- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 482415, 9 pages
The Etiological Role of Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction in Seizure Disorders
1Department of Molecular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, NB-20 LRI 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
2Department of Cell Biology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, NB-20 LRI 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
3Epilepsy Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, NB-20 LRI 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
4Division of Child Neurology, Carlo Besta Neurological Institute, 20133 Milan, Italy
5Cerebrovascular Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, NB-20 LRI 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
Received 10 November 2010; Accepted 28 January 2011
Academic Editor: Alon Friedman
Copyright © 2011 Nicola Marchi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- G. A. Grant and D. Janigro, “The blood-brain barrier,” in Youmans Neurological Surgery, H. R. Winn, Ed., vol. 1, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2010.
- N. J. Abbott, “Astrocyte-endothelial interactions and blood-brain barrier permeability,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 200, no. 6, pp. 629–638, 2002.
- N. J. Abbott, L. Ronnback, and E. Hansson, “Astrocyte-endothelial interactions at the blood-brain barrier,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 41–53, 2006.
- B. V. Zlokovic, “The Blood-Brain Barrier in Health and Chronic Neurodegenerative Disorders,” Neuron, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 178–201, 2008.
- C. Ghosh, J. Gonzalez-Martinez, M. Hossain et al., “Pattern of P450 expression at the human blood-brain barrier: roles of epileptic condition and laminar flow,” Epilepsia, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1408–1417, 2010.
- S. M. Sisodiya, W. R. Lint, B. N. Harding, M. V. Squier, and M. Thom, “Drug resistance in epilepsy: human epilepsy,” Novartis Foundation Symposium, vol. 243, pp. 167–179, 2002.
- S. M. Sisodiya, “Mechanisms of antiepileptic drug resistance,” Current Opinion in Neurology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 197–201, 2003.
- N. A. Oberheim, T. Takano, X. Han et al., “Uniquely hominid features of adult human astrocytes,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 3276–3287, 2009.
- P. J. Magistretti and L. Pellerin, “Cellular basis of brain energy metabolism and their relevance to brain imaging-evidence for a prominent role for astrocytes,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 5, pp. 301–306, 1995.
- N. Marchi, P. Rasmussen, M. Kapural et al., “Peripheral markers of brain damage and blood-brain barrier dysfunction,” Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. 21, no. 3-4, pp. 109–121, 2003.
- N. Marchi, M. Cavaglia, V. Fazio, S. Bhudia, K. Hallene, and D. Janigro, “Peripheral markers of blood-brain barrier damage,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 342, no. 1-2, pp. 1–12, 2004.
- A. A. Kanner, N. Marchi, V. Fazio et al., “Serum S100β: a noninvasive marker of blood-brain barrier function and brain lesions,” Cancer, vol. 97, no. 11, pp. 2806–2813, 2003.
- M. Kapural, L. Krizanac-Bengez, G. Barnett et al., “Serum S-100β as a possible marker of blood-brain barrier disruption,” Brain Research, vol. 940, no. 1-2, pp. 102–104, 2002.
- G. A. Grant and D. Janigro, “The blood-brain barrier,” in Youmans Neurological Surgery, H. R. Winn, Ed., vol. 1, pp. 153–174, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2004.
- A. Korn, H. Golan, I. Melamed, R. Pascual-Marqui, and A. Friedman, “Focal cortical dysfunction and blood-brain barrier disruption in patients with postconcussion syndrome,” Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2005.
- R. H. Schmidt and M. S. Grady, “Regional patterns of blood-brain barrier breakdown following central and lateral fluid percussion injury in rodents,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 415–430, 1993.
- R. A. Kroll and E. A. Neuwelt, “Outwitting the blood-brain barrier for therapeutic purposes: osmotic opening and other means,” Neurosurgery, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 1083–1100, 1998.
- C. Fieschi, G. L. Lenzi, and E. Zanette, “Effects on EEG of the osmotic opening of the blood-brain barrier in rats,” Life Sciences, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 239–243, 1980.
- N. Marchi, L. Angelov, T. Masaryk et al., “Seizure-promoting effect of blood-brain barrier disruption,” Epilepsia, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 732–742, 2007.
- N. Marchi, Q. Teng, C. Ghosh et al., “Blood-brain barrier damage, but not parenchymal white blood cells, is a hallmark of seizure activity,” Brain Research, vol. 1353, pp. 176–186, 2010.
- N. Marchi, A. Batra, Q. Fan, et al., “Antagonism of peripheral inflammation prevents status epilepticus,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 171–271, 2009.
- V. Rigau, M. Morin, M. C. Rousset et al., “Angiogenesis is associated with blood-brain barrier permeability in temporal lobe epilepsy,” Brain, vol. 130, no. 7, pp. 1942–1956, 2007.
- E. Seiffert, J. P. Dreier, S. Ivens et al., “Lasting blood-brain barrier disruption induces epileptic focus in the rat somatosensory cortex,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 24, no. 36, pp. 7829–7836, 2004.
- E. A. Van Vliet, A. S. da Costa, S. Redeker, R. Van Schaik, E. Aronica, and J. A. Gorter, “Blood-brain barrier leakage may lead to progression of temporal lobe epilepsy,” Brain, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 521–534, 2007.
- V. Alvarez, P. Maeder, and A. O. Rossetti, “Postictal blood-brain barrier breakdown on contrast-enhanced MRI,” Epilepsy and Behavior, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 302–303, 2010.
- C. Amato, M. Elia, S. A. Musumeci, P. Bisceglie, and M. Moschini, “Transient MRI abnormalities associated with partial status epilepticus: a case report,” European Journal of Radiology, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 50–54, 2001.
- M. G. Lansberg, M. W. O'Brien, A. M. Norbash, M. E. Moseley, M. Morrell, and G. W. Albers, “MRI abnormalities associated with partial status epilepticus,” Neurology, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1021–1027, 1999.
- K. M. Tan, J. W. Britton, J. R. Buchhalter et al., “Influence of subtraction ictal SPECT on surgical management in focal epilepsy of indeterminate localization: a prospective study,” Epilepsy Research, vol. 82, no. 2-3, pp. 190–193, 2008.
- W. A. Hauser, “Epidemiology of acute symptomatic seizures,” in Epilepsy: A Comprehensive Textbook, G. Engel and T. A. Pedley, Eds., pp. 71–75, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2008.
- E. Oby and D. Janigro, “The blood-brain barrier and epilepsy,” Epilepsia, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 1761–1774, 2006.
- S. Ivens, D. Kaufer, L. P. Flores et al., “TGF-β receptor-mediated albumin uptake into astrocytes is involved in neocortical epileptogenesis,” Brain, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 535–547, 2007.
- A. Vezzani and T. Granata, “Brain inflammation in epilepsy: experimental and clinical evidence,” Epilepsia, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 1724–1743, 2005.
- P. F. Fabene, G. N. Mora, M. Martinello et al., “A role for leukocyte-endothelial adhesion mechanisms in epilepsy,” Nature Medicine, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 1377–1383, 2008.
- G. Akhan, F. Andermann, and M. J. Gotman, “Ulcerative colitis, status epilepticus and intractable temporal seizures,” Epileptic Disorders, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 135–137, 2002.
- Z. L. Chen and S. Strickland, “Neuronal death in the hippocampus is promoted by plasmin-catalyzed degradation of laminin,” Cell, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 917–925, 1997.
- N. Marchi, E. Oby, N. Fernandez, et al., “In vivo and in vitro effects of pilocarpine: relevance to ictogenesis,” Epilepsia, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 1934–1946, 2007.
- R. Scheid and N. Teich, “Neurologic manifestations of ulcerative colitis,” European Journal of Neurology, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 483–492, 2007.
- S. Bauer, M. Köller, S. Cepok et al., “NK and CD4+ T cell changes in blood after seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 211, no. 2, pp. 370–377, 2008.
- T. Ravizza, B. Gagliardi, F. Noé, K. Boer, E. Aronica, and A. Vezzani, “Innate and adaptive immunity during epileptogenesis and spontaneous seizures: evidence from experimental models and human temporal lobe epilepsy,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 142–160, 2008.
- T. Granata, G. Gobbi, R. Spreafico et al., “Rasmussen's encephalitis: early characteristics allow diagnosis,” Neurology, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 422–425, 2003.
- T. Granata, “Rasmussen's syndrome,” Neurological Sciences, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. S239–S243, 2003.
- N. A. Gayatri, C. D. Ferrie, and H. Cross, “Corticosteroids including ACTH for childhood epilepsy other than epileptic spasms,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, article CD005222, 2007.
- T. Araki, H. Otsubo, Y. Makino et al., “Efficacy of dexamathasone on cerebral swelling and seizures during subdural grid EEG recording in children,” Epilepsia, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 176–180, 2006.
- R. Gupta and R. Appleton, “Corticosteroids in the management of the paediatric epilepsies,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 379–384, 2005.
- D. B. Sinclair, “Prednisone therapy in pediatric epilepsy,” Pediatric Neurology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 194–198, 2003.
- H. Verhelst, P. Boon, G. Buyse et al., “Steroids in intractable childhood epilepsy: clinical experience and review of the literature,” Seizure, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 412–421, 2005.
- N. Marchi, Q. Teng, M. T. Nguyen et al., “Multimodal investigations of trans-endothelial cell trafficking under condition of disrupted blood-brain barrier integrity,” BMC Neuroscience, vol. 11, article 34, 2010.
- E. Van Vliet, E. Aronica, S. Redeker et al., “Selective and persistent upregulation of mdr1b mRNA and P-glycoprotein in the parahippocampal cortex of chronic epileptic rats,” Epilepsy Research, vol. 60, no. 2-3, pp. 203–213, 2004.
- Q. Y. Fan, S. Ramakrishna, N. Marchi, V. Fazio, K. Hallene, and D. Janigro, “Combined effects of prenatal inhibition of vasculogenesis and neurogenesis on rat brain development,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 499–509, 2008.
- M. Marin-Padilla, “Perinatal brain damage, cortical reorganization (acquired cortical dysplasias), and epilepsy,” Advances in Neurology, vol. 84, pp. 153–172, 2000.
- M. E. Calcagnotto, M. F. Paredes, and S. C. Baraban, “Heterotopic neurons with altered inhibitory synaptic function in an animal model of malformation-associated epilepsy,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 22, no. 17, pp. 7596–7605, 2002.
- N. Chevassus-Au-Louis, P. Congar, A. Represa, Y. Ben-Ari, and J. L. Gaïarsa, “Neuronal migration disorders: heterotopic neocortical neurons in ca1 provide a bridge between the hippocampus and the neocortex,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 95, no. 17, pp. 10263–10268, 1998.
- N. Chevassus-Au-Louis, A. Rafiki, I. Jorquera, Y. Ben-Ari, and A. Represa, “Neocortex in the hippocampus: an anatomical and functional study of CA1 heterotopias after prenatal treatment with methylazoxymethanol in rats,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 394, no. 4, pp. 520–536, 1998.
- N. Chevassus-au-Louis, I. Jorquera, Y. Ben-Ari, and A. Represa, “Abnormal connections in the malformed cortex of rats with prenatal treatment with methylazoxymethanol may support hyperexcitability,” Developmental Neuroscience, vol. 21, no. 3–5, pp. 385–392, 1999.
- R. Matsumoto, M. Kinoshita, J. Taki et al., “In vivo epileptogenicity of focal cortical dysplasia: a direct cortical paired stimulation study,” Epilepsia, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 1744–1749, 2005.
- S. Bassanini, K. Hallene, G. Battaglia et al., “Early cerebrovascular and parenchymal events following prenatal exposure to the putative neurotoxin methylazoxymethanol,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 481–495, 2007.
- G. Battaglia, S. Pagliardini, L. Saglietti et al., “Neurogenesis in cerebral heterotopia induced in rats by prenatal methylazoxymethanol treatment,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 736–748, 2003.
- S. C. Baraban and P. A. Schwartzkroin, “Flurothyl seizure susceptibility in rats following prenatal methylazoxymethanol treatment,” Epilepsy Research, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 189–194, 1996.
- M. Di Luca, F. Merazzi, P. N. E. De Graan et al., “Selective alteration in B-50/GAP-43 phosphorylation in brain areas of animals characterized by cognitive impairment,” Brain Research, vol. 607, no. 1-2, pp. 329–332, 1993.
- C. Colacitti, G. Sancini, S. DeBiasi et al., “Prenatal methylazoxymethanol treatment in rats produces brain abnormalities with morphological similarities to human developmental brain dysgeneses,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 92–106, 1999.
- K. L. Hallene, E. Oby, B. J. Lee et al., “Prenatal exposure to thalidomide, altered vasculogenesis, and CNS malformations,” Neuroscience, vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 267–283, 2006.
- N. Marchi, G. Guiso, S. Caccia et al., “Determinants of drug brain uptake in a rat model of seizure-associated malformations of cortical development,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 429–442, 2006.