Yan Li, Rui Zhu, Lei Mi, Yihui Cao, and Di Yao Copyright © 2016 Yan Li et al. All rights reserved. Inverse Problem for Color Doppler Ultrasound-Assisted Intracardiac Blood Flow Imaging Sun, 22 May 2016 06:16:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/6371078/ For the assessment of the left ventricle (LV), echocardiography has been widely used to visualize and quantify geometrical variations of LV. However, echocardiographic image itself is not sufficient to describe a swirling pattern which is a characteristic blood flow pattern inside LV without any treatment on the image. We propose a mathematical framework based on an inverse problem for three-dimensional (3D) LV blood flow reconstruction. The reconstruction model combines the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with one-direction velocity component of the synthetic flow data (or color Doppler data) from the forward simulation (or measurement). Moreover, time-varying LV boundaries are extracted from the intensity data to determine boundary conditions of the reconstruction model. Forward simulations of intracardiac blood flow are performed using a fluid-structure interaction model in order to obtain synthetic flow data. The proposed model significantly reduces the local and global errors of the reconstructed flow fields. We demonstrate the feasibility and potential usefulness of the proposed reconstruction model in predicting dynamic swirling patterns inside the LV over a cardiac cycle. Jaeseong Jang, Chi Young Ahn, Jung-Il Choi, and Jin Keun Seo Copyright © 2016 Jaeseong Jang et al. All rights reserved. Basic Hand Gestures Classification Based on Surface Electromyography Thu, 19 May 2016 17:13:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/6481282/ This paper presents an innovative classification system for hand gestures using 2-channel surface electromyography analysis. The system developed uses the Support Vector Machine classifier, for which the kernel function and parameter optimisation are conducted additionally by the Cuckoo Search swarm algorithm. The system developed is compared with standard Support Vector Machine classifiers with various kernel functions. The average classification rate of 98.12% has been achieved for the proposed method. Aleksander Palkowski and Grzegorz Redlarski Copyright © 2016 Aleksander Palkowski and Grzegorz Redlarski. All rights reserved. Development of Magnetorheological Resistive Exercise Device for Rowing Machine Wed, 18 May 2016 06:46:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/8979070/ Training equipment used by professional sportsmen has a great impact on their sport performance. Most universal exercisers may help only to improve the general physical condition due to the specific kinematics and peculiar resistance generated by their loading units. Training of effective techniques and learning of psychomotor skills are possible only when exercisers conform to the movements and resistance typical for particular sports kinematically and dynamically. Methodology of developing a magnetorheological resistive exercise device for generating the desired law of passive resistance force and its application in a lever-type rowing machine are described in the paper. The structural parameters of a controllable hydraulic cylinder type device were found by means of the computational fluid dynamics simulation performed by ANSYS CFX software. Parameters describing the magnetorheological fluid as non-Newtonian were determined by combining numerical and experimental research of the resistance force generated by the original magnetorheological damper. A structural scheme of the device control system was developed and the variation of the strength of magnetic field that affects the magnetorheological fluid circulating in the device was determined, ensuring a variation of the resistance force on the oar handle adequate for the resistance that occurs during a real boat rowing stroke. Vytautas Grigas, Anatolijus Šulginas, and Pranas Žiliukas Copyright © 2016 Vytautas Grigas et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Medical Freehand Sketch 3D Model Retrieval Method by Dimensionality Reduction and Feature Vector Transformation Tue, 17 May 2016 11:15:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/4738391/ To assist physicians to quickly find the required 3D model from the mass medical model, we propose a novel retrieval method, called DRFVT, which combines the characteristics of dimensionality reduction (DR) and feature vector transformation (FVT) method. The DR method reduces the dimensionality of feature vector; only the top low frequency Discrete Fourier Transform coefficients are retained. The FVT method does the transformation of the original feature vector and generates a new feature vector to solve the problem of noise sensitivity. The experiment results demonstrate that the DRFVT method achieves more effective and efficient retrieval results than other proposed methods. Zhang Jing and Kang Bao Sheng Copyright © 2016 Zhang Jing and Kang Bao Sheng. All rights reserved. A Novel Hepatocellular Carcinoma Image Classification Method Based on Voting Ranking Random Forests Tue, 17 May 2016 11:15:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/2628463/ This paper proposed a novel voting ranking random forests (VRRF) method for solving hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) image classification problem. Firstly, in preprocessing stage, this paper used bilateral filtering for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) pathological images. Next, this paper segmented the bilateral filtering processed image and got three different kinds of images, which include single binary cell image, single minimum exterior rectangle cell image, and single cell image with a size of . After that, this paper defined atypia features which include auxiliary circularity, amendment circularity, and cell symmetry. Besides, this paper extracted some shape features, fractal dimension features, and several gray features like Local Binary Patterns (LBP) feature, Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) feature, and Tamura features. Finally, this paper proposed a HCC image classification model based on random forests and further optimized the model by voting ranking method. The experiment results showed that the proposed features combined with VRRF method have a good performance in HCC image classification problem. Bingbing Xia, Huiyan Jiang, Huiling Liu, and Dehui Yi Copyright © 2016 Bingbing Xia et al. All rights reserved. Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity Mon, 16 May 2016 13:23:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/2541325/ Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE-) based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (: 10 mm, hard) tumor and surrounding tissue (soft). The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression. Dae Woo Park Copyright © 2016 Dae Woo Park. All rights reserved. On the Extremal Wiener Polarity Index of Hückel Graphs Mon, 09 May 2016 16:36:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/3873597/ Graphs are used to model chemical compounds and drugs. In the graphs, each vertex represents an atom of molecule and edges between the corresponding vertices are used to represent covalent bounds between atoms. The Wiener polarity index of a graph is the number of unordered pairs of vertices of such that the distance between and is equal to 3. The trees and unicyclic graphs with perfect matching, of which all vertices have degrees not greater than three, are referred to as the Hückel trees and unicyclic Hückel graphs, respectively. In this paper, we first consider the smallest and the largest Wiener polarity index among all Hückel trees on vertices and characterize the corresponding extremal graphs. Then we obtain an upper and lower bound for the Wiener polarity index of unicyclic Hückel graphs on vertices. Hongzhuan Wang Copyright © 2016 Hongzhuan Wang. All rights reserved. Hemodynamic Study of Flow Remodeling Stent Graft for the Treatment of Highly Angulated Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Mon, 09 May 2016 13:44:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/3830123/ This study investigates the effect of a novel flow remodeling stent graft (FRSG) on the hemodynamic characteristics in highly angulated abdominal aortic aneurysm based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. An idealized aortic aneurysm with varying aortic neck angulations was constructed and CFD simulations were performed on nonstented models and stented models with FRSG. The influence of FRSG intervention on the hemodynamic performance is analyzed and compared in terms of flow patterns, wall shear stress (WSS), and pressure distribution in the aneurysm. The findings showed that aortic neck angulations significantly influence the velocity flow field in nonstented models, with larger angulations shifting the mainstream blood flow towards the center of the aorta. By introducing FRSG treatment into the aneurysm, erratic flow recirculation pattern in the aneurysm sac diminishes while the average velocity magnitude in the aneurysm sac was reduced in the range of 39% to 53%. FRSG intervention protects the aneurysm against the impacts of high velocity concentrated flow and decreases wall shear stress by more than 50%. The simulation results highlighted that FRSG may effectively treat aneurysm with high aortic neck angulations via the mechanism of promoting thrombus formation and subsequently led to the resorption of the aneurysm. Siang Lin Yeow and Hwa Liang Leo Copyright © 2016 Siang Lin Yeow and Hwa Liang Leo. All rights reserved. Can Ambulatory Blood Pressure Variability Contribute to Individual Cardiovascular Risk Stratification? Mon, 09 May 2016 11:29:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/7816830/ Objective. The aim of this study is to define the normal range for average real variability (ARV) and to establish whether it can be considered as an additional cardiovascular risk factor. Methods. In this observational study, 110 treated hypertensive patients were included and admitted for antihypertensive treatment adjustment. Circadian blood pressure was recorded with validated devices. Blood pressure variability (BPV) was assessed according to the ARV definition. Based on their variability, patients were classified into low, medium, and high variability groups using the fuzzy -means algorithm. To assess cardiovascular risk, blood samples were collected. Characteristics of the groups were compared by ANOVA tests. Results. Low variability was defined as ARV below 9.8 mmHg (32 patients), medium as 9.8–12.8 mmHg (48 patients), and high variability above 12.8 mmHg (30 patients). Mean systolic blood pressure was 131.2 ± 16.7, 135.0 ± 12.1, and 141.5 ± 11.4 mmHg in the low, medium, and high variability groups, respectively (). Glomerular filtration rate was 78.6 ± 29.3, 74.8 ± 26.4, and in the low, medium, and high variability groups, respectively (). Conclusion. Increased values of average real variability represent an additional cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, reducing BP variability might be as important as achieving optimal BP levels, but there is need for further studies to define a widely acceptable threshold value. Annamária Magdás, László Szilágyi, and Alexandru Incze Copyright © 2016 Annamária Magdás et al. All rights reserved. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy Thu, 05 May 2016 16:31:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/3643019/ A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations. Shihe Xu, Xiangqing Wei, and Fangwei Zhang Copyright © 2016 Shihe Xu et al. All rights reserved. The Numerical Study of the Hemodynamic Characteristics in the Patient-Specific Intracranial Aneurysms before and after Surgery Thu, 05 May 2016 11:17:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/4384508/ The patient-specific pre- and postsurgery cerebral arterial geometries in the study were reconstructed from computed tomography angiography (CTA). Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models were used to investigate the hemodynamic phenomena in the cerebral arteries before and after surgery of the aneurysm under realistic conditions. CFD simulations for laminar flow of incompressible Newtonian fluid were conducted by using commercial software, ANSYS v15, with the rigid vascular wall assumption. The study found that the flow patterns with the complex vortical structures inside the aneurysm were similar. We also found that the inflow jet streams were coming strongly in aneurysm sac in the presurgery models, while the flow patterns in postsurgery models were quite different from those in presurgery models. The average wall shear stress after surgery for model 1 was approximately three times greater than that before surgery, while it was about twenty times greater for model 2. The area of low WSS in the daughter saccular aneurysm region in model 2 is associated with aneurysm rupture. Thus the distribution of WSS in aneurysm region provides useful prediction for the risk of aneurysm rupture. Jun Soo Byun, Sun-Young Choi, and Taewon Seo Copyright © 2016 Jun Soo Byun et al. All rights reserved. A Mathematical Model of Regenerative Axon Growing along Glial Scar after Spinal Cord Injury Wed, 04 May 2016 14:30:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/3030454/ A major factor in the failure of central nervous system (CNS) axon regeneration is the formation of glial scar after the injury of CNS. Glial scar generates a dense barrier which the regenerative axons cannot easily pass through or by. In this paper, a mathematical model was established to explore how the regenerative axons grow along the surface of glial scar or bypass the glial scar. This mathematical model was constructed based on the spinal cord injury (SCI) repair experiments by transplanting Schwann cells as bridge over the glial scar. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) was used in this model for three-dimensional numerical simulation. The advantage of this model is that it provides a parallel and easily implemented algorithm and has the capability of handling complicated boundaries. Using the simulated data, two significant conclusions were made in this study: the levels of inhibitory factors on the surface of the glial scar are the main factors affecting axon elongation and when the inhibitory factor levels on the surface of the glial scar remain constant, the longitudinal size of the glial scar has greater influence on the average rate of axon growth than the transverse size. These results will provide theoretical guidance and reference for researchers to design efficient experiments. Xuning Chen and Weiping Zhu Copyright © 2016 Xuning Chen and Weiping Zhu. All rights reserved. Semantic Signature: Comparative Interpretation of Gene Expression on a Semantic Space Tue, 03 May 2016 06:55:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/5174503/ Background. Interpretation of microarray data remains challenging because biological meaning should be extracted from enormous numeric matrices and be presented explicitly. Moreover, huge public repositories of microarray dataset are ready to be exploited for comparative analysis. This study aimed to provide a platform where essential implication of a microarray experiment could be visually expressed and various microarray datasets could be intuitively compared. Results. On the semantic space, gene sets from Molecular Signature Database (MSigDB) were plotted as landmarks and their relative distances were calculated by Lin’s semantic similarity measure. By formal concept analysis, a microarray dataset was transformed into a concept lattice with gene clusters as objects and Gene Ontology terms as attributes. Concepts of a lattice were located on the semantic space reflecting semantic distance from landmarks and edges between concepts were drawn; consequently, a specific geographic pattern could be observed from a microarray dataset. We termed a distinctive geography shared by microarray datasets of the same category as “semantic signature.” Conclusions. “Semantic space,” a map of biological entities, could serve as a universal platform for comparative microarray analysis. When microarray data were displayed on the semantic space as concept lattices, “semantic signature,” characteristic geography for a microarray experiment, could be discovered. Jihun Kim, Keewon Kim, and Ju Han Kim Copyright © 2016 Jihun Kim et al. All rights reserved. Lattice Boltzmann Model of 3D Multiphase Flow in Artery Bifurcation Aneurysm Problem Thu, 28 Apr 2016 08:45:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/6143126/ This paper simulates and predicts the laminar flow inside the 3D aneurysm geometry, since the hemodynamic situation in the blood vessels is difficult to determine and visualize using standard imaging techniques, for example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three different types of Lattice Boltzmann (LB) models are computed, namely, single relaxation time (SRT), multiple relaxation time (MRT), and regularized BGK models. The results obtained using these different versions of the LB-based code will then be validated with ANSYS FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume- (FV-) based CFD solver. The simulated flow profiles that include velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS) are then compared between the two solvers. The predicted outcomes show that all the LB models are comparable and in good agreement with the FVM solver for complex blood flow simulation. The findings also show minor differences in their WSS profiles. The performance of the parallel implementation for each solver is also included and discussed in this paper. In terms of parallelization, it was shown that LBM-based code performed better in terms of the computation time required. Aizat Abas, N. Hafizah Mokhtar, M. H. H. Ishak, M. Z. Abdullah, and Ang Ho Tian Copyright © 2016 Aizat Abas et al. All rights reserved.