Conference Papers in Science http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Near-Field Hot Spots in Gold Nanoplasmonic Templates and Their Use for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensing Application Mon, 14 Apr 2014 06:13:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2014/396826/ Finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is adapted to investigate near-field enhancement effects on plasmonic structures (patterned in gold film) such as concentric rings with small separation, square, and rectangle. The near-fields effect on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is typically studied on square and rectangular structures. These metal structures are fabricated by laser interference lithography. Raman active molecules (Rhodamine 6G in PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate)) are spread onto patterned structure by spin coating, and Renishaw inVia Raman spectrometer was used to study SERS. Typical SERS enhancement of the order of 105 is seen for square and rectangular structures. It is observed that the corner points and edges of square and rectangular structures are most sensitive to concentrate near fields. In the case of concentric rings, huge near fields are seen to exist at the gap between the metal rings. Concentric rings are proposed to be very effective structure for SERS sensing applications such as molecular identification and biological mapping. Prasanta Mandal Copyright © 2014 Prasanta Mandal. All rights reserved. NO2 Sensing Properties of WO3 Thin Films Deposited by Rf-Magnetron Sputtering Thu, 10 Apr 2014 08:10:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2014/683219/ Tungsten trioxide (WO3) thin films were deposited by Rf-magnetron sputtering onto Pt interdigital electrodes fabricated on corning glass substrates. NO2 gas sensing properties of the prepared WO3 thin films were investigated by incorporation of catalysts (Sn, Zn, and Pt) in the form of nanoclusters. The structural and optical properties of the deposited WO3 thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopy, respectively. The gas sensing characteristics of all the prepared sensor structures were studied towards 5 ppm of NO2 gas. The maximum sensing response of about 238 was observed for WO3 film having Sn catalyst at a comparatively lower operating temperature of 200°C. The possible sensing mechanism has been highlighted to support the obtained results. Savita Sharma, Monika Tomar, Nitin K. Puri, and Vinay Gupta Copyright © 2014 Savita Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Harnessing Solar Energy for Every Home: Energy Saving Applications Thu, 10 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2014/628294/ Most of the present day resources of energy are limited and irreplaceable. The next generation will face acute energy crisis if alternate resources of energy are not developed concurrently. Increasing cost and import of conventional resources have bad effect on the economy of a country, and the only cheaper solution is “unlimited power” from the sun. The use of solar energy is so far limited in household applications. In fact, if we harness only 0.0034 percent of the solar energy reaching the Earth’s surface, the energy need of the whole world will be met. In the present work, a substitute of 10-watt conventional night lamp has been proposed by a solar night lamp of the same light intensity through an experimental setup. The developed solar system is cheaper, portable, user friendly, and free from maintenance. The paper stresses on the need of replacement of conventional night lamp by solar night lamp in every home for reducing the energy crisis at present. Jitisha Aggarwal and M. L. Aggarwal Copyright © 2014 Jitisha Aggarwal and M. L. Aggarwal. All rights reserved. Study of Magnetic Property of Sn Doped Ni-Zn-Fe Nanoparticles Wed, 09 Apr 2014 13:26:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2014/816970/ The ( to ) samples were prepared by solution route technique. These samples were characterized by XRD and EPR spectra at X-band frequency (~9.2 GHz). The XRD spectra of these ferrites confirm the formation of spinel structure. The average particle size calculated by using Scherrer’s formula was found to be of the order of 24.7 nm. The EPR spectra of these ferrites are mainly due to Fe3+ ions. Fe2+ ions have very short spin-lattice relaxation time and therefore EPR spectra of Fe2+ could be observed only at very low temperature. This fact is also supported by the isomer shift values of these ferrites obtained from Mössbauer spectroscopy. The variation of and with Sn4+ concentration is attributed to the variation of superexchange interaction. Moreover in this system the dominant process of relaxation is the spin lattice relaxation rather than the spin-spin interaction. B. S. Tewari, Archana Dhyani, S. K. Joshi, Santosh Dubey, and Kailash Pandey Copyright © 2014 B. S. Tewari et al. All rights reserved. Oxidation State of a Polyurethane Membrane after Plasma Etching Tue, 08 Apr 2014 08:19:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2014/347979/ Low moduli cell culture substrates can be used to apply dynamic mechanical strain to cells, by surface deformation. Understanding the surface interaction with cells is critical to improving cell adhesion and normal growth. A medical grade polyurethane (PU), Chronoflex AL 80A, was modified by oxygen plasma etching and characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Etching resulted in increased cross-linking at the isocyanate bond and formation of new oxygen moieties. The model, derived from patent data and XPS data of the unetched PU, indicated that the additional oxygen was likely to be hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. Etched membranes enhanced protein adhesion, resulting in full surface coverage compared to unetched PU. The etched PU supported cell adhesion and spreading, while the unetched PU was not conducive to monolayer formation. Matthew D. Moles, Colin A. Scotchford, and Alastair Campbell Ritchie Copyright © 2014 Matthew D. Moles et al. All rights reserved. Antibacterial Activity of a Chitosan-PVA-Ag+-Tobermorite Composite for Periodontal Repair Mon, 07 Apr 2014 11:21:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2014/684352/ A polymer-mineral composite was prepared by solvent casting a mixture of chitosan, poly(vinyl alcohol), and Ag+-exchanged tobermorite in dilute acetic acid and characterised by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro bioactivity of the CPTAg membrane was confirmed by the formation of hydroxyapatite on its surface in simulated body fluid. The alkaline dissolution products of the tobermorite lattice buffered the acidic breakdown products of the chitosan polymer and the presence of silver ions resulted in marked antimicrobial action against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli. The in vitro cytocompatibility of the CPTAg membrane was confirmed using MG63 osteosarcoma cells. The findings of this preliminary study have indicated that chitosan-poly(vinyl alcohol)-Ag+-tobermorite composites may be suitable materials for guided tissue regeneration applications. Andrew P. Hurt, Alejandra A. Ruiz de Clavijo, George J. Vine, Aimee A. Coleman, and Nichola J. Coleman Copyright © 2014 Andrew P. Hurt et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Assessment of Fibrinogen Adsorption and Secondary Structure Perturbation Mon, 07 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2014/601546/ Fibrinogen is a protein being of prime importance for the initiation of clotting and thrombus formation, readily adsorbed onto surfaces presenting both hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature. The mechanism of adsorption, and thus the final presentation of this protein are therefore important for subsequent involvement for, for example, platelet adhesion. Biological activity can be controlled through careful consideration of material design; here we report kinetic assessment of fibrinogen adsorption onto plasma polymerised allylamine (hydrophilic) and hexane (hydrophobic) surfaces, using FTIR-ATR to inform on kinetics of adsorption, secondary structure evaluation, and orientational variation. Fibrinogen was found to respond differently to these two surfaces, adsorbing more rapidly to hydrophilic surfaces and losing an ordered secondary structure over a much longer timescale compared to hydrophobic surfaces. Gaurang Khot, Folashade Kuforiji, Rupert Wright, and Paul Roach Copyright © 2014 Gaurang Khot et al. All rights reserved. On the Issue of Radiation-Induced Instability in Binary Solid Solutions Thu, 03 Apr 2014 16:06:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2014/849241/ The stability of a binary solid solution under irradiation has been studied. This has been done by performing linear stability analysis of a set of nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations under uniform irradiation. Owing to the complexity of the resulting system of eigenvalue equations, a numerical solution has been attempted to calculate the dispersion relations. The set of reaction-diffusion equations represent the coupled dynamics of vacancies, dumbbell-type interstitials, and lattice atoms. For a miscible system (Cu-Au) under uniform irradiation, the initiation and growth of the instability have been studied as a function of various control parameters. Santosh Dubey, S. K. Joshi, and B. S. Tewari Copyright © 2014 Santosh Dubey et al. All rights reserved. Effect of MgO and V2O5 Catalyst on the Sensing Behaviour of Tin Oxide Thin Film for SO2 Gas Wed, 02 Apr 2014 12:50:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2014/812627/ The present work shows the SO2 gas sensing property of SnO2 thin film based sensor prepared by using RF sputtering technique. Different catalysts (MgO and V2O5) in form of nanoclusters having diameter of 600 μm have been loaded on SnO2 surface to detect SO2 gas. The sensing response of all these films towards SO2 is monitored. Microstructural studies have been carried out using XRD and UV-Visible Spectrophotometer and a good correlation has been found between the microstructural and gas sensing properties of these deposited samples. Both catalysts when incorporated with SnO2 film show high selectivity towards SO2 gas at lower operating temperature. MgO gives a sensitivity of 317% at an operating temperature of 280°C towards 500 ppm of SO2 gas whereas V2O5 catalyst gives a sensitivity of 166% at 280°C for the same amount of gas. Punit Tyagi, Anjali Sharma, Monika Tomar, and Vinay Gupta Copyright © 2014 Punit Tyagi et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Characterisation of Thin Films of Bismuth Triiodide for Semiconductor Radiation Detectors Wed, 02 Apr 2014 09:12:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2014/370436/ Bismuth iodide is a potentially active material for room temperature radiation detector, as it is well reported in the literature that it has both wide energy band gap and high atomic absorption coefficient. Crystalline films of high atomic number and high radiation absorption coefficient can absorb the X-rays and convert them directly into electrical charges which can be read by imaging devices. Therefore, it was proposed to grow thin films of Bismuth iodide on glass substrate using thermal evaporation technique in vacuum to avoid the inclusion of impurities in the films. The structural studies of the films were carried out using XRD and optical absorption measurement was carried out in the UV/VIS region using spectrophotometer. All Bismuth iodide films grown at room temperature are polycrystalline and show X-ray diffraction peaks at angles reported in research papers. The optical transmission spectra of BiI3 films show a high transmission of about 80% in visible region with a sharp fall near the fundamental absorption at 650 nm. Resistivity of the as-grown film was found to be around 1012 ohm-cm suitable value for X-ray detection application. Films were subjected to scanning electron microscopy to study the growth features of both as-grown and annealed films. Alka Garg, Monika Tomar, and Vinay Gupta Copyright © 2014 Alka Garg et al. All rights reserved. Using Feed Forward Neural Network to Solve Eigenvalue Problems Mon, 31 Mar 2014 14:13:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2014/906376/ The aim of this paper is to presents a parallel processor technique for solving eigenvalue problem for ordinary differential equations using artificial neural networks. The proposed network is trained by back propagation with different training algorithms quasi-Newton, Levenberg-Marquardt, and Bayesian Regulation. The next objective of this paper was to compare the performance of aforementioned algorithms with regard to predicting ability. Luma N. M. Tawfiq and Othman M. Salih Copyright © 2014 Luma N. M. Tawfiq and Othman M. Salih. All rights reserved. Travelling along the Clinical Roadmap: Developing Electrospun Scaffolds for Tendon Repair Sun, 23 Mar 2014 08:03:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2014/304974/ Biopolymers, such as poly(ε-caprolactone), can be easily electrospun to create fibrous scaffolds. It is also possible to control the alignment of the emitted fibres and further manipulate these scaffolds to create 3D yarn structures, which resemble part of the tendon tissue hierarchy. Material properties, such as tensile strength, can be tailored depending on the selection and combination of polymer and solvent used during electrospinning. The scaffolds have been proven to separately support the adhesion and proliferation of equine tendon fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells whilst simultaneously directing cell orientation, which caused their alignment parallel to the underlying fibres. Implantation of scaffolds into the flexor digitorum profundus tendon of mice hindpaws yielded encouraging results with minimal inflammatory reaction and observation of cell infiltration into the scaffold. This research demonstrates the progression of electrospun fibres along the clinical roadmap towards becoming a future medical device for the treatment of tendon injuries. Lucy A. Bosworth Copyright © 2014 Lucy A. Bosworth. All rights reserved. Poly(vinyl alcohol): Physical Approaches to Designing Biomaterials for Biomedical Applications Thu, 20 Mar 2014 17:50:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2014/403472/ Poly(vinyl alcohol) is a non-toxic, biosynthetic polymer and biocompatible polymer that has the ability to form hydrogels either via chemical or physical crosslinking. Whilst chemical crosslinking provides greater control on the properties of the resultant hydrogel, physically crosslinked hydrogels or blends with other biocompatible polymers are more suited for biomedical applications. In this paper we report a systematic study on the effect of varying concentrations of PVA, physical methods of crosslinking, and PVA-gelatin and PVA-PVP blends on the physical and mechanical properties of the hydrogels. Shathani Nkhwa, Kristo Fernando Lauriaga, Evren Kemal, and Sanjukta Deb Copyright © 2014 Shathani Nkhwa et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of UDMA/TEGDMA Mixtures and Bioglass Incorporation on the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Resin and Resin-Based Composite Materials Wed, 12 Mar 2014 10:39:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2014/646143/ Incorporating Bioglass into dental composites may improve biocompatibility and aid tooth and bone tissue remineralisation. This study aimed to determine the impact of Bioglass and silica filler on the mechanical and physical properties of cured photopolymers. Hardness (Vickers microhardness test), flexural strength (FS), and flexural modulus (FM) (three-point bend test) of resins containing various urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (bisGMA)/TEGDMA concentrations (20–80 mass%) were tested. Degree of conversion (DC), FS, and FM of resin composites containing nonsilanised irregular 45S5-Bioglass (50 μm; 5–40 mass%) and/or silanised silicate glass filler particulates (0.7 μm; 30–70 mass%) were tested. Data was analysed using one-way ANOVA. UDMA/TEGDMA resins exhibited increased hardness and FM compared with bisGMA/TEGDMA resins. Addition of Bioglass particles to 60/40 wt% UDMA/TEGDMA or bisGMA/TEGDMA resins may enable the development of new materials that exhibit higher or at least equivalent values of DC, FS, and FM compared with conventional resin composites. Laura C. Nicolae, Richard M. Shelton, Paul R. Cooper, Richard A. Martin, and William M. Palin Copyright © 2014 Laura C. Nicolae et al. All rights reserved. Use of Poly (-Lysine) Dendrons: A Strategy Targeting Bacterial Quorum Sensing and Biofilm Formation Tue, 11 Mar 2014 12:51:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2014/572828/ Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognised as a major aetiological agent of nosocomial infections, which are associated with multiple-antibiotic resistance. Among many of its important virulence factors is its ability to form biofilms on the surfaces of implantable medical devices and to produce toxic metabolites, pyocyanin, via an intercellular cell density-dependent signalling system of communication. In this study, poly (-lysine) dendrons composed of increasingly branching generations were synthesised, characterised, and examined for their effects on virulence factor production in P. aeruginosa. The results show that these hyperbranched poly (-lysine) dendrons, in particular the 3rd generation, can increase the efficacy of a conventional antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, and reduce pyocyanin production, with marginal effects on the rate of bacterial replication, suggesting that the observed effects are not due to dendron toxicity. Furthermore, dendron and ciprofloxacin coadministration was identified as the most effective strategy which highlights the potential of peptide-based dendrons as quorum sensing inhibitors. Rahaf Issa, Steve T. Meikle, Stuart L. James, and Ian R. Cooper Copyright © 2014 Rahaf Issa et al. All rights reserved. The Declining Endangered Roan Antelope Population in Kenya: What Is the Way Forward? Mon, 20 Jan 2014 11:58:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2014/908628/ The roan antelope, endemic to Africa, is drastically declining in Kenya and most of its range throughout Africa. Extensive research on roans in South Africa has not provided effective remedial management actions. The solution to Kenya’s roans will come from detailed research in Kenya. This paper reports an on-going research on “mapping and modelling the roan antelope population and habitat in Ruma National Park, Kenya.” The research is employing the state-of-the-art techniques in modelling and geographic information systems (GIS). Preliminary findings indicate that (i) the roan population has declined to 45 animals; (ii) the roans’ home range changes (a) with any slight change in surface water and/or rainfall frequency and (b) between and within seasons (dry and wet); and (iii) the roans’ behaviour implies possibilities of poaching. Among other interventions, establishment of a roan sanctuary (with intensive active management) in Ruma N. Park seems to be the best way forward. Johnstone K. Kimanzi and Jennifer N. Wanyingi Copyright © 2014 Johnstone K. Kimanzi and Jennifer N. Wanyingi. All rights reserved. International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering Mon, 16 Dec 2013 14:54:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2013/960485/ Mohammed Elmusrati, Ahmed Gaouda, Heikki Koivo, Mohammed Buamod, and Saeid Belkasim Copyright © 2013 Mohammed Elmusrati et al. All rights reserved. International Conference on Natural Fibers—Sustainable Materials for Advanced Applications 2013 Mon, 16 Dec 2013 14:54:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2013/463790/ Raul Fangueiro, R. Alagirusamy, Amar Mohanty, Hu Hong, and António Torres Marques Copyright © 2013 Raul Fangueiro et al. All rights reserved. Electrospun Nanomaterials: Biotechnology, Food, Water, Environment, and Energy Sun, 15 Dec 2013 09:41:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2013/269313/ Over the past decade, electrospinning and electrospraying techniques have become affordable platform techniques for growing numbers of students, researchers, academics, and businesses around the world, producing organic and inorganic nanofibres and nanoparticles for a range of purposes. This review illustrates various advances in the science and engineering of electrospun nanomaterials and their applicability in meeting the growing needs within five crucial sectors: clean water, environment, energy, healthcare, and food. Although most of these sectors are principally dominated by synthetic polymer systems, the emergence of natural polymer and hybrid natural-synthetic electrospun polymer systems offers particular advantages. Current scientific and materials engineering advancements have resulted in highly competitive nanofibre, electrospun products, offering credible solutions to real-world applications. James J. Doyle, Santosh Choudhari, Seeram Ramakrishna, and Ramesh P. Babu Copyright © 2013 James J. Doyle et al. All rights reserved. Conference of the International Clinical Hyperthermia Society 2012 Tue, 10 Dec 2013 09:44:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2013/690739/ Gianfranco Baronzio, Michael Jackson, Dooyun Lee, and András Szász Copyright © 2013 Gianfranco Baronzio et al. All rights reserved. Development of Sustainable Technology to Produce Jute-Ramie Blended Textile and Its Applications Tue, 10 Dec 2013 09:43:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2013/578690/ Ramie (Boehmeria nivea), commonly known as China grass, is the strongest and finest plant fibre which is considered one of the valuable textile entities. Despite its unique characteristics, ramie has received reasonably less importance specially in the Indian subcontinent due to unavailability of appropriate postharvesting and processing technologies. With increase in global environmental awareness, the alternative (to cotton) cellulosic natural fibre “ramie” is gaining importance in the international textile domain. Sustainable methods and technologies which could trigger the utilization of ramie fibre are in demand worldwide. This paper will describe the developments carried out in the areas of postharvesting and spinning process of ramie. An ecofriendly degumming technology of ramie fibre has been elaborated along with suitable fibre processing route of ramie-jute blends that will bring new avenue for manufacturing jute diversified market acceptable products. Debkumar Biswas, Anup Kumar Nandi, Syamal Kanti Chakrabarti, and Prabir Ray Copyright © 2013 Debkumar Biswas et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Cellulose Microfibrils Obtained from Hemp Tue, 10 Dec 2013 09:41:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2013/171867/ Microfibrillated cellulose was extracted from hemp fibres using steam explosion pretreatment and high-intensity ultrasonic treatment (HIUS). The acquired results after steam explosion treatment and water and alkali treatments are discussed and interpreted by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the microstructure of hemp fibres before and after each treatment. A fibre size analyser was used to analyse the dimensions of the untreated and treated cellulose fibrils. SEM observations show that the sizes of the different treated fibrils have a diameter range of several micrometres, but after HIUS treatment fibres are separate from microfibrils, nanofibres, and their agglomerates. Anna Šutka, Silvija Kukle, Janis Gravitis, and Laima Grave Copyright © 2013 Anna Šutka et al. All rights reserved. A Mechanical Analysis of In Situ Polymerized Poly(butylene terephthalate) Flax Fiber Reinforced Composites Produced by RTM Thu, 05 Dec 2013 09:06:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2013/750802/ This work addresses mechanical characterization in tension of woven flax fabric reinforced in situ polymerized poly(butylene terephthalate) composites, produced by the RTM technique. A brief description of the developed RTM set-up is made and the composite manufacturing details are presented. A morphological analysis of the mechanically characterized materials by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) is also made. The produced neat polymer (pCBT) showed a brittle behavior and mechanical properties lower than those found in the literature. Its reinforcement with woven flax fabric resulted in an enhancement of both tensile strength and stiffness. The obtained results can be significantly improved by the polymer modifying chemically , optimizing the control of the processing parameters, and subjecting flax fibers to a surface treatment compatible with the CBT 160 resin. C. Romão, C. M. C. Pereira, and J. L. Esteves Copyright © 2013 C. Romão et al. All rights reserved. Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum L.) as New Fiber for Biocomposites: The Effect of Crop Age and Microbial Retting on Fiber Quality Wed, 04 Dec 2013 10:55:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2013/274359/ Recently, there has been a revival of interest in Spanish broom (Spartium junceum L.) as a possible source of fibers to be used in biocomposite materials. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of two selected strains of Clostridium felsineum (NCIMB 10690 and NCIMB 9539) in the retting of Spanish broom vermenes. Chemical composition and physical, mechanical, and morphological properties of fibers were investigated. The obtained results indicate that the process provides an ecofriendly method for Spanish broom retting and support the hypothesis that these fibers can be successfully used in composite materials. Luciana G. Angelini, Silvia Tavarini, and Lara Foschi Copyright © 2013 Luciana G. Angelini et al. All rights reserved. Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composite Films Reinforced with Wet Milled Jute Nanofibers Thu, 21 Nov 2013 10:29:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2013/738741/ In the present study, waste jute fibers formed in textile industries were wet pulverized to nanoscale using high energy planetary ball milling. The rate of refinement of uncleaned jute fibers having noncellulosic contents was found slower than the cleaned jute fibers. This behavior is attributed to the strong holding of fiber bundles by noncellulosic contents which offered resistance to the defibrillation during wet milling. In addition, the pulverization of fibers in the presence of water prevents the increase in temperature of mill which subsequently avoided the sticking of material on the milling container. After three hours milling, the diameter of nanofibers was observed around 50 nm. In the further stage, obtained nanofibers were incorporated under 1 wt%, 5 wt%, and 10 wt% loading into polylactic acid composite films. The potentials of jute nanofibers were investigated for improvement in mechanical and barrier properties of films. The maximum improvement in mechanical properties was observed in case of 5 wt% composite film where Young’s modulus was increased to 3.3 GPa from 1.0 GPa as compared with neat PLA film. Vijay Baheti, Jiri Militky, and S. Z. Ul Hassan Copyright © 2013 Vijay Baheti et al. All rights reserved. The Cape Verde International Days on Mathematics 2013 Mon, 18 Nov 2013 09:23:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2013/673818/ Delfim F. M. Torres, Biswa N. Datta, Gastão S. F. Frederico, Natália Martins, and Alexander J. Zaslavski Copyright © 2013 Delfim F. M. Torres et al. All rights reserved. Looking for Links between Natural Fibres’ Structures and Their Physical Properties Wed, 06 Nov 2013 13:07:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2013/141204/ Natural fibres have excited growing attention in the last decade since they offer the potential to act as candidates substituting for man-made fibres as composite reinforcements. Their superiority over synthetic fibres is that they are environmentally friendly and biodegradable. Numerous industrial sectors are interested in such composites, including but to name a few the aeronautical and the automotive fields. However natural fibres tend to suffer from large variability in properties compared to the “traditional” man-made fibres, and the performance of their composites often does not conform to that theoretically predicted from single-fibre tests. This study investigates the properties of the single fibres. The mechanical properties of the fibres were correlated to their microstructure. There are factors that were found to contribute to the reported variability, some of which are inherent in the fibres and some are related to testing parameters. Nicola M. Everitt, Nesma T. Aboulkhair, and Mike J. Clifford Copyright © 2013 Nicola M. Everitt et al. All rights reserved. Programmed Cell Death Induced by Modulated Electrohyperthermia Tue, 05 Nov 2013 08:51:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2013/187835/ Background. Modulated electrohyperthermia (mEHT) is a noninvasive technique for targeted tumor treatment. Method. HT29 human colorectal carcinoma cell line xenografted to both femoral regions of BalbC/nu/nu mice was treated with a single shot OTM treatment. Histomorphologic, immunohistochemical analysis TUNEL assay, and R&D Apoptosis array were performed on tissue samples. Results. mEHT caused a selective tumor demolition. An upregulation of TRAIL-R2 and FAS was observed. Cleaved caspase-3 positive cells appear at the tumor periphery. Cytochrome c and AIF release was observed in line with massive TUNEL positivity. Conclusion. In HT29 colorectal cancer xenograft, mEHT caused massive caspase independent cell death. Meggyesházi Nóra, Andócs Gábor, and Krenács Tibor Copyright © 2013 Meggyesházi Nóra et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Fibre Composition and Washing Conditions upon Hand Properties of Knitted Materials Mon, 28 Oct 2013 14:02:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2013/873692/ The behaviour of knitted plated jersey materials made from natural and man-made fibres was tested after certain washing conditions. Surface density and thickness of investigated materials differed insignificantly, from 206 g/m2 up to 222 g/m2 and from 0.56 mm up to 0.79 mm, respectively. Special device for textile materials hand evaluation based on the principle of pulling of a disc-shaped specimen through a rounded hole was used. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of materials’ fibre composition and washing conditions upon the changes of hand properties of knitted materials. Analysis of obtained results showed that, during washing, textile materials shrink and become more dense and rough, and their rigidity increases as well. Thus, the most significant effect of 5-cycle washing was obtained for knitted material with bamboo fibres. Gita Busilienė, Eugenija Strazdienė, and Virginijus Urbelis Copyright © 2013 Gita Busilienė et al. All rights reserved. Oncothermia with Chemotherapy in the Patients with Small-Cell Lung Cancer Mon, 28 Oct 2013 09:58:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2013/910363/ Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the most aggressive and lethal forms of lung cancers. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy would be standard modality for SCLC with median survival being less than 4 months only. Complementary treatment to chemotherapy is desired. Oncothermia will be one of the candidates to this addition. We have made a study of 31 SCLC patients from April 2006 to March 2012. 23 cases were treated with combined chemotherapy and oncothermia, and 8 cases were treated with chemotherapy alone. Three patients from 14 patients (14/31) died in the study period; there were equal numbers in the two arms, including one long survival case of 28 months and one of 26 months, in the combination and chemo-group, respectively .16 patients (16/31) are alive: 4 patients with chemotherapy only, including one long survival case of 28.7 months, and 11 cases with combined therapy including three long survival cases of more than 3 years. We conclude that the combined use of chemotherapy and oncothermia has significantly enhanced the survival rate in comparison with the use of chemotherapy alone (log-rank test: P value < 0.02). Doo Yun Lee, Seok Jin Haam, Tae Hoon Kim, Jae Yun Lim, Eun Jung Kim, and Na Young Kim Copyright © 2013 Doo Yun Lee et al. All rights reserved.