Case Reports in Infectious Diseases http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A Rare Case of Streptococcus alactolyticus Infective Endocarditis Complicated by Septic Emboli and Mycotic Left Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm Thu, 21 Jul 2016 13:44:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/9081352/ To date, S. alactolyticus endocarditis complicated by middle cerebral artery aneurysm has not been reported. We describe the case of a 65-year-old female with a history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction presenting with confusion and a apical holosystolic murmur. Angiography of the brain identified new bilobed left middle cerebral artery aneurysm. Serial blood cultures grew S. alactolyticus, and aortic and mitral valve vegetation were discovered on transesophageal echocardiography. The patient was treated with antimicrobial therapy, mitral and aortic valve replacements, and microsurgical clipping of cerebral aneurysm. This case serves to highlight the pathogenicity of a sparsely described bacterium belonging to the heterogenous S. bovis complex. Patricia Almeida, Jaclyn Railsback, and James Benjamin Gleason Copyright © 2016 Patricia Almeida et al. All rights reserved. Two Case Reports on Thalamic and Basal Ganglia Involvement in Children with Dengue Fever Mon, 11 Jul 2016 06:42:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/7961368/ There have been increasing numbers of case reports of dengue infection with unusual manifestations. Such unusual manifestations including acute liver failure and encephalopathy could be manifested even in the absence of significant plasma leakage. Further, severe organ involvement including nervous system involvement indicates severe dengue infection. However, neurological manifestations of dengue fever are rare. This is the first case report of dengue infection with thalamic and basal ganglia involvement in Sri Lanka. Guwani Liyanage, Lihini Adhikari, Saraji Wijesekera, Maheshaka Wijayawardena, and Suchithra Chandrasiri Copyright © 2016 Guwani Liyanage et al. All rights reserved. Two Cases of Legionella pneumophila Pneumonia with Prolonged Neurologic Symptoms and Brain Hypoperfusion on Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Sun, 10 Jul 2016 09:19:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/5264681/ Cerebral and cerebellar symptoms are frequently associated with Legionnaires’ disease. However, corresponding brain lesions are difficult to demonstrate using either computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We report here two patients with Legionella pneumophila pneumonia accompanied by prolonged neurologic symptoms. In contrast to brain CT and MRI, which failed to detect any abnormalities, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) showed multiple sites of hypoperfusion within the brains of both patients. These cases suggest that vasculopathy, which is detectable by SPECT, might be one of the causes of neurologic symptoms in patients with Legionnaires’ disease. Hiromitsu Ohta, Susumu Yamazaki, You Miura, Akira Seto, Minoru Kanazawa, and Makoto Nagata Copyright © 2016 Hiromitsu Ohta et al. All rights reserved. Treatment of Polymicrobial Osteomyelitis with Ceftolozane-Tazobactam: Case Report and Sensitivity Testing of Isolates Wed, 29 Jun 2016 10:42:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/1628932/ Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an inherently multidrug resistant (MDR) opportunistic pathogen with many mechanisms of resistance. SENTRY studies reveal decreasing sensitivities of S. maltophilia to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolones. Ceftolozane-tazobactam (Zerbaxa, Merck & Co., Inc.) a novel intravenous combination agent of a third-generation cephalosporin and β-lactamase inhibitor was demonstrated to have in vitro activity against many Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and MDR organisms. Data for ceftolozane-tazobactam’s use outside of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indications has been limited thus far to two case reports which demonstrated its efficacy in pan-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Herein, we describe the first published case of treatment of MDR S. maltophilia in polymicrobial osteomyelitis with long-term (>14 days) ceftolozane-tazobactam and metronidazole. Ceftolozane-tazobactam may offer a possible alternative for clinicians faced with limited options in the treatment of resistant pathogens including MDR S. maltophilia. Jeffrey C. Jolliff, Jackie Ho, Jeremiah Joson, Arash Heidari, and Royce Johnson Copyright © 2016 Jeffrey C. Jolliff et al. All rights reserved. Intravenous Drug Abuse by Patients Inside the Hospital: A Cause for Sustained Bacteremia Tue, 28 Jun 2016 15:03:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/1738742/ Patients with history of intravenous drug abuse are noted to be at risk of several infections including HIV, endocarditis, and other opportunistic infections. We report the case of a patient with sustained Bacillus cereus bacteremia despite use of multiple antibiotic regimens during his inpatient stay. Our case highlights the importance of high suspicion for active drug use inside the hospital in such patients. This is important in order to minimize unnecessary diagnostic workup and provide adequate treatment and safe hospital stay for these patients. Noopur Goel, Lubna Bashir Munshi, and Braghadheeswar Thyagarajan Copyright © 2016 Noopur Goel et al. All rights reserved. First Case of Lung Abscess due to Salmonella enterica Serovar Abony in an Immunocompetent Adult Patient Sun, 26 Jun 2016 12:10:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/3159031/ In healthy individuals, nontyphoidal Salmonella species predominantly cause a self-limited form of gastroenteritis, while they infrequently invade or cause fatal disease. Extraintestinal manifestations of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections are not common and mainly occur among individuals with specific risk factors; among them, focal lung infection is a rare complication caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella strains typically occurring in immunocompromised patients with prior lung disease. We describe the first case of a localized lung abscess formation in an immunocompetent healthy female adult due to Salmonella enterica serovar Abony. The patient underwent lobectomy and was discharged after full clinical recovery. This case report highlights nontyphoidal Salmonellae infections as a potential causative agent of pleuropulmonary infections even in immunocompetent healthy adults. Vassiliki Pitiriga, John Dendrinos, Emanuel Nikitiadis, Georgia Vrioni, and Athanassios Tsakris Copyright © 2016 Vassiliki Pitiriga et al. All rights reserved. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteroides fragilis Bacteremia in a US Resident: An Emerging Challenge Thu, 23 Jun 2016 13:31:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/3607125/ We describe a case of Bacteroides fragilis bacteremia associated with paraspinal and psoas abscesses in the United States. Resistance to b-lactam/b-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, and metronidazole was encountered despite having a recent travel history to India as the only possible risk factor for multidrug resistance. Microbiological cure was achieved with linezolid, moxifloxacin, and cefoxitin. Cristian Merchan, Sunita Parajuli, Justin Siegfried, Marco R. Scipione, Yanina Dubrovskaya, and Joseph Rahimian Copyright © 2016 Cristian Merchan et al. All rights reserved. Autoantibodies in a Three-Year-Old Girl with Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall Thu, 23 Jun 2016 10:30:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/2081616/ Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a life-threatening parasitic infection, is endemic in the Mediterranean region. Diagnosis of VL is based on epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory findings. However, sometimes, clinical features and laboratory findings overlap with those of autoimmune diseases. In some cases, autoantibodies are detected in patients with VL and this could be a potential diagnostic pitfall. In this study, we have reported on a three-year-old girl from a VL-endemic area in Iran, who presented with prolonged fever and splenomegaly. Bone marrow examination, serologic tests, and the molecular PCR assay were performed; however, results were inconclusive. The levels of anti-double stranded DNA, cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody, and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody were elevated and, at the end, splenic biopsy was performed. The splenic tissue PCR test detected the DNA of Leishmania infantum. The patient’s condition improved with anti-Leishmania therapy, and the autoantibodies disappeared within the following four months. Clinical presentations and laboratory findings of VL and autoimmune diseases may overlap in some patients. Gholamreza Pouladfar, Zahra Jafarpour, Amir Hossein Babaei, Bahman Pourabbas, Bita Geramizadeh, and Anahita Sanaei Dashti Copyright © 2016 Gholamreza Pouladfar et al. All rights reserved. Voriconazole-Induced Periostitis Mimicking Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Tue, 14 Jun 2016 10:57:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/3242196/ Voriconazole is an established first-line agent for treatment of invasive fungal infections in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). It is associated with the uncommon complication of periostitis. We report this complication in a 58-year-old female undergoing HSCT. She was treated with corticosteroids with minimal improvement. The symptoms related to periostitis can mimic chronic graft-versus-host disease in patients undergoing HSCT and clinicians should differentiate this from other diagnoses and promptly discontinue therapy. Karen Sweiss, Annie Oh, Damiano Rondelli, and Pritesh Patel Copyright © 2016 Karen Sweiss et al. All rights reserved. Haemophilus parainfluenzae Mural Endocarditis: Case Report and Review of the Literature Sun, 12 Jun 2016 09:21:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/3639517/ Haemophilus parainfluenzae, which uncommonly causes endocarditis, has never been documented to cause mural involvement. A 62-year-old immunocompetent female without predisposing risk factors for endocarditis except for poor dentition presented with fever, emesis, and dysmetria. Echocardiography found a mass attached to the left ventricular wall with finger-like projections. Computed tomography showed evidence of embolic phenomena to the brain, kidneys, spleen, and colon. Cardiac MRI revealed involvement of the chordae tendineae of the anterior papillary muscles. Blood cultures grew Haemophilus parainfluenzae. The patient was treated successfully with ceftriaxone with resolution of symptoms, including neurologic deficits. After eleven days of antibiotics a worsening holosystolic murmur was discovered. Worsening mitral regurgitation on echocardiography was only found three weeks later. Nine weeks after presentation, intraoperative evaluation revealed chord rupture but no residual vegetation and mitral repair was performed. Four weeks after surgery, the patient was back to her baseline. This case illustrates the ability of Haemophilus parainfluenzae to form large mural vegetations with high propensity of embolization in otherwise normal cardiac tissue among patients with dental risk factors. It also underscores the importance of physical examination in establishing a diagnosis of endocarditis and monitoring for progression of disease. Luca T. Giurgea and Tim Lahey Copyright © 2016 Luca T. Giurgea and Tim Lahey. All rights reserved. A Case of Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis Caused by Listeria monocytogenes Bacteremia Sun, 29 May 2016 13:11:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/1093453/ Importance. Infections can cause leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Observations. We report the case of a patient with a left ventricular assist device who presented with acute kidney injury and biopsy proven leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Blood cultures grew Listeria monocytogenes. The patient’s rash improved with treatment of the underlying Listeria infection. Conclusion. Clinicians should be aware that there are a number of broad categories of disease associated with the histologic finding of vasculitis, including infection. It is important to keep in mind the risk factors of a particular patient when formulating a differential diagnosis. This is the first reported case of Listeria bacteremia causing leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Daniel R. Bunker and Timothy Sullivan Copyright © 2016 Daniel R. Bunker and Timothy Sullivan. All rights reserved. Challenges in Treating Secondary Syphilis Osteitis in an Immunocompromised Patient with a Penicillin Allergy: Case Report and Review of the Literature Sun, 29 May 2016 11:19:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/4983504/ Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that remains fairly commonplace. The introduction of penicillin aided in curbing the incidence of disease; however, with the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis is now on a resurgence with sometimes curious presentations. We present a case of a 36-year-old Caucasian gentleman with untreated HIV who complained of a skin eruption and joint pains for 6 weeks, prompting the diagnosis of secondary syphilis osteitis. Skin lesions were reminiscent of “malignant” syphilis. CD4 count was 57 cells/μL. RPR was elevated with 1 : 64 titer and positive confirmatory TP-PA. Radiography of the limbs revealed polyostotic cortical irregularities corroborated on bone scintigraphy. The patient had an unknown penicillin allergy and was unwilling to conduct a trial of penicillin-based therapy. He was subsequently treated with doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 6 weeks and commenced antiretroviral therapy, noting dramatic improvement in both the skin lesions and joint pains. Unfortunately, he defaulted on follow-up, precluding serial RPR and bone imaging. Penicillin allergies have proven to be quite a conundrum in such patients, without much recourse for alternative therapy. Doxycycline with/without azithromycin is other options worth considering. Robert Ali, Julio Perez-Downes, Firas Baidoun, Bashar Al Turk, Carmen Isache, Girish Mohan, and Charles Perniciaro Copyright © 2016 Robert Ali et al. All rights reserved. On-Treatment Elevation in Hepatic Transaminases during HCV Treatment with Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir, Dasabuvir, Ritonavir, and Ribavirin: A Case Series Thu, 26 May 2016 09:27:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/6151570/ Eradication of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is now possible with all oral antiviral medications, including the combination of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, dasabuvir, and ritonavir (PrOD) with or without ribavirin. While high rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) can be achieved, a small subset of patients experience on-treatment liver enzyme elevations, in particular women using concurrent estradiol-containing oral contraceptive medications (OCPs). Herein, we describe four cases of liver enzyme elevations within 2-3 weeks of PrOD initiation in African-American men infected with HCV genotype 1a or 1b. Three patients with varying degrees of hepatic fibrosis received a full treatment course without medication modification, achieved SVR, and experienced resolution of liver enzyme abnormalities. One patient with cirrhosis was switched mid-treatment to an alternate HCV regimen, experienced subsequent resolution of liver enzyme abnormalities, and achieved SVR. In summary, these cases suggest that all HCV patients treated with PrOD, independent of gender or concurrent medications, should have laboratory monitoring for liver enzyme elevations, with a particular emphasis on early monitoring in cirrhotic patients. Madelyne Bean, Lydia Tang, Shyam Kottilil, Kimberly L. Beavers, and Eric G. Meissner Copyright © 2016 Madelyne Bean et al. All rights reserved. Nocardia transvalensis Disseminated Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Tue, 24 May 2016 13:49:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/3818969/ Nocardia transvalensis complex includes a wide range of microorganisms with specific antimicrobial resistance patterns. N. transvalensis is an unusual Nocardia species. However, it must be differentiated due to its natural resistance to aminoglycosides while other Nocardia species are susceptible. The present report describes a Nocardia species involved in an uncommon clinical case of a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and pulmonary nocardiosis. Microbiological and molecular techniques based on the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed diagnosis of Nocardia transvalensis sensu stricto. The successful treatment was based on trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other drugs. We conclude that molecular identification of Nocardia species is a valuable technique to guide good treatment and prognosis and recommend its use for daily bases diagnosis. Jorge García-Méndez, Erika M. Carrillo-Casas, Andrea Rangel-Cordero, Margarita Leyva-Leyva, Juan Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Roberto Arenas, and Rigoberto Hernández-Castro Copyright © 2016 Jorge García-Méndez et al. All rights reserved. Neurologic Adverse Events Associated with Voriconazole Therapy: Report of Two Pediatric Cases Tue, 24 May 2016 12:40:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/3989070/ Although voriconazole, a triazole antifungal, is a safe drug, treatment with this agent is associated with certain adverse events such as hepatic, neurologic, and visual disturbances. The current report presents two cases, one a 9-year-old boy and the other a 17-year-old girl, who experienced neurologic side effects associated with voriconazole therapy. Our aim is to remind readers of the side effects of voriconazole therapy in order to prevent unnecessary investigations especially for psychological and ophthalmologic problems. The first case was a 9-year-old boy with cystic fibrosis and invasive aspergillosis that developed photophobia, altered color sensation, and fearful visual hallucination. The second case was a 17-year-old girl with cystic fibrosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and she experienced photophobia, fatigue, impaired concentration, and insomnia, when the dose of voriconazole therapy was increased from 12 mg/kg/day to 16 mg/kg/day. The complaints of the two patients disappeared after discontinuation of voriconazole therapy. Our experience in these patients reminded us of the importance of being aware of the neurologic adverse events associated with voriconazole therapy in establishing early diagnosis and initiating prompt treatment. In addition, although serum voriconazole concentration was not measured in the present cases, therapeutic drug monitoring for voriconazole seems to be critically important in preventing neurologic side effects in pediatric patients. Sevliya Öcal Demir, Serkan Atici, Gülşen Akkoç, Nurhayat Yakut, Nilay Baş İkizoğlu, Ela Erdem Eralp, Ahmet Soysal, and Mustafa Bakir Copyright © 2016 Sevliya Öcal Demir et al. All rights reserved. Coccidioides immitis Cervical Lymphadenitis Complicated by Esophageal Fistula Mon, 23 May 2016 14:35:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/8715405/ Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) is caused by the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. Most infections are asymptomatic or result in self-limited pneumonia; extrapulmonary dissemination via either hematogenous or lymphatic spread is rare. Here, we present a case of cervical C. immitis lymphadenitis that resulted in fistula formation to the esophagus via mediastinal extension. This case highlights a very unusual extrapulmonary manifestation of coccidioidomycosis, the difficulty in diagnosing coccidioidal infection when it is not suspected, and the importance of obtaining a thorough exposure history to assist with diagnosis. Michael Loudin, Daniel R. Clayburgh, and Morgan Hakki Copyright © 2016 Michael Loudin et al. All rights reserved. Respiratory Failure Associated with Ascariasis in a Patient with Immunodeficiency Sun, 22 May 2016 09:23:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/4070561/ In industrialized countries, risk groups for parasitic diseases include travelers, recent immigrants, and patients with immunodeficiency following chemotherapy and radiotherapy and AIDS. A 66-year-old Polish male was admitted in December 2012 to the Department of Haematology in a fairly good general condition. On the basis of cytological, cytochemical, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow, the patient was diagnosed with acute myeloblastic leukemia. On the 7th day of hospitalization in the Department of Haematology, patient was moved to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) due to acute respiratory and circulatory failure. In March 2013, 3 months after the onset of respiratory failures, a mature form of Ascaris spp. appeared in the patient’s mouth. This report highlights the importance of considering an Ascaris infection in patients with low immunity presenting no eosinophilia but pulmonary failure in the central countries of Europe. Lanocha Aleksandra, Zdziarska Barbara, Lanocha-Arendarczyk Natalia, Kosik-Bogacka Danuta, Guzicka-Kazimierczak Renata, and Marzec-Lewenstein Ewa Copyright © 2016 Lanocha Aleksandra et al. All rights reserved. Rhinoscleroma with Pharyngolaryngeal Involvement Caused by Klebsiella ozaenae Thu, 12 May 2016 14:23:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/6536275/ Rhinoscleroma is a chronic, slowly progressive granulomatous bacterial infection that is endemic to the tropical world, namely, Central America and Africa. It is occasionally seen in the United States of America (USA). It predominately affects the nasal mucosa but can also involve the rest of the upper respiratory tract. The well-known causative agent for rhinoscleroma is the bacterium Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis, a subspecies of Klebsiella pneumoniae. However, Klebsiella ozaenae can also, albeit very rarely, cause rhinoscleroma. The diagnosis is confirmed by histopathology examination that shows the characteristic Mikulicz cells, considered pathognomonic for this infection. We report a patient with histologically proven rhinoscleroma with pharyngolaryngeal involvement in whom cultures yielded Klebsiella ozaenae. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases of rhinoscleroma due to Klebsiella ozaenae have been reported in the literature to date. Our case illustrates the importance of recognizing this infection in a nonendemic setting such as the USA. A lack of awareness and a delay in the diagnosis of this disease can lead to complications including upper airway obstruction, physical deformity, and, rarely, sepsis. In addition, it must be remembered that the treatment of rhinoscleroma is challenging and requires a prolonged course of antibiotics to achieve a definite cure and avoid relapses. J. Gonzales Zamora and A. R. Murali Copyright © 2016 J. Gonzales Zamora and A. R. Murali. All rights reserved. Blastocystis sp. Infection Mimicking Clostridium Difficile Colitis Mon, 09 May 2016 09:54:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/7264387/ We report an unusual case of severe diarrhea related to Blastocystis sp. infection in a patient with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis. The patient was admitted due to profuse diarrhea associated with fever and leukocytosis. Pertinent stool work-up such as leukocytes in stool, stool culture, clostridium difficile toxin B PCR, and serology for hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C and cytomegalovirus screening were all negative. Ova and parasite stool examination revealed Blastocystis sp. The patient was given intravenous metronidazole with clinical improvement by day three and total resolution of symptoms by day ten. Gaby S. Gil, Shobhana Chaudhari, Ahmed Shady, Ana Caballes, and Joe Hong Copyright © 2016 Gaby S. Gil et al. All rights reserved. Tuberculous Gastric Abscess in a Patient with AIDS: A Rare Presentation Sat, 30 Apr 2016 13:47:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/5675036/ Tuberculosis is a healthcare concern that affects millions of individuals around the globe. Coinfection with HIV has changed both the clinical presentation and the outcome of the disease dramatically in the last few decades. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is seen more frequently in the immunocompromised host. An unusual case of gastric tuberculosis in an AIDS patient is reported here. A 49-year-old female with AIDS was admitted for fever and epigastric pain. A gastric submucosal abscess was observed on imaging and confirmed by biopsy showing numerous neutrophils and acid-fast bacilli. Aspirate grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This report highlights a very unusual presentation of tuberculosis in an immunodeficient patient. High clinical suspicion for opportunistic infections in unusual locations should be maintained in these patients presenting with clinical syndromes that do not respond to standard treatments. New diagnostic modalities facilitate accurate identification of these infections. Ekta Nayyar, Julian A. Torres, and Carlos D. Malvestutto Copyright © 2016 Ekta Nayyar et al. All rights reserved. Neuroinfection as a Mask of Lung Cancer: A Case Series Sat, 30 Apr 2016 11:10:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/6061350/ Introduction. The diagnosis of lung cancer may still be difficult due to the fact that the first symptoms very often mimic symptoms of other diseases. Case Presentation. In this paper we present two cases, in which initial diagnosis of neuroinfection delayed proper diagnosis. Conclusion. Based on our experience we concluded that neurological symptoms in the area endemic for tick-borne diseases suggesting neuroinfection require careful differential diagnosis. Moreover, neurological symptoms in heavy smokers may be associated with metastases of lung cancer. Beata Kuklińska, Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska, Robert Mróz, Sławomir Pancewicz, and Joanna Zajkowska Copyright © 2016 Beata Kuklińska et al. All rights reserved. Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis in an Immunocompetent Child: A Case Report and Management of Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis Tue, 26 Apr 2016 16:38:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/7549252/ Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) usually causes mild, asymptomatic, and self-limited infections in children and adults; however, it may occasionally lead to severe conditions such as neurological diseases, malignant diseases, hepatic failure, and myocarditis. Epstein-Barr virus-related neurological disorders include meningitis, encephalitis, and cranial or peripheral neuritis, which are mostly seen in immunocompromised patients. The therapeutic modalities for EBV-related severe organ damage including central nervous system manifestations are still uncertain. Herein, we describe a seven-year-old boy with EBV encephalitis who presented with prolonged fever, exudative pharyngitis, reduced consciousness, and neck stiffness. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed contrast enhancement in the bilateral insular cortex and the right hypothalamus. The diagnosis was made by EBV-DNA amplification in both the blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. He was discharged with acyclovir therapy without any sequelae. Gulsen Akkoc, Eda Kepenekli Kadayifci, Ayse Karaaslan, Serkan Atici, Nurhayat Yakut, Sevliya Ocal Demir, Ahmet Soysal, and Mustafa Bakir Copyright © 2016 Gulsen Akkoc et al. All rights reserved. Brucella Septic Arthritis: Case Reports and Review of the Literature Thu, 21 Apr 2016 09:37:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/4687840/ Brucellosis is one of the commonest zoonotic infections worldwide. The disease is endemic in Saudi Arabia, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean area. Osteoarticular involvement is a frequent manifestation of brucellosis. It tends to involve the sacroiliac joints more commonly; however, spondylitis and peripheral arthritis are increasingly reported. Brucellosis can be overlooked especially in the presence of companion bacteria. Hence, it should be suspected in all patients with septic arthritis in endemic areas or in patients visiting such areas. Fatehi Elnour Elzein and Nisreen Sherbeeni Copyright © 2016 Fatehi Elnour Elzein and Nisreen Sherbeeni. All rights reserved. Multifocal Aeromonas Osteomyelitis in a Child with Leukemia Thu, 21 Apr 2016 07:54:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/8159048/ Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram negative organism causing both intestinal and extraintestinal disease. The case of a 14-year-old girl with underlying immunodeficiency and leukemia who developed systemic A. hydrophila infection is described in this report. While in deep bone marrow aplasia she developed fever, severe pain in the lower extremities, and swelling of the left femur. Blood culture showed Escherichia coli and A. hydrophila whereas pus culture from the soft tissue swelling showed the presence of A. hydrophila. Imaging studies showed diffuse osteolytic lesions. Patient received 5 months of intravenous and oral antibiotics and she improved clinically whereas the radiology findings persisted. Dimitrios Doganis, Margarita Baka, Maria Tsolia, Apostolos Pourtsidis, Evangelia Lebessi, Maria Varvoutsi, Despina Bouhoutsou, and Helen Kosmidis Copyright © 2016 Dimitrios Doganis et al. All rights reserved. Acute Pyelonephritis with Bacteremia Caused by Enterococcus hirae: A Rare Infection in Humans Tue, 05 Apr 2016 09:28:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/4698462/ Enterococci are one of the usual residents of the microflora in humans. In the last decade this genus has been reported as the third most common cause of bacteremia. We present the case of a 78-year-old female who was admitted to the emergency room because of nausea, lipothymia, and weakness. She was diagnosed with a pyelonephritis with bacteremia, with the isolation in blood and urine cultures of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus hirae. This last microorganism is a rarely isolated pathogen in humans. Currently it is estimated to represent 1–3% of all enterococcal species isolated in clinical practice. Ana Pãosinho, Telma Azevedo, João V. Alves, Isabel A. Costa, Gustavo Carvalho, Susana R. Peres, Teresa Baptista, Fernando Borges, and Kamal Mansinho Copyright © 2016 Ana Pãosinho et al. All rights reserved. PBP-2 Negative Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus schleiferi Bacteremia from a Prostate Abscess: An Unusual Occurrence Tue, 22 Mar 2016 11:51:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/8979656/ Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. schleiferi is a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus which has been described as a pathogen responsible for various nosocomial infections including bacteremia, brain abscess, and infection of intravenous pacemakers. Recently, such bacteria have been described to be found typically on skin and mucosal surfaces. It is also believed to be a part of the preaxillary human flora and more frequently found in men. It is very similar in its pathogenicity with Staphylococcus aureus group and expresses a fibronectin binding protein. Literature on this pathogen reveals that it commonly causes otitis among dogs because of its location in the auditory meatus of canines. Also, it has strong association with pyoderma in dogs. The prime concern with this organism is the antibiotic resistance and relapse even after appropriate treatment. Very rarely, if any, cases have been reported about prostatic abscess (PA) with this microbe. Our patient had a history of recurrent UTIs and subsequent PA resulting in S. schleiferi bacteremia in contrast to gram negative bacteremia commonly associated with UTI. This organism was found to be resistant to methicillin, in spite of being negative for PBP2, which is a rare phenomenon and needs further studies. Chandni Merchant, Daphne-Dominique Villanueva, Ishan Lalani, Margaret Eng, and Yong Kang Copyright © 2016 Chandni Merchant et al. All rights reserved. A Lethal Case of Sphingomonas paucimobilis Bacteremia in an Immunocompromised Patient Sun, 20 Mar 2016 10:13:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/3294639/ Sphingomonas paucimobilis is a yellow-pigmented, glucose nonfermenting, aerobic, Gram negative bacillus of low pathogenicity. This organism was found in the implantation of indwelling catheters, sterile intravenous fluid, or contaminated hospital environment such as tap and distilled water, nebulizer, ventilator, and hemodialysis device. A 55-year-old female was hospitalized for diabetic foot ulcer in the presence of multiple comorbidities: diabetes mellitus, colonic tuberculosis, end-stage renal disease, and indwelling catheters for central venous catheter and hemodialysis. The patient passed away on the 44th day of admission due to septic shock. The organism found on blood culture on the 29th day of admission was multidrug resistant S. paucimobilis. Severe infection and septic shock due to S. paucimobilis have been reported particularly in immunocompromised patients, but there has been only one reported case of death in a premature neonate with septic shock. This is the first reported lethal case of S. paucimobilis bacteremia in an adult patient. Nata Pratama Hardjo Lugito, Cucunawangsih, and Andree Kurniawan Copyright © 2016 Nata Pratama Hardjo Lugito et al. All rights reserved. Place of Colistin-Rifampicin Association in the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii Meningitis: A Case Study Tue, 15 Mar 2016 09:36:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/8794696/ Treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis is an important challenge due to the accumulation of resistance of this bacteria and low meningeal diffusion of several antimicrobial requiring use of an antimicrobial effective combination to eradicate these species. We report a case of Acinetobacter baumannii multidrug-resistant nosocomial meningitis which was successfully treated with intravenous and intrathecal colistin associated with rifampicin. Dahraoui Souhail, Belefquih Bouchra, Badia Belarj, Rar Laila, Frikh Mohammed, Oumarou Mamane Nassirou, Ibrahimi Azeddine, Charki Haimeur, Abdelhay Lemnouer, and Mostafa Elouennass Copyright © 2016 Dahraoui Souhail et al. All rights reserved. Tuberculosis of the Breast: An Initial Presentation of the Metabolic Syndrome with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Young Nigerian Woman Thu, 10 Mar 2016 09:38:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/5485862/ Breast tuberculosis is an uncommon presentation of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. A 40-year-old obese woman presented with a right breast abscess which had failed to heal after surgical drainage. There was no family history of breast disease. Biopsy and histology of the lesion showed chronic granulomatous inflammation with positive stains for acid fast bacilli compatible with tuberculosis. Further evaluation confirmed metabolic syndrome with type 2 diabetes mellitus. She was placed on antituberculosis chemotherapy and appropriate therapy for diabetes mellitus with complete resolution of the lesion. We report this case because of its rarity and to highlight the association between tuberculosis an infectious disease and overnutrition in diabetes mellitus, a noncommunicable disease. M. A. Adeiza, R. Yusuf, A. A. Liman, P. Abur, F. Bello, and A. A. Abba Copyright © 2016 M. A. Adeiza et al. All rights reserved. Tuberculous Panophthalmitis with Lymphadenitis and Central Nervous System Tuberculoma Wed, 09 Mar 2016 09:49:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/6785382/ Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease that spreads globally. The ocular manifestations of TB are uncommon and diverse. TB panophthalmitis has been rarely reported. Here, we described a 38-year-old Thai man presenting with panophthalmitis of the right eye. Further investigation showed that he had concurrent TB lymphadenitis and central nervous system (CNS) tuberculoma, as well as HIV infection, with a CD4 cell count of 153 cells/mm3. Despite the initial response to antituberculous agents, the disease had subsequently progressed and enucleation was required. The pathological examination revealed acute suppurative granulomatous panophthalmitis with retinal detachment. Further staining demonstrated acid-fast bacilli in the tissue. Colonies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were obtained from tissue culture. He was treated with antiretroviral agents for HIV infection and 12 months of antituberculous agents. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of TB in the differential diagnosis of endophthalmitis and panophthalmitis, especially in regions where TB is endemic. Sirawat Srichatrapimuk, Duangkamon Wattanatranon, and Somnuek Sungkanuparph Copyright © 2016 Sirawat Srichatrapimuk et al. All rights reserved.