Case Reports in Dentistry The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Oral Mucosal Ulceration Caused by the Topical Application of a Concentrated Propolis Extract Tue, 09 Sep 2014 08:23:52 +0000 Propolis is a resinous mixture that is collected by honey bees from tree buds, sap flow, and other botanical sources. Propolis has been extensively used in medicine, dentistry, and cosmetics; however, unwanted effects have been reported. This paper reports a case of oral mucosal burn in a 50-year-old patient, who used an overnight application of concentrated propolis to overcome a throbbing pain in the right upper posterior mucosa. The patient was otherwise healthy and was not receiving any medication. She presented with painful shallow multiple irregular ulcers measuring 0.3–1 cm in diameter that were located on the right buccal mucosa and hard palate mucosa, in addition to the gingival mucosa surrounding tooth 17. Propolis-induced oral mucosal burn was diagnosed. The ulcer cleared after the prescription of tetracycline mouthwash, accompanied with Doloneurobion. The patient was further treated with carbamazepine to address the persistent throbbing pain in the affected area, which was suspected to be trigeminal neuralgia. This report provides another alert to clinicians about the potential adverse effects of propolis use for the treatment of oral diseases, despite its natural origin. Yuniardini Septorini Wimardhani and Anandina Irmagita Soegyanto Copyright © 2014 Yuniardini Septorini Wimardhani and Anandina Irmagita Soegyanto. All rights reserved. Creeping Attachment Involving Dental Implants: Two Case Reports with a Two-Year Follow-Up from an Ongoing Clinical Study Wed, 03 Sep 2014 06:38:24 +0000 Introduction. This paper describes case reports where coronal growth of soft tissue on implant threads was observed after surgery for soft tissue graft. This phenomenon is known as “creeping attachment.” Methods. Two patients were submitted to gingival graft procedure including subepithelial connective tissue graft and masticatory mucosal graft. A two-year follow-up appointment was performed. Results. After a two-year follow-up gingival growth over titanium surfaces characterizing the “creeping attachment” phenomenon was observed. This gingival growth happened over abutment and threads surfaces. Conclusion. The creeping attachment phenomenon is possible over titanium surfaces and has not yet been reported in the relevant literature over this kind of structure. Armando R. Lopes Pereira Neto, Bernardo Born Passoni, José Moisés de Souza Jr., João Gustavo Oliveira de Souza, César Augusto Magalhães Benfatti, Ricardo de Souza Magini, and Marco Aurélio Bianchini Copyright © 2014 Armando R. Lopes Pereira Neto et al. All rights reserved. Histological and Radiological Analyses of a Maxillary Sinus Lift with Extensive Drilling of the Schneider Membrane Using Xenogeneic Bone Tue, 02 Sep 2014 12:34:53 +0000 The objective of this study is to report a clinical case of maxillary sinus with lyophilized, xenogeneic graft, in which, despite a large perforation of the sinus membrane, the surgery was not aborted and the results of histological examinations indicate bone neoformation in the surgical area. Results. This case showed that the biomaterials evaluated in this study and the procedure used to place them proved to be biocompatible and presented high osteogenic potential, leading to a successful surgery and osseointegration implant. Conclusion. Positioning Schneider’s membrane and filling it with the graft biomaterial helped to achieve the desired osteoconduction and proliferation of bone cells even though the patient had a large perforation of the sinus membrane. Marcelo M. Romano, Júlia A. Smanio, Lorraine B. Ferreira, Victor E. Arana-Chavez, and Mário S. Soares Copyright © 2014 Marcelo M. Romano et al. All rights reserved. Complete Bilateral Gemination of Maxillary Incisors with Separate Root Canals Sun, 31 Aug 2014 14:38:36 +0000 Developmental anomalies in the hard tissue are seen frequently in dental practice. Gemination and fusion are the most commonly encountered anomalies, and distinction between the two is always challenging. Gemination, also called double tooth, is an anomaly exhibiting two joined crowns and usually a single root. It represents an incomplete attempt of a single tooth germ to split. It is considered multifactorial in etiology, with genetic and environmental causes. This paper discusses a rare example of bilateral gemination (prevalence 0.04%) of maxillary central incisors with completely separated roots. Multidisciplinary care ensured a successful esthetic and functional outcome. Lodd Mahendra, Sujatha Govindarajan, Muruganandhan Jayanandan, Shaik Mohammed Shamsudeen, Nalin Kumar, and Ramasamy Madasamy Copyright © 2014 Lodd Mahendra et al. All rights reserved. A Conservative Treatment Approach to Replacing a Missing Anterior Tooth Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:33:38 +0000 An implant-supported crown or conventionally fixed partial denture is the most common treatment modality to replace a missing anterior tooth but a more conservative approach, with a fiber reinforced composite resin FPD, can be used to replace a missing anterior tooth in young patients or when the patient does not agree for an implant, or conventional FPD or RPD therapy. It is an esthetic, conservative single sitting chairside procedure which can be used as a definitive treatment alternative in certain clinical situations for esthetic and functional replacement of a missing anterior tooth. To achieve desirable results, putty matrix was used for proper positioning of the pontic during direct fabrication of FRCFPD. Kunwarjeet Singh, Nidhi Gupta, Nandini Unnikrishnan, Vikram Kapoor, Dhruv Arora, and Poonam K. Khinnavar Copyright © 2014 Kunwarjeet Singh et al. All rights reserved. Clinical and Radiographic Findings and Usefulness of Computed Tomographic Assessment in Two Children with Regional Odontodysplasia Wed, 27 Aug 2014 11:55:16 +0000 Regional odontodysplasia is a rare, severe, and nonhereditary developmental disorder in tooth formation and involves epithelial and mesenchymal-derived dental tissue. On radiographs, affected teeth have an abnormal morphology, a hypoplastic crown, and only a faint outline of hard tissue, a condition termed “ghost teeth.” We report clinical and radiographic findings from two children with regional odontodysplasia. Using computed tomography (CT), we calculated attenuation coefficients (i.e., Hounsfield units) for affected teeth and assessed the condition of dental follicles. To measure density, regions of interest were delimited and CT values were calculated. In our two patients, the CT values for enamel were lower in affected teeth than in sound teeth, while CT values for dentin were similar for affected and sound teeth. The average CT value for dental follicles in affected teeth was about 65 to 120, which suggests that dense fibrous connective tissues or hard tissue-like structures might be present in dental follicles. Analysis of CT values may be quite useful in the diagnosis and treatment of regional odontodysplasia. Junko Matsuyama, Ray Tanaka, Futabako Iizawa, Tomiko Sano, Shoko Kinoshita-Kawano, Sachiko Hayashi-Sakai, and Tomoe Mitomi Copyright © 2014 Junko Matsuyama et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Aspects, Imaging Features, and Considerations on Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis Risk in a Pediatric Patient with Osteogenesis Imperfecta Tue, 26 Aug 2014 06:21:42 +0000 Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary condition caused by changes in collagen metabolism. It is classified into four types according to clinical, genetic, and radiological criteria. Clinically, bone fragility, short stature, blue sclerae, and locomotion difficulties may be observed in this disease. OI is often associated to severe dental problems, such as dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) and malocclusions. Radiographically, affected teeth may have crowns with bulbous appearance, accentuated constriction in the cementoenamel junction, narrowed roots, large root canals due to defective dentin formation, and taurodontism (enlarged pulp chambers). There is no definitive cure, but bisphosphonate therapy is reported to improve bone quality; however, there is a potential risk of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. In this study we report a case of OI in a male pediatric patient with no family history of OI who was receiving ongoing treatment with intravenous perfusion of bisphosphonate and who required dental surgery. In addition, we discussed the clinical and imaging findings and briefly reviewed the literature. Fábio Wildson Gurgel Costa, Filipe Nobre Chaves, Alexandre Simões Nogueira, Francisco Samuel Rodrigues Carvalho, Karuza Maria Alves Pereira, Lúcio Mitsuo Kurita, Rodrigo Rodrigues Rodrigues, and Cristiane Sá Roriz Fonteles Copyright © 2014 Fábio Wildson Gurgel Costa et al. All rights reserved. An Unusual Presentation of Oral Mucocele in Infant and Its Review Tue, 26 Aug 2014 05:44:18 +0000 Mucocele is a benign lesion characterized by an extravasation or retention of mucous in submucosal tissue from minor salivary glands. Mucoceles are known to occur most commonly on the lower lip, followed by the floor of mouth and buccal mucosa being the next most frequent sites. Trauma and lip biting habits are the main cause for these types of lesions. Mucocele is a common oral mucosal lesion but it is rarely observed in the infant. This paper highlights the successful management of a rare case of mucocele in an 11-month-old child. Diagnosis and management of mucocele are challenging. For this reason we felt it would be interesting to review the clinical characteristics, histological features, differential diagnosis, and their treatment and evolution in order to aid decision-making in daily clinical practice. Neha Bhargava, Prateek Agarwal, Nitin Sharma, Mayank Agrawal, Mohsin Sidiq, and Pooja Narain Copyright © 2014 Neha Bhargava et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Rhinosporidiosis of the Parotid Duct Mon, 25 Aug 2014 06:20:45 +0000 Case Reports in Dentistry Copyright © 2014 Case Reports in Dentistry. All rights reserved. Clinical and Genetic Analysis of a Nonsyndromic Oligodontia in a Child Mon, 25 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The etiology of tooth agenesis may be related to several factors, among them, the genetic alterations that play a fundamental role in the development of this dental anomaly, so that knowledge about it helps the clinician to have a greater understanding of their patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to report the case of a nonsyndromic child, with tooth agenesis of one premolar, three first permanent molars, and all second permanent molars. In addition, a genetic research between polymorphic variants in genes MMP3 and BMP2 was performed in order to observe the association between changes in these genes and congenital tooth absences. For this purpose, DNA from child was extracted and polymorphisms were investigated. It was clinically and radiographically observed that this was a case of oligodontia, in which the authors suggested an association between the polymorphisms found and tooth agenesis diagnosed in that child. Orlando Lopes Coelho Neto, Maria Fernanda Reis, Ticiana Medeiros de Sabóia, Patrícia Nivoloni Tannure, Leonardo Santos Antunes, and Andréa Gonçalves Antonio Copyright © 2014 Orlando Lopes Coelho Neto et al. All rights reserved. Plexiform Unicystic Ameloblastoma: A Rare Variant of Ameloblastoma Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:07:49 +0000 The term plexiform unicystic ameloblastoma refers to a pattern of epithelial proliferation that has been described in cystic cavity. Because of unilocular presentation, it is commonly misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst. However, they may often behave clinically as biologically aggressive tumors. These tumors show high incidence of cortical perforation, tooth resorption and a high rate of recurrence after simple enucleation. This paper aims to provide an insight into this biologically distinct entity. A literature review on the topic has been added along with a case report highlighting the approach of diagnosis and management of such ameloblastomas. Swapnil S. Deore, Rishikesh C. Dandekar, Aarti M. Mahajan, Rahul Patil, and Nilima Prakash Copyright © 2014 Swapnil S. Deore et al. All rights reserved. Unilateral Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Case Report and Literature Review Mon, 11 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Congenital absence of maxillary permanent canines is an extremely rare condition, which may appear as part of a syndrome or as a nonsyndromic form. Nonsyndromic canine agenesis combined with other types of tooth agenesis has occasionally been described in the literature but isolated cases are rarely observed. This report presents an isolated case of maxillary permanent canine agenesis in a healthy 18-year-old female patient and a literature review on the prevalence, etiology, and differential diagnosis of the condition. Nagihan Koç, L. Berna Çağırankaya, and Nursel Akkaya Copyright © 2014 Nagihan Koç et al. All rights reserved. Surgery Management of Rare Hypertrophic Frenum in an Infant Sun, 10 Aug 2014 13:22:17 +0000 To report a rare case of a lateral frenum hypertrophy in an infant, this paper describes the case of a girl who came to a first dental appointment when she was 4 months old. A hypertrophic lateral frenum in the upper left canine region was detected. A great depression in the gingival rodet separated the anterior maxillary segment from the posterior one and also decreased the lip mobility in this region. A frenectomy was performed when the patient was 11 months old and the clinical follow-up was done up to the age of 30 months. There was normalization in the vestibular insertion of the lateral frenum, lip mobility, physiological development of the maxilla, and eruption of the upper incisors, canines, and first primary molars. Infants should go to a dental examination precociously in order to detect possible congenital and development alterations. Sheila de Carvalho Stroppa, Juliana Yassue Barbosa da Silva, Maria Cristina Reis Tavares, João Gilberto Duda, and Estela Maris Losso Copyright © 2014 Sheila de Carvalho Stroppa et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Different Final Impression Techniques for Management of Resorbed Mandibular Ridge: A Case Report Sun, 10 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The history of complete denture impression procedures has been influenced largely by the development of impression materials from which new techniques and ideas arose. The purpose of this study was to compare the retention of complete dentures made by using different impression techniques like conventional, admixed, all green, and functional techniques. The results showed that there was significant difference in retention between the six techniques where functional technique showed the highest mean value of retention followed by elastomeric, all green, and admixed, while cocktail and green stick compound showed the lowest mean value. However, on clinical examination, the retention produced by the six techniques was satisfactory. Bhupender Yadav, Manisha Jayna, Harish Yadav, Shrey Suri, Shefali Phogat, and Reshu Madan Copyright © 2014 Bhupender Yadav et al. All rights reserved. The Platform Switching Approach to Optimize Split Crest Technique Wed, 06 Aug 2014 09:29:58 +0000 The split crest technique is a reliable procedure used simultaneously in the implant positioning. In the literature some authors describe a secondary bone resorption as postoperative complication. The authors show how platform switching can be able to avoid secondary resorption as complication of split crest technique. G. Sammartino, V. Cerone, R. Gasparro, F. Riccitiello, and O. Trosino Copyright © 2014 G. Sammartino et al. All rights reserved. Semirigid Cantilever Extension System for Splinting Implants: A Clinical Report Tue, 05 Aug 2014 10:11:51 +0000 In mandibular edentulous patients, treatment based on immediate loading with rigid splinting in the mandible is well accepted; however, it is cost and time dependent, which sometimes limits this type of rehabilitation. To overcome these problems, the technique of immediate loading using a semirigid splinting extension system has been developed. Its advantages include low cost, technical feasibility, and reduced clinic time. This clinical report presents the applicability and the predictability of semirigid splinting of implants in the mandibular arch of an edentulous patient using a distal extension bar prosthesis system. Raissa Micaella Marcello Machado, Luciana de Rezende Pinto, Otacílio Luiz Chagas Júnior, and Fernanda Faot Copyright © 2014 Raissa Micaella Marcello Machado et al. All rights reserved. Dental Erosion from an Excess of Vitamin C Mon, 04 Aug 2014 07:20:09 +0000 Acid erosion of enamel is the chemical dissolution of the superficial layers of teeth without the presence of bacteria. If the presence and exposure of a demineralising agent such as vitamin C is frequent and prolonged, it can lead to significant tooth wear. This case report discusses one such presentation and as a result of the occlusal relationship, this serves to effectively demonstrate the localised effects of vitamin C-induced acid erosion. The management of localised tooth wear with composite restorations utilising the Dahl principle to replace lost tooth tissue is also reported. Clinical Relevance. Patients should be made aware of the erosive nature of chewable vitamin C tablets and their potentially harmful effects on the dentition if consumed in excess. Objective Statement. The reader should understand the clinical implications of an excessive intake of vitamin C. This demonstrates the importance of the manufacturer’s instructions and the clinician’s role in advising patients with regard to the correct therapeutic doses. Priya Bahal and Serpil Djemal Copyright © 2014 Priya Bahal and Serpil Djemal. All rights reserved. Nonsurgical Management of Nifedipine Induced Gingival Overgrowth Sun, 03 Aug 2014 11:32:53 +0000 Drug-induced gingival overgrowth is frequently associated with three particular drugs: phenytoin, cyclosporin, and nifedipine. As gingival enlargement develops, it affects the normal oral hygiene practice and may interfere with masticatory functions. The awareness in the medical community about this possible side effect of nifedipine is less when compared to the effects of phenytoin and cyclosporin. The frequency of gingival enlargement associated with chronic nifedipine therapy remains controversial. Within the group of patients that develop this unwanted effect, there appears to be variability in the extent and severity of the gingival changes. Although gingival inflammation is considered a primary requisite in their development, few cases with minimal or no plaque induced gingival inflammation have also been reported. A case report of gingival overgrowth induced by nifedipine in a patient with good oral hygiene and its nonsurgical management with drug substitution is discussed in this case report. George Sam and Staly Chakkalakkal Sebastian Copyright © 2014 George Sam and Staly Chakkalakkal Sebastian. All rights reserved. Five Canalled and Three-Rooted Primary Second Mandibular Molar Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:48:53 +0000 A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy and its variation is necessary for successful completion of root canal procedures. Morphological variations such as additional root canals in human deciduous dentition are rare. A mandibular second primary molar with more than four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations, especially when three of these canals are located in the distal root. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals. Haridoss Selvakumar, Swaminathan Kavitha, Rajendran Bharathan, and Jacob Sam Varghese Copyright © 2014 Haridoss Selvakumar et al. All rights reserved. Lasers in Esthetic Dentistry: Soft Tissue Photobiomodulation, Hard Tissue Decontamination, and Ceramics Conditioning Wed, 23 Jul 2014 09:35:41 +0000 The increasing concern and the search for conservative dental treatments have resulted in the development of several new technologies. Low and high power lasers can be cited as one of these new technologies. Low power lasers act at cellular level leading to pain reduction, modulation of inflammation, and improvement of tissue healing. High power lasers act by increasing temperature and have the potential to promote microbial reduction and ablation of hard and soft tissues. The clinical application of both low and high power lasers requires specific knowledge concerning laser interaction with biological tissues, so that the correct irradiation protocol can be established. The present case report describes the clinical steps of two metal-ceramic crowns development in a 60-year-old patient. Three different laser wavelengths were applied throughout the treatment with different purposes: Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm) for dentin decontamination, diode (660 nm) for soft tissue biomodulation, and Er:YAG laser (2,940 nm) for inner ceramic surface conditioning. Lasers were successfully applied in the present case report as coadjutant in the treatment. This coadjutant technology can be a potential tool to assist treatment to reach the final success. Karen Müller Ramalho, Patrícia Moreira de Freitas, Ana Cecília Correa-Aranha, Marina Stella Bello-Silva, Roberta Marques da Graça Lopes, and Carlos de Paula Eduardo Copyright © 2014 Karen Müller Ramalho et al. All rights reserved. Mandibular Atrophy and Genial Spines Enlargement on Cone Beam Computed Tomography Wed, 23 Jul 2014 07:23:55 +0000 Purpose. The aim of this paper is to report a case in which the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was important for the confirmation of the presence of mandibular atrophy and genial spines enlargement. Case Description. A 76-year-old female patient was referred for the assessment due to the complaint of chronic trauma in the anterior region of the floor of the mouth, which had been present for 2 months. CBCT images showed severe resorption of alveolar ridge and genial spines enlargement (5.5 mm × 12 mm). Conclusion. Accurate imaging assessment with the aid of 3D reconstructions allows the elimination of image superimposition and, therefore, plays an important role in the depiction of anatomical and pathological conditions, such as genial spines enlargement. Marcelo Lupion Poleti, Christiano Oliveira-Santos, Luciana Maria Paes da Silva Ramos Fernandes, and Izabel Regina Fischer Rubira-Bullen Copyright © 2014 Marcelo Lupion Poleti et al. All rights reserved. Correction of Multiple Canine Impactions by Mixed Straightwire and Cantilever Mechanics: A Case Report Tue, 22 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background. This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a woman, aged 17 years, with a permanent dentition, brachyfacial typology, Angle Class I, with full impaction of two canines (13,33), and a severe ectopy of the maxillary left canine. Her main compliant was the position of the ectopic teeth. Methods. Straightwire fixed appliances, together with cantilever mechanics, were used to correct the impaired occlusion and to obtain an ideal torque control. Results and Conclusion. The treatment objectives were achieved in 26 months of treatment. The impactions were fully corrected with an optimal torque. The cantilever mechanics succeeded in obtaining tooth repositioning in a short lapse of time. After treatment, the dental alignment was stable. Sergio Paduano, Iacopo Cioffi, Giorgio Iodice, Vincenzo d’Antò, Francesco Riccitiello, Gioacchino Pellegrino, and Rosa Valletta Copyright © 2014 Sergio Paduano et al. All rights reserved. S-Shaped Canals: A Series of Cases Performed by Four Specialists around the World Wed, 16 Jul 2014 09:18:01 +0000 Recognition of anatomical variations is a real challenge for clinicians undertaking therapy regardless of the teeth that are to be treated. The extent of the curvature is one of the most important variables that could lead to instrument fracture. In clinical conditions, two curves can be present in the same root canal trajectory. This type of geometry is denoted as the “S” shape, and it is a challenging condition. This report describes a different clinical and educational scenario where four specialists around the world present different approaches for the treatment of root canals with double curvatures or S-shaped canals. Endodontic therapy is a very nuanced and challenging science and art. The clinical and teaching experience of the authors show different approaches that can be successfully employed to treat challenging teeth having roots with multiple curves. The necessity of precise knowledge of the root canal morphology and its variation is also underlined. Ricardo Machado, Antonis Chaniottis, Jorge Vera, Carlos Saucedo, Luiz Pascoal Vansan, and Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal Silva Copyright © 2014 Ricardo Machado et al. All rights reserved. Ectopic 3rd Molar Tooth in the Maxillary Antrum Tue, 15 Jul 2014 11:06:24 +0000 Location of ectopic tooth in a nondentate area like the maxillary antrum is rare. A 17-year-old boy, with one year history of recurrent right facial swelling and radiographic finding of a maxillary third molar tooth located at the posterior wall of the maxillary antrum, is presented. Under endotracheal intubation, the tooth was extracted through a Caldwell-Luc antrostomy approach and patient had an uneventful recovery and has been symptom free for eight months. Ectopic tooth in the maxillary antrum is rare and is commonest with maxillary third molar. It may be symptomless but is more commonly associated with inflammatory symptoms. The treatment of choice is surgical excision which is mostly carried out with Caldwell-Luc approach, even though endoscopic approach is being reported. Seidu A. Bello, Ifeoluwa O. Oketade, and Otasowie D. Osunde Copyright © 2014 Seidu A. Bello et al. All rights reserved. Nonsurgical Treatment of Two Periapical Lesions with Calcium Hydroxide Using Two Different Vehicles Tue, 15 Jul 2014 08:47:47 +0000 Calcium hydroxide is used extensively as an intracanal medicament in endodontics for many years. It is used in various clinical situations such as to promote apexification, to repair perforation, to enhance healing of periapical lesions, to control root resorption, and to control exudation in teeth with persistent periapical inflammation. This paper presents a case report in which Ca(OH)2 was used as an intracanal medicament for treatment of periradicular lesions using two different vehicles in two different teeth of same patient. Seema Dixit, Ashutosh Dixit, and Pravin Kumar Copyright © 2014 Seema Dixit et al. All rights reserved. Schwannoma of the Tongue in a Paediatric Patient: A Case Report and 20-Year Review Mon, 14 Jul 2014 12:01:05 +0000 Schwannomas (Neurilemmomas) are benign, encapsulated, slow-growing, and usually solitary tumours originating from Schwann cells of the peripheral nerve sheath with uncertain etiology. Approximately 25–48% of cases are seen in the head and neck region, of which 1% appears in the oral cavity. Lingual schwannoma can affect all age groups with peak incidence between the third and sixth decade. We report a rare case of lingual schwannoma in a 14-year-old girl complaining of asymptomatic swelling over lateral border of tongue since two years. Clinical examination revealed a nodule  cm in size, rubbery, nontender, smooth at right lateral border of tongue covered by normal mucosa, with no cervical lymphadenopathy. Excisional biopsy of the lesion was done under local anaesthesia. The histological sections spindle cells with thin wavy nuclei arranged as typical Antoni A (with Verocay bodies) and Antoni B areas. Nuclear palisading distribution (typical of a schwannoma) was readily identifiable. The patient was recurrence-free after one year. Nitin Bhola, Anendd Jadhav, Rajiv Borle, Gaurav Khemka, Umesh Bhutekar, and Sanatan Kumar Copyright © 2014 Nitin Bhola et al. All rights reserved. CTCFL (BORIS) mRNA Expression in a Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma of the Oral Cavity Thu, 10 Jul 2014 09:55:05 +0000 Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is a relatively common benign reactive lesion of the oral cavity which can occur at any age. CTCFL/BORIS (CTCF like/Brother of the Regulator of Imprinted Sites) and CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) are paralogous genes with an important role in the regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, and nuclear chromatin insulators regulation. BORIS expression promotes cell immortalization and growth while CTCF has tumor suppressor activity; the expression pattern may reflect the reverse transcription silencing of BORIS. The aim of this work was to describe a histopathological and molecular approach of an 8-year-old pediatric male patient with PGCG diagnosis. It was observed that the PGCG under study expressed CTCF as well as BORIS mRNAs alongside with the housekeeping gene GAPDH, which may be related to possible genetic and epigenetic changes in normal cells of oral cavity. Graciela Zambrano-Galván, Miguel Reyes-Romero, Ronell Bologna-Molina, Oscar Eduardo Almeda-Ojeda, and Obed Lemus-Rojero Copyright © 2014 Graciela Zambrano-Galván et al. All rights reserved. Odontogenic Keratocyst Mimicking Paradental Cyst Tue, 08 Jul 2014 12:03:30 +0000 Objective. The aim of this paper is to present an uncommon clinical and radiographic aspect of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) mimicking paradental cyst. Methods. A 32-year-old female patient showed a well-delimited radiolucent lesion connected with the root of the left third molar with close anatomical relationship with the mandibular canal. The clinical, radiographic, and anamnestic features lead us to diagnose a paradental cyst that was treated by enucleation after extraction of the partially impacted tooth. Results. Histological analysis showed typical histological features of PKC such as the presence of a lining of stratified squamous epithelium with a well-defined basal layer of palisading columnar of cuboidal cells. Conclusion. Initial X-ray analysis and the position of the lesion related to the third mandibular tooth caused us to mistakenly diagnose a paradental cyst. We were only able to identify the cyst as an PKC rather than a paradental cyst after histological analysis. Andrea Enrico Borgonovo, Luigi Bernardini, Paola Francinetti, Federica Rizza, and Dino Re Copyright © 2014 Andrea Enrico Borgonovo et al. All rights reserved. Surgical Management of Mandibular Central Incisors with Dumbbell Shaped Periapical Lesion: A Case Report Tue, 08 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Dental traumatic injuries may affect the teeth and alveolar bone directly or indirectly. Pulpal necrosis and chronic and apical periodontitis with cystic changes are the most common sequelae of the dental traumatic injuries, if the teeth are not treated immediately. This case report focuses on the conventional and surgical management of mandibular central incisors. A twenty-four-year-old male patient presented with pain in the mandibular central incisors. Radiographic examination revealed mandibular central incisors with dumbbell shaped periapical lesion. After root canal treatment, parendodontic surgery was performed for mandibular central incisors. After one-year recall examination, the teeth were asymptomatic and periapical lesion had healed. Roopadevi Garlapati, Bhuvan Shome Venigalla, Jayaprakash D. Patil, Thumu Jayaprakash, C. H. Krishna Chaitanya, and Rama S. Kalluru Copyright © 2014 Roopadevi Garlapati et al. All rights reserved. Cephalometric Approach to the Occlusal Vertical Dimension Reestablishment Thu, 03 Jul 2014 11:57:46 +0000 The occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) refers to the length of the face as determined by the amount of separation of the jaws. Its determination is important for the manufacture of restorations. However, defining the correct occlusal vertical dimension for edentulous patients is one of the most important steps for function and esthetics rehabilitation. Cephalometry is a standardized method of assessing dental and facial proportions and their interrelation. Additionally, cephalometric analysis of the facial vertical dimension can establish an individual pattern for each patient. This analysis should become a permanent part of each patient’s record. Hence, this study presented a case report with the use of cephalometry as an auxiliary tool in the rehabilitation of OVD. Clinical relevance showed that cephalometric analysis can be an accurate and convenient instrument to treatment planning and prognostic of oral rehabilitation. The reader should understand the clinical implications of using cephalometry as a tool in the rehabilitation of OVD. João César Zielak, David Gulin Neto, Leonardo Fernandes da Cunha, Tatiana Miranda Deliberador, and Allan Fernando Giovanini Copyright © 2014 João César Zielak et al. All rights reserved.