- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 134040, 7 pages
Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression Are Correlates of Angina Pectoris by Recent History and an Ischemia-Positive Treadmill Test in Patients with Documented Coronary Artery Disease in the Pimi Study
1Consultation/Liaison Psychiatry, Henry Ford Hospital and Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
2Department of Medical & Clinical Psychology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
3Department of Cardiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
4Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland, Catonsville, MD 21228, USA
Received 24 July 2011; Revised 18 September 2011; Accepted 26 September 2011
Academic Editor: Richard C. Veith
Copyright © 2011 Mark W. Ketterer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- W. Heberden, “Some account of a disorder of the breast,” Medical Transactions of the College of Physicians, vol. 2, pp. 59–67, 1772.
- P. Kligfieid and K. Filutowski, “"Dr. Anonymous" unmasked: resolution of an eighteenth century mystery in the history of coronary artery disease,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 75, no. 16, p. 1166, 1995.
- D. S. Krantz, S. M. Hedges, F. H. Gabbay et al., “Triggers of angina and ST-segment depression in ambulatory patients with coronary artery disease: evidence for an upcoupling of angina and ischemia,” American Heart Journal, vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 703–712, 1994.
- P. Nihoyannopoulos, A. Marsonis, J. Joshi, G. Athanassopoulos, and C. M. Oakley, “Magnitude of myocardial dysfunction is greater in painful than in painless myocardial ischemia: an exercise echocardiographic study,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1507–1512, 1995.
- F. Crea, G. Pupita, A. R. Galassi et al., “Role of adenosine in pathogenesis of anginal pain,” Circulation, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 164–172, 1990.
- P. F. Miller, K. C. Light, E. E. Bragdon et al., “Beta-endorphin response to exercise and mental stress in patients with ischemic heart disease,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 455–465, 1993.
- A. C. Sena, W. Maixner, M. N. Ballenger, M. C. Herbst, G. Koch, and D. S. Sheps, “The relationship between plasma β-endorphin, opioid receptor activity, and silent myocardial ischemia,” Clinical Journal of Pain, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 307–316, 1992.
- D. S Sheps, M. N. Ballenger, G. E. de Gent , et al., “Psychophysiological responses to a speech stressor: correlation of plasma beta-endorphin levels at rest and after psychological stress with thermally measured pain threshold in patients with coronary artery disease,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 25, pp. 1499–1503, 1995.
- H. Hikita, A. Kurita, B. Takase et al., “Usefulness of plasma beta-endorphin level, pain threshold and autonomic function in assessing silent myocardial ischemia in patients with and without diabetes mellitus,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 140–143, 1993.
- R. F. Davies, W. Linden, H. Habibi et al., “Relative importance of psychologic traits and severity of ischemia in causing angina during treadmill exercise,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 331–336, 1993.
- K. E. Freedland, R. M. Carney, R. J. Krone et al., “Psychological factors in silent myocardial ischemia,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 13–24, 1991.
- K. E. Freedland, R. M. Carney, R. J. Krone, N. B. Case, and R. B. Case, “Psychological determinants of anginal pain perception during exercise testing of stable patients after recovery from acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 1996.
- K. C. Light, M. C. Herbst, E. E. Bragdon et al., “Depression and Type A behavior pattern in patients with coronary artery disease: relationships to painful versus silent myocardial ischemia and β- endorphin responses during exercise,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 669–683, 1991.
- C. D. Jenkins, B. A. Stanton, M. D. Klein, J. A. Savageau, and D. E. Harken, “Correlates of angina pectoris among men awaiting coronary by-pass surgery,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 141–153, 1983.
- P. T. Costa, A. B. Zonderman, B. T. Engel, W. F. Baile, D. L. Brimlow, and J. Brinker, “The relation of chest pain symptoms to angiographic findings of coronary artery stenosis and neuroticism,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 285–293, 1985.
- A. Bengtson, J. Herlitz, T. Karlsson, and A. Hjalmarson, “Distress correlates with the degree of chest pain: a description of patients awaiting revascularisation,” Heart, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 257–260, 1996.
- U. Verthein and T. Köhler, “The correlation between everyday stress and angina pectoris: a longitudinal study,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 241–245, 1997.
- K. H. Ladwig, G. Röll, G. Breithardt, and M. Borggrefe, “Extracardiac contributions to chest pain perception in patients 6 months after acute myocardial infarction,” American Heart Journal, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 528–534, 1999.
- J. Barry, A. P. Selwyn, E. G. Nabel et al., “Frequency of ST-segment depression produced by mental stress in stable angina pectoris from coronary artery disease,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 61, no. 13, pp. 989–993, 1988.
- M. W. Ketterer, J. Huffman, M. A. Lumley et al., “Five-year follow-up for adverse outcomes in males with at least minimally positive angiograms: importance of "denial" in assessing psychosocial risk factors,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 241–250, 1998.
- M. W. Ketterer, F. Fitzgerald, S. Keteyian et al., “Chest Pain and the Treatment of Psychosocial/Emotional Distress in CAD Patients,” Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 437–450, 2000.
- M. W. Ketterer, W. Knysz, S. J. Keteyian et al., “Cardiovascular symptoms in coronary-artery disease patients are strongly correlated with emotional distress,” Psychosomatics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 230–234, 2008.
- T. W. Smith, M. J. Follick, and K. S. Korr, “Anger, neuroticism, type A behaviour and the experience of angina,” British Journal of Medical Psychology, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 249–252, 1984.
- T. Torosian, M. A. Lumley, S. D. Pickard, and M. W. Ketterer, “Silent versus symptomatic myocardial ischemia: the role of psychological and medical factors,” Health Psychology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 123–130, 1997.
- L. W. Kenyon, M. W. Ketterer, M. Gheorghiade, and S. Goldstein, “Psychological factors related to prehospital delay during acute myocardial infarction,” Circulation, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 1969–1976, 1991.
- M. A. Lumley, T. Torosian, L. L. Rowland, M. W. Ketterer, and S. D. Pickard, “Correlates of unrecognized acute myocardial infarction detected via perfusion imaging,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 79, no. 9, pp. 1170–1173, 1997.
- M. E. Theisen, S. E. MacNeill, M. A. Lumley, M. W. Ketterer, A. D. Goldberg, and S. Borzak, “Psychosocial factors related to unrecognized acute myocardial infarction,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 75, no. 17, pp. 1211–1213, 1995.
- S. Goldstein, “Toward a new understanding of the mechanism and prevention of sudden death in coronary heart disease,” Circulation, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 284–288, 1990.
- L. C. Becker, C. J. Pepine, R. Bonsall et al., “Left ventricular, peripheral vascular, and neurohumoral responses to mental stress in normal middle-aged men and women: reference group for the Psychophysiological Investigations of Myocardial Ischemia (PIMI) study,” Circulation, vol. 94, no. 11, pp. 2768–2777, 1996.
- R. M. Carney, R. P. McMahon, K. E. Freedland et al., “Reproducibility of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in the psychophysiological investigations of myocardial ischemia (PIMI),” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 64–70, 1998.
- A. D. Goldberg, L. C. Becker, R. Bonsall et al., “Ischemic, hemodynamic, and neurohormonal responses to mental and exercise stress: experience from the Psychophysiological Investigations of Myocardial Ischemia study (PIMI),” Circulation, vol. 94, no. 10, pp. 2402–2409, 1996.
- P. G. Kaufmann, R. P. McMahon, L. C. Becker et al., “The psychophysiological investigations of myocardial ischemia (PIMI) study: objective, methods, and variability of measures,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 56–63, 1998.
- D. S. Sheps, R. P. McMahon, K. C. Light et al., “Low hot pain threshold predicts shorter time to exercise-induced angina: results from the psychophysiological investigations of myocardial ischemia (PIMI) study,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1855–1862, 1999.
- P. H. Stone, D. S. Krantz, R. P. McMahon, et al., “Relationship among mental stress induced ischemia and ischemia during daily life and during exercise: the psychophysiological investigations of myocardal ischemia (pimi) study,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1484–1484, 1999.
- G. A. Rose, “The diagnosis of ischaemic heart pain and intermittent claudication in field surveys,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 27, pp. 645–658, 1962.
- A. F. Greene, D. D. Schocken, and C. D. Spielberger, “Self-report of chest pain symptoms and coronary artery disease in patients undergoing angiography,” Pain, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 319–324, 1991.
- B. Tamesis, A. Stelken, S. Byers et al., “Comparison of the asymptomatic cardiac ischemia pilot and modified asymptomatic cardiac ischemia pilot versus Bruce and Cornell exercise protocols,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 72, no. 9, pp. 715–720, 1993.
- A. T. Beck, C. H. Ward, M. Mendelsohn, J. Mock, and J. Erbaugh, “An inventory for measuring depression,” Archives of general psychiatry, vol. 4, pp. 561–571, 1961.
- C. D. Spielberger, R. L. Gorsuch, and R. D. Lushene, Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, Calif, USA, 1970.
- G. Mandler, J. M. Mandler, and E. T. Uviller, “Autonomic feedback: The perception of autonomic activity,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 367–373, 1958.
- G. J. Taylor, R. M. Bagby, D. P. Ryan, J. D.A. Parker, K. F. Doody, and P. Keefe, “Criterion validity of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 500–509, 1988.
- C. D. Spielberger, E. H. Johnson, S. F. Russell, R. J. Crane, G. A. Jacobs, and T. J. Worden, “The experience and expression of anger: construction and validation of an anger expression scale,” in Anger and Hostility in Cardiovascular and Behavioral Disorders, M. A. Chesney and R. H. Rosenman, Eds., McGraw–Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1985.
- W. W. Cook and D. M. Medley, “Proposed hostility and Pharisaic-virtue scales for the MMPI,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 414–418, 1954.
- C. R. Cloninger, “A systematic method for clinical description and classification of personality variants,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 573–588, 1987.
- W. J. Conover, Practical Nonparametric Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1980.
- D. G. Kleinbaum, L. L. Kupper, and H. Morganstern, Epidemiological Research: Principles and Quantitative Methods, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY, USA, 1982.
- M. Edwards, A. M. Chang, A. C. Matsuura, M. Green, J. M. Robey, and J. E. Hollander, “Relationship between painseverity and outcomes in patients presenting with potential acute coronary syndromes,” Annals of Emergency Medicine. In press.
- J. A. Blumenthal, W. Jiang, M. A. Babyak et al., “Stress management and exercise training in cardiac patients with myocardial ischemia: effects on prognosis and evaluation of mechanisms,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 157, no. 19, pp. 2213–2223, 1997.
- B. Lewin, “The psychological and behavioral management of angina,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 453–462, 1997.
- R. Collins, D. Ornish, L. Scherwitz, et al., “Are comprehensive lifestyle changes feasible and clinically beneficial?” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 58, p. 85, 1996.
- T. J. Payne, C. A. Johnson, D. B. Penzien et al., “Chest pain self-management training for patients with coronary artery disease,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 409–418, 1994.
- M. S. Rapp and M. R. Thomas, “Alleviation of angina pectoris following systematic desensitization,” Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, vol. 20, no. 1, p. 96, 1975.
- C. H. Hartman, “Response of anginal pain to handwarming,” Biofeedback & Self-Reg, vol. 4, pp. 355–357, 1979.
- D. W. Johnston and C. R. Lo, “The effects of cardiovascular feedback and relaxation on angina pectoris,” Behavioural Psychotherapy, vol. 11, pp. 257–264, 1983.
- B. Amarosa-Tupler, J. T. Tapp, and R. V. Carida, “Stress management through relaxation and imagery in the treatment of angina pectoris,” Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 348–355, 1989.
- C. Bundy, D. Carroll, L. Wallace, and R. Nagle, “Psychological treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris,” Psychology & Health, vol. 10, pp. 69–77, 1994.
- E. Jonsbu, T. Dammen, G. Morken, T. Moum, and E. W. Martinsen, “Short-term cognitive behavioral therapy for non-cardiac chest pain and benign palpitations: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 70, pp. 117–123, 2011.
- M. W. Ketterer, K. E. Freedland, D. S. Krantz et al., “Psychological correlates of mental stress-induced ischemia in the laboratory: the psychophysiological investigation of myocardial ischemia (PIMI) study,” Journal of Health Psychology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 75–85, 2000.
- A. J. Barsky, B. Hochstrasser, N. A. Coles, J. Zisfein, C. O'Donnell, and K. A. Eagle, “Silent myocardial ischemia. Is the person or the event silent?” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 264, no. 9, pp. 1132–1135, 1988.
- M. Swartz, R. Landerman, L. K. George, D. G. Blazer, and J. Escobar, “Somatization disorder,” in Psychiatric Disorders in America: The Epidemiological Catchment Area Study, L. N. Robins and D. A. Regier, Eds., pp. 220–257, The Free Press, New York, NY, USA, 1991.
- A. J. Bouckoms and T. P. Hackett, “Pain patients,” in Massachusetts General Hospital Handbook of General Hospital Psychiatry, N. H. Cassem, T. A. Stern, J. F. Rosenbaum, and M. S. Jellinek, Eds., pp. 367–414, Mosby, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 1997.
- I. Pilowsky, “Affective disorders and pain,” in Proceedings of the 5th World Congress on Pain, R. Dubner, G. F. Gebhart, and M. R. Bond, Eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherland, 1988.
- T. G. Allison, D. E. Williams, T. D. Miller, et al., “Medical and economic costs of psychologic distress in patients with coronary artery disease,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 70, pp. 734–742, 1995.
- K. W. Davidson, “Dose-response relations between hostility reductions and cardiac related hospitalizations,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 47, pp. 285–293, 2000.
- N. Frasure-Smith and F. Lesperance, “Depression and anxiety increase physician costs during the first post-MI year,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 60, p. 99, 1998.
- J. C. Huffman, F. A. Smith, M. A. Blais, J. L. Januzzi, and G. L. Fricchione, “Anxiety, independent of depressive symptoms, is associated with in-hospital cardiac complications after acute myocardial infarction,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 557–563, 2008.
- M. W. Ketterer, W. Knysz, A. Khandelwal, S. J. Keteyian, A. Farha, and S. Deveshwar, “Healthcare utilization and emotional distress in coronary artery disease patients,” Psychosomatics, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 297–301, 2010.
- E. Mumford, H. J. Schlesinger, and G. V. Glass, “The effects of psychological intervention on recovery from surgery and heart attacks: an analysis of the literature,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 141–151, 1982.
- D. Thompson, T. R. Hylan, W. McMullen, et al., “Predictors of a medical-offset effect among patients receiving antidepressant therapy,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 155, no. 6, pp. 824–827, 1998.
- G. Burell, “Group psychotherapy in project new life: treatment of coronary-prone behaviors for patients who have had coronary artery bypass graft surgery,” in Heart & Mind: The Practice of Cardiasc Psychology, R. Allan and S. Scheidt, Eds., pp. 291–312, American Psychological Association, Wash, USA, 1996.
- M. Friedman, C. E. Thoresen, and J. J. Gill, “Alteration of type A behavior and its effect on cardiac recurrences in post myocardial infarction patients: summary results of the recurrent coronary prevention project,” American Heart Journal, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 653–665, 1986.
- M. Friedman, L. H. Powell, C. E. Thoresen, et al., “Effect of discontinuance of type A behavioral counseling on type A behavior and cardiac recurrence rate of post myocardial infarction patients,” American Heart Journal, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 483–490, 1987.
- M. Gulliksson, G. Burell, B. Vessby, L. Lundin, H. Toss, and K. Svärdsudd, “Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy vs standard treatment to prevent recurrent cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 171, no. 2, pp. 134–140, 2011.
- A. Bunevicius, A. Stankus, J. Brozaitiene, S. S. Girdler, and R. Bunevicius, “Relationship of fatigue and exercise capacity with emotional and physical state in patients with coronary artery disease admitted for rehabilitation program,” American Heart Journal, vol. 162, no. 2, pp. 310–316, 2011.
- J. L. Black, T. G. Allison, D. E. Williams, T. A. Rummans, and G. T. Gau, “Effect of intervention for psychological distress on rehospitalization rates in cardiac rehabilitation patients,” Psychosomatics, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 134–143, 1998.
- J. A. Blumenthal, M. Babyak, J. Wei et al., “Usefulness of psychosocial treatment of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in men,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 164–168, 2002.
- B. Lewin, I. H. Robertson, E. L. Cay, J. B. Irving, and M. Campbell, “Effects of self-help post-myocardial-infarction rehabilitation on psychological adjustment and use of health services,” Lancet, vol. 339, no. 8800, pp. 1036–1040, 1992.