Table 4: Beta coefficients of the HLM for cardiac responses to emotion-eliciting pictures in medication free patients, medicated patients, and healthy control subjects.

FactorComparison between GroAFPsComparison between picture typesBeta coefficientStandard error -score*

Constant−0.131.11−0.12
AFP versus C−0.880.43−2.04
GroupMP versus C1.600.364.51
MP versus AFP2.510.455.57
Neg. versus Neu.−2.120.248.76
Picture typePos. versus Neu.−1.790.247.39
Pos. versus Neg.0.330.241.37
Time1−5.631.723.27
Time2−0.031.72−0.02
AFP versus CNeg. versus Neu.0.590.561.05
MP versus CNeg. versus Neu.1.540.403.86
MP versus AFPNeg. versus Neu.0.920.601.54
AFP versus CPos. versus Neu.1.650.562.93
Group Picture TypeMP versus CPos. versus Neu.0.690.401.72
MP versus AFPPos. versus Neu.−1.020.60−1.71
AFP versus CPos. versus Neg. 1.060.561.89
MP versus CPos. versus Neg. −0.860.402.15
MP versus AFPPos. versus Neg. −1.920.603.20
AFP versus C−0.600.83−0.72
Group Time1MP versus C1.850.642.92
MP versus AFP2.460.912.70
AFP versus C−0.690.83−0.83
Group Time2MP versus C−1.000.64−1.57
MP versus AFP−0.300.91−0.33
Neg. versus Neu.−3.150.654.85
Picture Type TimePos. versus Neu.−2.260.653.48
Pos. versus Neg.0.900.651.38
Neg. versus Neu.0.260.650.40
Picture Type TimePos. versus Neu.0.370.650.56
Pos. versus Neg.0.110.650.17
Age0.100.024.95
Medication duration−0.170.035.09
Illness duration−0.020.012.88
HR baseline−0.030.013.71
Ln(HRV HF)−0.090.08−1.09
Ln(HRV_HF)  Time10.820.233.62
Ln(HRV_HF)  Time20.180.230.79
POMS TMD score0.010.012.33

*Numbers expressed in bold indicate significant effects at the 0.05 level.
HR: heart rate; Ln(HF-HRV): natural logarithm of high frequency heart rate variability; POMS: profile of mood states; TMD: total mood disturbance;
AFP: antipsychotic-free patients; C: control; MP: medicated patients; Neg: negative pictures; Neu: neutral pictures; Pos: positive pictures.