Table 1: Multimodal evaluation of  “normal” and “abnormal” reflexology areas for lumbar vertebrae.

TechniqueFeatureReflexology areasP-value/remarks
“Normal”“Abnormal”

Clinical photographyGrey scale luminosity158.1 ± 12.0105.9 ± 13.9<0.001

VAS scoring of tenderness under defined finger pressure (~35 N/cm2)Tenderness (VAS score)16Increased tenderness in “abnormal” RA

SS-OCTViable epidermis thickness (μm) mean ± SD329.9 ± 13.5200.0 ± 35.8<0.001
Viable epidermis luminosity59.8 ± 28.2 84.0 ± 28.9<0.001

IR-thermographyTemperature (°C) mean ± SD34.58 ± 0.1635.44 ± 0.05<0.001

Blood perfusion unit at base line 925177.7% blood perfusion enhanced in “abnormal” RA
Combined microcirculation and transcutaneous oxygen monitor systemBlood perfusion unit under heat provocation76119 51.0% blood perfusion elevated in “abnormal” RA
Oxygen partial pressure (mm of Hg) under stable condition 7650 34.0% oxygen partial pressure reduced in “abnormal” RA