Case Reports in Infectious Diseases The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Tuberculous Gastric Abscess in a Patient with AIDS: A Rare Presentation Sat, 30 Apr 2016 13:47:46 +0000 Tuberculosis is a healthcare concern that affects millions of individuals around the globe. Coinfection with HIV has changed both the clinical presentation and the outcome of the disease dramatically in the last few decades. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is seen more frequently in the immunocompromised host. An unusual case of gastric tuberculosis in an AIDS patient is reported here. A 49-year-old female with AIDS was admitted for fever and epigastric pain. A gastric submucosal abscess was observed on imaging and confirmed by biopsy showing numerous neutrophils and acid-fast bacilli. Aspirate grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This report highlights a very unusual presentation of tuberculosis in an immunodeficient patient. High clinical suspicion for opportunistic infections in unusual locations should be maintained in these patients presenting with clinical syndromes that do not respond to standard treatments. New diagnostic modalities facilitate accurate identification of these infections. Ekta Nayyar, Julian A. Torres, and Carlos D. Malvestutto Copyright © 2016 Ekta Nayyar et al. All rights reserved. Neuroinfection as a Mask of Lung Cancer: A Case Series Sat, 30 Apr 2016 11:10:36 +0000 Introduction. The diagnosis of lung cancer may still be difficult due to the fact that the first symptoms very often mimic symptoms of other diseases. Case Presentation. In this paper we present two cases, in which initial diagnosis of neuroinfection delayed proper diagnosis. Conclusion. Based on our experience we concluded that neurological symptoms in the area endemic for tick-borne diseases suggesting neuroinfection require careful differential diagnosis. Moreover, neurological symptoms in heavy smokers may be associated with metastases of lung cancer. Beata Kuklińska, Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska, Robert Mróz, Sławomir Pancewicz, and Joanna Zajkowska Copyright © 2016 Beata Kuklińska et al. All rights reserved. Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis in an Immunocompetent Child: A Case Report and Management of Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis Tue, 26 Apr 2016 16:38:34 +0000 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) usually causes mild, asymptomatic, and self-limited infections in children and adults; however, it may occasionally lead to severe conditions such as neurological diseases, malignant diseases, hepatic failure, and myocarditis. Epstein-Barr virus-related neurological disorders include meningitis, encephalitis, and cranial or peripheral neuritis, which are mostly seen in immunocompromised patients. The therapeutic modalities for EBV-related severe organ damage including central nervous system manifestations are still uncertain. Herein, we describe a seven-year-old boy with EBV encephalitis who presented with prolonged fever, exudative pharyngitis, reduced consciousness, and neck stiffness. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed contrast enhancement in the bilateral insular cortex and the right hypothalamus. The diagnosis was made by EBV-DNA amplification in both the blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. He was discharged with acyclovir therapy without any sequelae. Gulsen Akkoc, Eda Kepenekli Kadayifci, Ayse Karaaslan, Serkan Atici, Nurhayat Yakut, Sevliya Ocal Demir, Ahmet Soysal, and Mustafa Bakir Copyright © 2016 Gulsen Akkoc et al. All rights reserved. Brucella Septic Arthritis: Case Reports and Review of the Literature Thu, 21 Apr 2016 09:37:32 +0000 Brucellosis is one of the commonest zoonotic infections worldwide. The disease is endemic in Saudi Arabia, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean area. Osteoarticular involvement is a frequent manifestation of brucellosis. It tends to involve the sacroiliac joints more commonly; however, spondylitis and peripheral arthritis are increasingly reported. Brucellosis can be overlooked especially in the presence of companion bacteria. Hence, it should be suspected in all patients with septic arthritis in endemic areas or in patients visiting such areas. Fatehi Elnour Elzein and Nisreen Sherbeeni Copyright © 2016 Fatehi Elnour Elzein and Nisreen Sherbeeni. All rights reserved. Multifocal Aeromonas Osteomyelitis in a Child with Leukemia Thu, 21 Apr 2016 07:54:25 +0000 Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram negative organism causing both intestinal and extraintestinal disease. The case of a 14-year-old girl with underlying immunodeficiency and leukemia who developed systemic A. hydrophila infection is described in this report. While in deep bone marrow aplasia she developed fever, severe pain in the lower extremities, and swelling of the left femur. Blood culture showed Escherichia coli and A. hydrophila whereas pus culture from the soft tissue swelling showed the presence of A. hydrophila. Imaging studies showed diffuse osteolytic lesions. Patient received 5 months of intravenous and oral antibiotics and she improved clinically whereas the radiology findings persisted. Dimitrios Doganis, Margarita Baka, Maria Tsolia, Apostolos Pourtsidis, Evangelia Lebessi, Maria Varvoutsi, Despina Bouhoutsou, and Helen Kosmidis Copyright © 2016 Dimitrios Doganis et al. All rights reserved. Acute Pyelonephritis with Bacteremia Caused by Enterococcus hirae: A Rare Infection in Humans Tue, 05 Apr 2016 09:28:06 +0000 Enterococci are one of the usual residents of the microflora in humans. In the last decade this genus has been reported as the third most common cause of bacteremia. We present the case of a 78-year-old female who was admitted to the emergency room because of nausea, lipothymia, and weakness. She was diagnosed with a pyelonephritis with bacteremia, with the isolation in blood and urine cultures of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus hirae. This last microorganism is a rarely isolated pathogen in humans. Currently it is estimated to represent 1–3% of all enterococcal species isolated in clinical practice. Ana Pãosinho, Telma Azevedo, João V. Alves, Isabel A. Costa, Gustavo Carvalho, Susana R. Peres, Teresa Baptista, Fernando Borges, and Kamal Mansinho Copyright © 2016 Ana Pãosinho et al. All rights reserved. PBP-2 Negative Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus schleiferi Bacteremia from a Prostate Abscess: An Unusual Occurrence Tue, 22 Mar 2016 11:51:34 +0000 Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. schleiferi is a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus which has been described as a pathogen responsible for various nosocomial infections including bacteremia, brain abscess, and infection of intravenous pacemakers. Recently, such bacteria have been described to be found typically on skin and mucosal surfaces. It is also believed to be a part of the preaxillary human flora and more frequently found in men. It is very similar in its pathogenicity with Staphylococcus aureus group and expresses a fibronectin binding protein. Literature on this pathogen reveals that it commonly causes otitis among dogs because of its location in the auditory meatus of canines. Also, it has strong association with pyoderma in dogs. The prime concern with this organism is the antibiotic resistance and relapse even after appropriate treatment. Very rarely, if any, cases have been reported about prostatic abscess (PA) with this microbe. Our patient had a history of recurrent UTIs and subsequent PA resulting in S. schleiferi bacteremia in contrast to gram negative bacteremia commonly associated with UTI. This organism was found to be resistant to methicillin, in spite of being negative for PBP2, which is a rare phenomenon and needs further studies. Chandni Merchant, Daphne-Dominique Villanueva, Ishan Lalani, Margaret Eng, and Yong Kang Copyright © 2016 Chandni Merchant et al. All rights reserved. A Lethal Case of Sphingomonas paucimobilis Bacteremia in an Immunocompromised Patient Sun, 20 Mar 2016 10:13:50 +0000 Sphingomonas paucimobilis is a yellow-pigmented, glucose nonfermenting, aerobic, Gram negative bacillus of low pathogenicity. This organism was found in the implantation of indwelling catheters, sterile intravenous fluid, or contaminated hospital environment such as tap and distilled water, nebulizer, ventilator, and hemodialysis device. A 55-year-old female was hospitalized for diabetic foot ulcer in the presence of multiple comorbidities: diabetes mellitus, colonic tuberculosis, end-stage renal disease, and indwelling catheters for central venous catheter and hemodialysis. The patient passed away on the 44th day of admission due to septic shock. The organism found on blood culture on the 29th day of admission was multidrug resistant S. paucimobilis. Severe infection and septic shock due to S. paucimobilis have been reported particularly in immunocompromised patients, but there has been only one reported case of death in a premature neonate with septic shock. This is the first reported lethal case of S. paucimobilis bacteremia in an adult patient. Nata Pratama Hardjo Lugito, Cucunawangsih, and Andree Kurniawan Copyright © 2016 Nata Pratama Hardjo Lugito et al. All rights reserved. Place of Colistin-Rifampicin Association in the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii Meningitis: A Case Study Tue, 15 Mar 2016 09:36:58 +0000 Treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis is an important challenge due to the accumulation of resistance of this bacteria and low meningeal diffusion of several antimicrobial requiring use of an antimicrobial effective combination to eradicate these species. We report a case of Acinetobacter baumannii multidrug-resistant nosocomial meningitis which was successfully treated with intravenous and intrathecal colistin associated with rifampicin. Dahraoui Souhail, Belefquih Bouchra, Badia Belarj, Rar Laila, Frikh Mohammed, Oumarou Mamane Nassirou, Ibrahimi Azeddine, Charki Haimeur, Abdelhay Lemnouer, and Mostafa Elouennass Copyright © 2016 Dahraoui Souhail et al. All rights reserved. Tuberculosis of the Breast: An Initial Presentation of the Metabolic Syndrome with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Young Nigerian Woman Thu, 10 Mar 2016 09:38:48 +0000 Breast tuberculosis is an uncommon presentation of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. A 40-year-old obese woman presented with a right breast abscess which had failed to heal after surgical drainage. There was no family history of breast disease. Biopsy and histology of the lesion showed chronic granulomatous inflammation with positive stains for acid fast bacilli compatible with tuberculosis. Further evaluation confirmed metabolic syndrome with type 2 diabetes mellitus. She was placed on antituberculosis chemotherapy and appropriate therapy for diabetes mellitus with complete resolution of the lesion. We report this case because of its rarity and to highlight the association between tuberculosis an infectious disease and overnutrition in diabetes mellitus, a noncommunicable disease. M. A. Adeiza, R. Yusuf, A. A. Liman, P. Abur, F. Bello, and A. A. Abba Copyright © 2016 M. A. Adeiza et al. All rights reserved. Tuberculous Panophthalmitis with Lymphadenitis and Central Nervous System Tuberculoma Wed, 09 Mar 2016 09:49:14 +0000 Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease that spreads globally. The ocular manifestations of TB are uncommon and diverse. TB panophthalmitis has been rarely reported. Here, we described a 38-year-old Thai man presenting with panophthalmitis of the right eye. Further investigation showed that he had concurrent TB lymphadenitis and central nervous system (CNS) tuberculoma, as well as HIV infection, with a CD4 cell count of 153 cells/mm3. Despite the initial response to antituberculous agents, the disease had subsequently progressed and enucleation was required. The pathological examination revealed acute suppurative granulomatous panophthalmitis with retinal detachment. Further staining demonstrated acid-fast bacilli in the tissue. Colonies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were obtained from tissue culture. He was treated with antiretroviral agents for HIV infection and 12 months of antituberculous agents. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of TB in the differential diagnosis of endophthalmitis and panophthalmitis, especially in regions where TB is endemic. Sirawat Srichatrapimuk, Duangkamon Wattanatranon, and Somnuek Sungkanuparph Copyright © 2016 Sirawat Srichatrapimuk et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Brucellosis with Recurrent Attacks of Vasculitis Thu, 03 Mar 2016 08:04:27 +0000 Brucellosis is a zoonosis that affects several organs or systems. Skin involvement is nonspecific and it is reported to range between 0,4 and 17% of the patients with brucellosis. Here, we defined a 36-year-old female patient presented to our clinic with a clinical picture of recurrent attacks of vasculitis due to brucellosis for the first time. Skin involvement and vasculitic lesions as a finding of skin involvement are nonspecific in brucellosis. Therefore, in the regions like Turkey where brucellosis is endemic, brucellosis should be kept in mind necessarily in the differential diagnosis of vasculitis. Pınar Korkmaz, Mehtap Kıdır, Nazlı Dizen Namdar, Ahmet Özmen, Cemile Uyar, and Ayşe Nur Değer Copyright © 2016 Pınar Korkmaz et al. All rights reserved. Tuberculous Enteritis: A Rare Complication of Miliary Tuberculosis Sun, 28 Feb 2016 14:00:50 +0000 Tuberculous enteritis is a clinical rarity even in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of miliary tuberculosis with gastrointestinal involvement. A 47-year-old homosexual male from Philippines with no significant medical history presented with productive cough, night sweats, subjective fevers, shortness of breath, watery diarrhea, and 25-pound weight loss in past one year. On physical exam he was afebrile, mildly hypotensive, tachycardic, and tachypneic, but saturating well on room air. He was cachectic with oral thrush and bilateral fine rales. Chest X-ray revealed a miliary pattern. His sputum AFB smear was strongly positive. PCR and sputum culture were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. He was started on Rifampin, Isoniazid, Ethambutol, and Pyrazinamide. He was found to be HIV positive with an absolute CD4 count of 4 cells/μL. Due to persistent diarrhea, stool was sent for AFB culture and grew M. tuberculosis. He responded well to treatment with resolution of symptoms. Tuberculous enteritis occurs in about 2% of the patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Although it is uncommon, it should be considered in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and abdominal complaints. A presumptive diagnosis of tuberculous enteritis can be made in the setting of active pulmonary tuberculosis with suggestive clinical, endoscopic, and/or radiographic findings. Danisha Figueroa, Nilmarie Guzman, and Carmen Isache Copyright © 2016 Danisha Figueroa et al. All rights reserved. Neisseria lactamica Causing a Lung Cavity and Skin Rash in a Renal Transplant Patient: First Report from India Tue, 23 Feb 2016 12:34:34 +0000 Neisseria lactamica, a commensal, has been very rarely reported to cause diseases in immunocompromised hosts. In medical literature, there is only one report of a cavitatory lung lesion caused by it. The patient was a kidney transplant recipient. Neisseria lactamica was found to be the cause of his pulmonary cavity and a desquamating rash on feet. With the rapidly spreading medical advance, more and more patients are getting organ transplants, so the population of immunocompromised people is on the rise. We expect more sinister and less expected organisms to cause diseases in patients who have organ transplants. Khalid Hamid Changal, Adnan Raina, and Sheikh Shoaib Altaf Copyright © 2016 Khalid Hamid Changal et al. All rights reserved. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma Tue, 23 Feb 2016 09:53:54 +0000 Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s). Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should immediately start empiric antibiotics and request a neurosurgical consult when pituitary abscess is suspected. Escherichia coli (E. coli) causing intracranial infections are not well understood and are uncommon in adults. We present an interesting case of an immunocompetent male with a history of hypogonadism presenting with worsening headache and acute right eye vision loss. He was found to have a polymicrobial pituitary abscess predominantly involving E.   coli in addition to Actinomyces odontolyticus and Prevotella melaninogenica in the setting of an apoplectic pituitary prolactinoma. The definitive etiology of this infection was not determined but an odontogenic process was suspected. A chronic third molar eruption and impaction in close proximity to the pituitary gland likely led to contiguous spread of opportunistic oral microorganisms allowing for a polymicrobial pituitary abscess formation. Norman Beatty, Luis Medina-Garcia, Mayar Al Mohajer, and Tirdad T. Zangeneh Copyright © 2016 Norman Beatty et al. All rights reserved. Severe Sepsis due to Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia of Urinary Origin: A Case Report and Systematic Review Mon, 22 Feb 2016 15:53:52 +0000 Clostridium perfringens bacteremia is an uncommon yet serious clinical syndrome that typically arises from a gastrointestinal source. However, clinicians should consider nongastrointestinal sources as well. We present a rare case of C. perfringens bacteremia of urinary origin that required surgical intervention for definitive treatment. A 61-year-old male presented with acute nausea and vomiting, altered mental status, and chronic diarrhea. His physical exam revealed right costovertebral tenderness and his laboratory work-up revealed acute renal failure. Percutaneous blood cultures grew C. perfringens. Cross-sectional imaging revealed a right-sided ureteral stone with hydronephrosis, which required nephrostomy placement. On placement of the nephrostomy tube, purulent drainage was identified and Gram stain of the drainage revealed Gram-variable rods. A urinary source of C. perfringens was clinically supported. Although it is not a common presentation, nongastrointestinal sources such as a urinary source should be considered in C. perfringens bacteremia because failure to recognize a nongastrointestinal source can delay appropriate treatment, which may include surgical intervention. Michael A. Millard, Kathleen A. McManus, and Brian Wispelwey Copyright © 2016 Michael A. Millard et al. All rights reserved. First Case Report of Sinusitis with Lophomonas blattarum from Iran Thu, 04 Feb 2016 07:15:20 +0000 Introduction. Lophomonas blattarum is a rare cause of bronchopulmonary and sinus infection. This paper presents a rare case of Lophomonas sinusitis. Case Presentation. The patient was a 31-year-old woman who was admitted because of a history of upper respiratory infection and sinusitis. Direct microscopic examination of the sputum and nasal discharge showed large numbers of living Lophomonas blattarum with irregular movement of flagella. The patient was successfully treated by Metronidazole 750 mg t.i.d. for 30 days. Conclusions. This is the first case report of Lophomonas blattarum sinusitis from Iran. Fariba Berenji, Mahmoud Parian, Abdolmajid Fata, Mahdi Bakhshaee, and Fereshte Fattahi Copyright © 2016 Fariba Berenji et al. All rights reserved. Infective Exacerbation of Pasteurella multocida Sun, 31 Jan 2016 13:56:58 +0000 An 89-year-old lady presented with a one-day history of shortness of breath as well as a cough productive of brown sputum. Her medical history was significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She was in severe type one respiratory failure and blood tests revealed markedly raised inflammatory markers; however her chest X-ray was clear. On examination there was bronchial breathing with widespread crepitations and wheeze. She was treated as per an infective exacerbation of COPD. Subsequent blood cultures grew Pasteurella multocida, a common commensal in the oropharynx of domesticated animals. The patient was then asked about any contact with animals, after which she revealed she had a dog and was bitten on her left hand the day before admission. We should not forget to enquire about recent history of injuries or animal bites when patients present acutely unwell. She made a complete recovery after treatment with penicillin. Mayumi Hamada, Noha Elshimy, and Hatem Abusriwil Copyright © 2016 Mayumi Hamada et al. All rights reserved. Risk Factors and Epidemiology of Coccidioidomycosis Demonstrated by a Case of Spontaneous Pulmonary Rupture of Cavitary Coccidioidomycosis Sun, 24 Jan 2016 13:58:38 +0000 A 31-year-old Hispanic male with no medical history was admitted for fevers, pleurisy, and cough after recent oral surgery and completing demolition and construction work in Juarez, Mexico. Imaging showed a 4.4 cm cavitary lesion and bilateral tree-in-bud opacities. Initial suspicion of bacterial infection confirmed with clinical improvement on culture specific antibiotics, but after discharge he returned with progression of symptoms and new dyspnea. Radiograph showed a pyopneumothorax. Chest computed tomography after thoracostomy showed worsening infiltrates and another cavitary lesion. Symptoms persisted despite addition of broad spectrum antibiotics. Surgical repair for persistent air leak was required. Weeks after discharge, cultures and serologies returned positive for Coccidioidomycosis immitis. Coccidioides species cause up to 30% of community-acquired pneumonia and incidental cavitary lesions in endemic regions. Symptoms are nonspecific yet usually involve fatigue, cough, and pleurisy. Most hosts have spontaneous resolution; however, certain demographics such as Hispanics and diabetics, later diagnosed in our patient, have higher morbidity. As seen with our patient, cavitary rupture and bronchopleural fistulas are rare occurring in 2.6% of cavitary lesions. High suspicion based on symptoms and host demographics is important to assist in early diagnosis and treatment to avoid and treat this common pathogen’s presentations. Amy A. Yau Copyright © 2016 Amy A. Yau. All rights reserved. Streptococcus agalactiae Meningitis in Adult Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review Thu, 21 Jan 2016 13:48:00 +0000 We report a case of group B streptococcus meningitis in a 72-year-old female patient who was admitted in our hospital with a 21-day history of bilateral lower thigh pain and swelling associated with fever, headache, and vomiting. Her past medical history was remarkable for DM type 2, hypertension, and hypothyroidism. Upon admission, examination showed bilateral warmth and tender soft tissue swelling around the knees and MRI showed cellulitis of distal thirds of both thighs. The next day, the patient became drowsy. Neurologic examination showed neck rigidity and right sided hemiparesis. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures yielded group B streptococcus sensitive to ceftriaxone, penicillin G, and vancomycin. The patient received ceftriaxone for a total of 14 days after which she improved and was discharged from the hospital with right sided weakness. Fahmi Yousef Khan Copyright © 2016 Fahmi Yousef Khan. All rights reserved. Edwardsiella tarda Endocarditis Confirmed by Indium-111 White Blood Cell Scan: An Unusual Pathogen and Diagnostic Modality Sun, 17 Jan 2016 16:12:48 +0000 Edwardsiella tarda is a freshwater marine member of the family Enterobacteriaceae which often colonizes fish, lizards, snakes, and turtles but is an infrequent human pathogen. Indium-111- (111In-) labeled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy is an imaging modality which has a wide range of reported sensitivity and specificity (from 60 to 100% and from 68 to 92%, resp.) for diagnosing acute and chronic infection. We describe a case of suspected E. tarda prosthetic aortic valve and mitral valve endocarditis with probable vegetations and new mitral regurgitation on transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms which was supported with the use of 111In-labeled WBC scintigraphy. Kayleigh M. Litton and Bret A. Rogers Copyright © 2016 Kayleigh M. Litton and Bret A. Rogers. All rights reserved. First Pediatric Case of Tularemia after a Coyote Bite Wed, 13 Jan 2016 11:46:23 +0000 Bite-transmitted tularemia is a rare event in humans and most of the cases have been associated with cat bites. We report the first pediatric case of tularemia caused by a coyote (Canis latrans) bite. Coyotes can be healthy carriers of Francisella tularensis and transmit this infectious agent through a bite. Pediatricians should be aware of this risk after a carnivore bite and implement appropriate antibiotic therapy, as amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin) may have prolonged the typical two to three days’ incubation period commonly observed for tularemia after an animal bite and was not effective in preventing clinical signs in this child. Finally, it emphasizes again the importance of early and late serum samples for appropriate serodiagnostic. Bruno B. Chomel, Jane A. Morton, Rickie W. Kasten, and Chao-chin Chang Copyright © 2016 Bruno B. Chomel et al. All rights reserved. Native Valve Streptococcus bovis Endocarditis and Refractory Transfusion Dependent Iron Deficiency Anaemia Associated with Concomitant Carcinoma of the Colon: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Tue, 05 Jan 2016 07:03:16 +0000 Streptococcus bovis is found as a commensal organism in human gut and may become opportunistically pathogenic. Infective endocarditis is one of the commonest modes of presentation of this infection. The association between Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and colorectal cancer is well recognized. We report a case of Streptococcus bovis endocarditis along with a refractory iron deficiency anaemia associated with concomitant carcinoma of ascending colon in a 63-year-old male. Cooccurrence of these two conditions may cause a challenge in the management. Considering the strong association of colon cancer with Streptococcus bovis endocarditis, a detailed screening colonoscopy is mandatory following the diagnosis of the latter. Abdul Azeez Ahamed Riyaaz, Randula Samarasinghe, Kolitha Sellahewa, Sabaratnam Sivakumaran, and Manjula Sri Tampoe Copyright © 2016 Abdul Azeez Ahamed Riyaaz et al. All rights reserved. An Adverse Drug Reaction to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Revealing Primary HIV: A Case Report and Literature Review Mon, 21 Dec 2015 12:54:35 +0000 Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to antibiotics complicate the management of any infection, particularly opportunistic infections in advanced HIV as some ADRs are potentiated by HIV. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) causes ADRs in 40–80% of HIV infected individuals, compared to 3–5% in the general population. The incidence and severity of ADRs among HIV infected individuals appear to increase as they progress from latent infection to AIDS. We present a single case report of a 55-year-old African American male found to have an otherwise asymptomatic acute HIV infection who developed an ADR to TMP-SMX, despite having previously tolerating the medication. The proposed mechanisms for the increased incidence of sulfa hypersensitivity reactions among HIV infected individuals focus on either (1) HIV-induced changes in the immune function driven by falling levels of CD4 cells or (2) other HIV-specific factors correlated with rising viral load. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of new sulfa hypersensitivity in primary HIV and may provide clinical evidence to support the correlation between viral load and ADRs to TMP-SMX without a severely diminished CD4 count, though further research is necessary. This case also demonstrates a rare and easily overlooked presentation of HIV that may aid in early diagnosis. Charles Meyer, Nicole Behm, Emily Brown, Nathanial K. Copeland, and Marvin J. Sklar Copyright © 2015 Charles Meyer et al. All rights reserved. Sometimes There Is More Than One Puzzle on the Table: Pneumococcal Bacteremia as a New Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presentation Sun, 20 Dec 2015 08:55:57 +0000 Infection is common and a leading cause of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is associated with a diverse spectrum of immune impairments including humoral defects and hypocomplementemia that contribute to a lupus patient’s increased susceptibility to infection with encapsulated bacteria. Nonetheless, there are only few reports of severe invasive bacterial infection as the initial presentation of SLE in the literature. Here, we report a rare case of SLE presenting with pneumococcal bacteremia. Based on the high resolution chest computed tomography and the result of blood cultures, the bacteremia was assumed to be secondary to pneumococcal pneumonia. Fereshte Sheybani, Hamidreza Naderi, Zahra Mirfeizi, and Sedigheh Erfani Copyright © 2015 Fereshte Sheybani et al. All rights reserved. Clostridium septicum Gas Gangrene in Colon Cancer: Importance of Early Diagnosis Thu, 17 Dec 2015 12:28:15 +0000 The Clostridia species are responsible for some of the deadliest diseases including gas gangrene, tetanus, and botulism. Clostridium septicum is a rare subgroup known to cause atraumatic myonecrosis and is associated with colonic malignancy or immunosuppression. It is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus found in the gastrointestinal tract and can lead to direct, spontaneous infections of the bowel and peritoneal cavity. The anaerobic glycolysis of the tumor produces an acidic, hypoxic environment favoring germination of clostridial spores. Tumor-induced mucosal ulceration allows for translocation of sporulated bacteria from the bowel into the bloodstream, leading to fulminant sepsis. C. septicum bacteremia can have a variable presentation and is associated with greater than 60% mortality rate. The majority of deaths occur within the first 24 hours if diagnosis and appropriate treatment measures are not promptly started. We report a case of abdominal myonecrosis in a patient with newly diagnosed colon cancer. The aim of this study is to stress the importance of maintaining a high suspicion of C. septicum infection in patients with underlying colonic malignancy. Sowmya Nanjappa, Sweta Shah, and Smitha Pabbathi Copyright © 2015 Sowmya Nanjappa et al. All rights reserved. A Case Report on Oral Subcutaneous Dirofilariasis Thu, 17 Dec 2015 09:24:51 +0000 Dirofilariasis is an uncommon zoonotic parasitic infection affecting human. The natural hosts for this nematode are animals such as dogs, cats, foxes, jackals, and raccoons. This disease is endemic in South Eastern United States, Australia, Europe, and Central and Southern Asia. Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens are the common mosquito borne filarial nematodes that cause infection. Several species of mosquitos including Mansonia uniformis, M. annulifera, and Aedes aegypti are the potential vectors for this disease in Sri Lanka. Two rare cases of dirofilariasis presenting as facial and intraoral lumps are presented. R. D. Jayasinghe, S. R. Gunawardane, M. A. M. Sitheeque, and S. Wickramasinghe Copyright © 2015 R. D. Jayasinghe et al. All rights reserved. Chromobacterium violaceum Isolated from a Wound Sepsis: A Case Study from Nepal Wed, 16 Dec 2015 06:32:45 +0000 Chromobacterium violaceum is a facultative anaerobic, Gram-negative rod, prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions. It enters through the skin injury and is capable of causing severe systemic infections leading to septic shock and multiorgan failure. It has been reported by few authors across the world but this is probably the first case of Chromobacterium violaceum isolated from wound sepsis from Nepal. In this study, a pus sample from the infection of a prick injury in the left middle finger was collected from the patient admitted to the intensive care unit. Bacteriological investigations of the pus sample revealed the causative organism to be Chromobacterium violaceum. This case study indicates that Chromobacterium violaceum can act as a potential cause of wound sepsis that may lead to the septic shock and if not treated timely, the mortality rate can be high as was in this study. Although this organism is very rare, the infection caused requires prompt treatment to minimize the mortality rate. Therefore, we recommend the timely diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of this infection to combat the consequences led. Shamshul Ansari, Pramod Paudel, Kishor Gautam, Sony Shrestha, Sangita Thapa, and Rajendra Gautam Copyright © 2015 Shamshul Ansari et al. All rights reserved. Ruxolitinib Associated Tuberculosis Presenting as a Neck Lump Tue, 15 Dec 2015 11:06:00 +0000 Tuberculosis is an opportunistic infection with protean clinical manifestations. We describe a case of Ruxolitinib induced miliary tuberculosis presenting as a neck lump. A 78-year-old female presented with a two-month history of right-sided neck lump associated with fever, night sweats, and significant weight loss. She had a past medical history that included myelofibrosis, being treated with Ruxolitinib. Examination demonstrated 4 × 4 cm right-sided cervical lymphadenopathy. A chest radiograph showed extensive shadowing in both lungs. CT scan demonstrated perilymphatic nodes in addition to the cervical mass. An ultrasound-guided biopsy of a cervical lymph node demonstrated confirmed Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. It was hypothesized that use of Ruxolitinib through its selective inhibition of Janus-activated kinases 1 and 2 resulted in immunosuppression and miliary tuberculosis in this patient. The medication was stopped and a 12-month regime of antituberculosis therapy commenced. She remained well at one-year follow-up with resolution of lung involvement. Clinicians should consider tuberculosis as a differential diagnosis for patients presenting with a neck lump, particularly in those taking immunosuppressant medication such as Ruxolitinib. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to promptly treat the tuberculosis and consider discontinuation of Ruxolitinib. Eamon Shamil, David Cunningham, Billy L. K. Wong, and Piyush Jani Copyright © 2015 Eamon Shamil et al. All rights reserved. Respiratory Failure due to Possible Donor-Derived Sporothrix schenckii Infection in a Lung Transplant Recipient Mon, 30 Nov 2015 14:10:22 +0000 Background. De novo and donor-derived invasive fungal infections (IFIs) contribute to morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Reporting of donor-derived IFIs (DDIFIs) to the Organ Procurement Transplant Network has been mandated since 2005. Prior to that time no systematic monitoring of DDIFIs occurred in the United States. Case Presentation. We report a case of primary graft dysfunction in a 49-year-old male lung transplant recipient with diffuse patchy bilateral infiltrates likely related to pulmonary Sporothrix schenckii infection. The organism was isolated from a bronchoalveolar lavage on the second day after transplantation. Clinical and radiographic responses occurred after initiation of amphotericin B lipid formulation. Conclusion. We believe that this was likely a donor-derived infection given the early timing of the Sporothrix isolation after transplant in a bilateral single lung transplant recipient. This is the first case report of sporotrichosis in a lung transplant recipient. Our patient responded well to amphotericin induction therapy followed by maintenance therapy with itraconazole. The implications of donor-derived fungal infections and Sporothrix in transplant recipients are reviewed. Early recognition and management of these fungi are essential in improving outcomes. Nathan C. Bahr, Katherine Janssen, Joanne Billings, Gabriel Loor, and Jaime S. Green Copyright © 2015 Nathan C. Bahr et al. All rights reserved.