Table 1: Demographic characteristics of the patient and control groups.

Medicated patients ( )Antipsychotic-free patients ( )Controls ( )

Age (mean ± Sd)22 ± 421 ± 623 ± 4
Smokers (Yes/No)a20/47/28/32
Duration of illness (months ± Sd)b16 ± 193 ± 3
Duration of current medication use (weeks ± Sd)4 ± 4
PANSSc (mean ± Sd)
 Positive symptoms17 ± 623 ± 6
 Negative symptoms15 ± 521 ± 5
 General psychopathology33 ± 943 ± 12

 Total 65 ± 1687 ± 14

PANSS: positive and negative syndrome scale; Sd: standard deviation.
aThere were significantly more smokers in both patient groups than in the control group ( ).
b The duration of illness was significantly shorter in antipsychotic-free versus medicated patients ( ).
cAntipsychotic-free patients had higher PANSS scores for all subscales than medicated patients (positive: ; negative ; general psychopathology ; total score ).