Table 4: Adjusted odds of associations between the CES-D 16 and metabolic syndrome by sex.

Outcome variableWomenMen
CES-D scores ≥16CES-D scores ≥16
Odds ratio95% confidence interval Odds ratio95% confidence interval

Metabolic syndrome2512.641.19, 5.83.0172331.350.43, 4.24.603

Odds adjusted for age, poverty status, and BMI; histories of CVD, hypertension, and/or diabetes; medication use (antidiabetes, antihypertensive, cholesterol reduction, and antidepressant); hormone replacement therapy and menopausal status (in women); lifetime histories of smoking and drug use; and alcohol use in past week.