- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Case Reports in Dentistry
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 851413, 6 pages
Periodontal Plastic Microsurgery in the Treatment of Deep Gingival Recession after Orthodontic Movement
1Department of Periodontics, Veiga de Almeida University (UVA), Rua Ibituruna 108, Tijuca, 20271-021 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
2School of Dentistry, Serra dos ####^~^~^~^~^~^####xd3;rg####^~^~^~^~^~^####xe3;os University Center (UNIFESO), Avenida Alberto Torres 111, Alto, 25964-004 Teres####^~^~^~^~^~^####xf3;polis, RJ, Brazil
3Department of Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Fluminense Federal University (UFF), Rua Silvio Henrique Braune 22, Centro, 28625-650 Nova Friburgo, RJ, Brazil
Received 1 August 2013; Accepted 3 October 2013
Academic Editors: A. I. Abdalla, B. T. Amaechi, and K. H. Zawawi
Copyright © 2013 S####^~^~^~^~^~^####xe9;rgio Kahn et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Gingival recession is a condition that affects a large portion of the young and adult population and negatively affects the aesthetic aspects of the smile. Many factors are related to its development, including orthodontic movement beyond the osseous limits. Many treatment options have been proposed to cover the exposed root surface. The aim of this article was to describe three cases where a subepithelial connective tissue graft was performed, using a microsurgical technique, in the treatment of deep gingival recession after orthodontic treatment. This technique resulted in successful root coverage and keratinized tissue gain, improving the gingival esthetic pattern.
Gingival recession can be defined as the location of marginal periodontal tissues apical to the cementoenamel junction . This condition is prevalent in the young and adult populations . The prevalence, extension, and severity of gingival recession have been observed to increase with age, affecting 79####^~^~^~^~^~^####x25; of adults ####^~^~^~^~^~^####x3e;40 years old in a representative sample of the Brazilian population . It occurs in patients with either good or poor oral hygiene  and has multiple etiological factors  like traumatic tooth brushing , dehiscence, smoking, biological width invasion, inflammation, occlusal trauma, piercings , and orthodontic movement.
Although controversial, the scientific evidence demonstrates that gingival recession can develop in patients who undergo orthodontic movement [8, 9]. Furthermore, some studies have confirmed a positive correlation between the increase of severity and extension of gingival recession and orthodontic treatment .
The main factors related to the occurrence of gingival recession related to orthodontic movement are tooth movement beyond the osseous limits of the alveolar process and excessive tooth proclination during treatment, especially in adult patients [11, 12].
Thin gingival biotypes and the gingival inflammation associated with biofilm were observed as the risk factors for the development of gingival recession associated with orthodontic treatment .
There are several options for the treatment of gingival recession, including the free gingival graft , the sliding flap , the double pedicle flap , the subepithelial connective tissue graft , the enamel matrix derivative, the acellular dermal matrix, and growth factors [18####^~^~^~^~^~^####x2013;20].
The scientific evidence shows that the subepithelial connective tissue graft promotes higher levels of root coverage, high predictability and provides more gingival thickness [18####^~^~^~^~^~^####x2013;20].
As new techniques and materials are developed, new surgical approaches are necessary to minimize the surgical trauma and overcome the limitations related to the manual ability and natural vision of the surgeons. The incorporation of a surgical microscope to periodontal plastic surgery provides better illumination and adequate magnification to increase the precision of a surgeon####^~^~^~^~^~^####x2019;s surgical skill. Thus, minimally invasive techniques were developed to minimize tissue trauma and allow primary wound closure [21####^~^~^~^~^~^####x2013;23].
The aim of this study is to report three cases where a subepithelial connective tissue graft was performed using a microsurgical approach to treat deep gingival recession after orthodontic treatment.
2. Case Reports
Three patients from a private dental clinic with aesthetic complaints related to deep gingival recession were included in this report. All patients were healthy and nonsmokers and signed an informed consent. The details about each patient are described as follows.
Patient 1: 27-year-old white female, having previous orthodontic treatment over a period of 5 years, presenting with a thin gingival biotype  and Miller  Class III gingival recession at the mandibular central incisors (Figure 1).
Patient 2: 26-year-old white female, who started orthodontic treatment approximately 3 years earlier, presenting with a thick gingival biotype  and Miller  Class III gingival recession at the left mandibular central incisor (Figure 10).
Patient 3: 26-year-old white male, who started orthodontic treatment approximately 2 years earlier, presenting with a thin gingival biotype  and Miller  Class II gingival recession at the right mandibular central incisor (Figure 17).
2.1. Initial Therapy
All patients were submitted to a plaque control program, which included oral hygiene instructions, scaling and root planning using an ultrasonic device, and crown polishing.
2.2. Surgical Therapy
All surgical procedures were performed by a single operator. A single 8####^~^~^~^~^~^####x2009;mg dose of dexamethasone was given to each patient one hour before surgery. Extraoral antisepsis was performed with a degerming agent and intraoral antisepsis was performed with a 0.12####^~^~^~^~^~^####x25; chlorhexidine rinse. Mepivacaine (2.0####^~^~^~^~^~^####x25;) with 1####^~^~^~^~^~^####x2009;:####^~^~^~^~^~^####x2009;100.000 epinephrine was used as an anesthetic solution.
All cases were performed using the microsurgical approach for root coverage, as described by De Campos et al. . Initially, the exposed root surface was planned with a McCall 13/14 curette, followed by finishing burs. Citric acid gel (pH 1) was applied for 3 minutes. The surface was then washed for 45 seconds with a physiologic solution.
Both papillae adjacent to the recession were incised at buccal aspect. The first papillary incisions were horizontal at the level of the cementoenamel junction. The second papillary incisions were oblique and made at an apical level from those previously performed (Figures 2, 11 and 18). A third intrasulcular incision was performed to connect the papillary incisions. A partial thickness flap was performed from the second incision, allowing the removal of the gingival epithelium between the two incisions using Castroviejo scissors.
The recipient site was measured (Figure 3) using a periodontal probe and these measurements were transferred to the donor site. A palatal connective tissue graft was harvested from the area distal to the canine and anterior to the mesial aspect of the first molar on the same side of the surgery. The epithelium at the graft was removed (Figures 4 and 12). After stabilizing the graft in the correct position (Figures 5, 13, and 19) using 6-0 vicryl sutures, the microsutures for flap approximation and coaptation were performed using 6-0 and 8-0 vicryl sutures, respectively (Figures 6, 14, and 20). The palate was then sutured with a continuous basting suture using a 4-0 silk thread. A thin layer of periodontal dressing was applied at both surgical sites.
2.3. Postoperative Care
The patients were instructed to use Amoxicillin 500####^~^~^~^~^~^####x2009;mg t.i.d. for 7 days, Dexamethasone 4####^~^~^~^~^~^####x2009;mg b.i.d. in the first 24 hours and sodium dipyrone 1####^~^~^~^~^~^####x2009;g q.i.d. in the first 48####^~^~^~^~^~^####x2009;h. Furthermore, tooth brushing was discontinued around the surgical sites for three weeks and plaque control was provided by rinsing with a 0.12####^~^~^~^~^~^####x25; chlorhexidine solution twice a day. After this period, the patients were instructed to use a unituft brush to clean the site. After 7 days, the periodontal dressing and sutures were removed (Figures 7, 8, and 15) and the patients were called for follow-up visits (Figures 9 and 16). During the follow-up visits, Patient 3 presented with incomplete root coverage after the initial surgical procedure. A second surgical procedure was performed to provide complete root coverage (Figures 21, 22, 23, and 24).
Orthodontic movement is one of the important factors in the development of gingival recession. However, the scientific evidence related to this topic is scarce and controversial, since many studies use a limited sample and lack well-established evaluation criteria .
The results of several studies have demonstrated a higher prevalence and severity of gingival recession after orthodontic treatment. Nevertheless, some authors have observed that gingival recession related to orthodontic treatment affects a small portion of patients, and although there was an increase in severity, it did not result in severe clinical consequences [8, 10, 13].
It was observed that the proclination of incisors is related to the development of recession [11, 12]. However, Vasconcelos et al.  found that retroclination was also related to an increase in the severity of gingival recession. On the other hand, Djeu et al.  did not find a correlation between the proclination of mandibular central incisors and gingival recession.
With regards to gingival thickness, Yared et al.  observed that free gingival margins with a thickness ####^~^~^~^~^~^####x3c;0.5####^~^~^~^~^~^####x2009;mm presented greater and more severe recession associated with mandibular central incisors. However, one study using a human sample found that the mean amount of initial keratinized gingiva did not predispose the mandibular incisors and canines to gingival recession . An animal study found that central incisor sites submitted to gingival grafts showed less gingival recession and maintenance of gingival thickness after vestibular orthodontic movement .
Kao and Pasquinelli  classified the periodontal biotype as thin or thick. Thin biotypes present a thin underlying bone, characterized by bony dehiscence and fenestration, which reacts to insults and disease with gingival recession. The presence of a thin biotype was identified as a possible predictor of gingival recession in a study by Melsen and Allais . The present study reported two cases, 1 and 3, which had thin biotypes, since a highly scalloped soft tissue and bony architecture and a minimal amount of attached gingiva were observed.
The surgical manipulation of thin gingival biotypes imposes some challenges for the surgeons, since there is a higher possibility of flap dilacerations and/or perforations, which can interfere in the final result of the surgical treatment. Thus, it is possible that the incorporation of microsurgical techniques using appropriate illumination and magnification for more precise flap elevation and sutures can lead to primary wound closure [21####^~^~^~^~^~^####x2013;23].
According to Miller####^~^~^~^~^~^####x2019;s  classification, complete root coverage can be anticipated in Classes I and II, partial root coverage is expected in Class III and root coverage is not anticipated in Class IV. The presented cases were classified as Class II or III, and satisfactory root coverage was achieved in all cases. Patient 3 had a Miller Class II recession and was submitted to a second surgical procedure, since complete root coverage was not achieved with the first procedure and the gingival margin remained disharmonious. The reasons for this fact can be related to the initial recession depth as well as to the quality of the soft and hard tissue .
Within the limits of this study, a subepithelial connective tissue graft using a microsurgical approach resulted in successful root coverage and increased keratinized tissue, improving the gingival esthetic pattern in cases where deep gingival recession was associated with orthodontic movement.
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
This study was self-supported by the authors.
- The American Academy of Periodontology, Glossary of Periodontal Terms, The American Academy of Periodontology, Chicago, Ill, USA, 2001.
- P. B. Raetzke, “Covering localized areas of root exposure employing the “envelope” technique,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 397–402, 1985.
- C. Susin, A. N. Haas, R. V. Oppermann, O. Haugejorden, and J. M. Albandar, “Gingival recession: epidemiology and risk indicators in a representative urban Brazilian population,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 75, no. 10, pp. 1377–1386, 2004.
- H. Löe, A. Anerud, and H. Boysen, “The natural history of periodontal disease in man: prevalence, severity, and extent of gingival recession,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 489–495, 1992.
- A. Borghetti and V. Monnet-Corti, Chirurgie Plastique Parodontale, Éditions CDP, Paris, France, 2000.
- P. S. Rajapakse, G. I. McCracken, E. Gwynnett, N. D. Steen, A. Guentsch, and P. A. Heasman, “Does tooth brushing influence the development and progression of non-inflammatory gingival recession? A systematic review,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 1046–1061, 2007.
- A. Sardella, M. Pedrinazzi, C. Bez, G. Lodi, and A. Carrassi, “Labial piercing resulting in gingival recession. A case series,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 961–963, 2002.
- L. Q. Closs, B. Grehs, D. B. Raveli, and C. K. Rösing, “Occurrence, extension, and severity of gingival margin alterations after orthodontic treatment,” World Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. e1–e6, 2008.
- G. Vasconcelos, K. Kjellsen, H. Preus, V. Vandevska-Radunovic, and B. F. Hansen, “Prevalence and severity of vestibular recession in mandibular incisors after orthodontic treatment: a case-control retrospective study,” The Angle Orthodontist, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 42–47, 2012.
- S. Slutzkey and L. Levin, “Gingival recession in young adults: occurrence, severity, and relationship to past orthodontic treatment and oral piercing,” The American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 134, no. 5, pp. 652–656, 2008.
- I. Joss-Vassalli, C. Grebenstein, N. Topouzelis, A. Sculean, and C. Katsaros, “Orthodontic therapy and gingival recession: a systematic review,” Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 127–141, 2010.
- K. F. G. Yared, E. G. Zenobio, and W. Pacheco, “Periodontal status of mandibular central incisors after orthodontic proclination in adults,” The American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 6.e1–8.e1, 2006.
- B. Melsen and D. Allais, “Factors of importance for the development of dehiscences during labial movement of mandibular incisors: a retrospective study of adult orthodontic patients,” The American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 127, no. 5, pp. 552–561, 2005.
- H. Björn, “Free transplantation of gingiva propria,” Swedish Dental Journal, vol. 22, pp. 684–689, 1963.
- J. Grupe and R. Warren, “Repair of gingival defects by a sliding flap operation,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 290–295, 1956.
- R. J. Harris, “The connective tissue and partial thickness double pedicle graft: a predictable method of obtaining root coverage,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 477–486, 1992.
- B. Langer and L. J. Calagna, “The subepithelial connective tissue graft. A new approach to the enhancement of anterior cosmetics,” The International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 22–33, 1982.
- L. Chambrone, F. Sukekava, M. G. Araújo, F. E. Pustiglioni, L. A. Chambrone, and L. A. Lima, “Root-coverage procedures for the treatment of localized recession-type defects: a Cochrane systematic review,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 452–478, 2010.
- T. W. Oates, M. Robinson, and J. C. Gunsolley, “Surgical therapies for the treatment of gingival recession. A systematic review,” Annals of Periodontology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 303–320, 2003.
- M. Roccuzzo, M. Bunino, I. Needleman, and M. Sanz, “Periodontal plastic surgery for treatment of localized gingival recessions: a systematic review,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 29, supplement 3, pp. 178–194, 2002.
- J. M. Belcher, “A perspective on periodontal microsurgery,” The International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 191–196, 2001.
- G. V. de Campos, S. Bittencourt, A. W. Sallum, F. H. Nociti Júnior, E. A. Sallum, and M. Z. Casati, “Achieving primary closure and enhancing aesthetics with periodontal microsurgery,” Practical Procedures & Aesthetic Dentistry, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 449–454, 2006.
- D. A. Shanelec, “Periodontal microsurgery,” Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 402–407, 2003.
- R. T. Kao and K. Pasquinelli, “Thick vs. thin gingival tissue: a key determinant in tissue response to disease and restorative treatment,” Journal of the California Dental Association, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 521–526, 2002.
- P. D. Miller Jr., “A classification of marginal tissue recession,” The International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 8–13, 1985.
- G. Djeu, C. Hayes, and S. Zawaideh, “Correlation between mandibular central incisor proclination and gingival recession during fixed appliance therapy,” The Angle Orthodontist, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 238–245, 2002.
- L. Q. Closs, P. Branco, S. D. Rizzatto, D. B. Raveli, and C. K. Rösing, “Gingival margin alterations and the pre-orthodontic treatment amount of keratinized gingiva,” Brazilian Oral Research, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 58–63, 2007.
- H. D. Holmes, M. Tennant, and M. S. Goonewardene, “Augmentation of faciolingual gingival dimensions with free connective tissue grafts before labial orthodontic tooth movement: an experimental study with a canine model,” The American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 127, no. 5, pp. 562–572, 2005.