Table 4: Confounding by underlying psychiatric disease comparing rates of all-cause mortality (excluding suicide) or cardiac mortality in the psychiatric nonuser cohort to that of the general population controls.

OutcomePsychiatric DiseaseNo. of casesIncidence rate per 1000 person-years Age, sex-adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% CI)Fully adjusted RR (aRR) (95% CI)

MortalityNone (general population)29510.9ReferenceReference
Patients with bipolar disorders4315.21.50 (1.09–2.07)1.40 (1.01–1.95)
None (general population)19,85896.5ReferenceReference
Dementia4,445142.81.54 (1.49–1.59)1.45 (1.40–1.50)
None (general population)8,8909.9ReferenceReference
Major depression3,23011.31.40 (1.35–1.46)1.05 (0.98–1.12)
None (general population)51310.1ReferenceReference
Schizophrenia5523.12.23 (1.69–2.94)1.99 (1.50–2.65)

Cardiac mortalityNone (general population)341.8ReferenceReference
Patients with bipolar disorders52.4—(NC#)—(NC#)
None (general population)425728.9ReferenceReference
Dementia79532.21.16 (1.08–1.25)1.15 (1.06–1.24)
None (general population)13632.4ReferenceReference
Major depression4842.71.39 (1.25–1.54)1.00 (0.85–1.17)
None (general population)662.2ReferenceReference
Schizophrenia85.52.04 (0.98–4.26)*—(NC#)

, , , #Not calculable due to small number of cases.