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Case Reports in Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 756152, 3 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/756152
Case Report

Paediatric Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis with HIV Coinfection: A Case Report

1Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, PMB 7001, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria
2Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Abia State, Nigeria
3Department of Paediatrics, Federal Medical Centre, PMB 7001, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

Received 26 October 2012; Revised 29 December 2012; Accepted 14 January 2013

Academic Editor: Luis García-Marcos

Copyright © 2013 Huldah I. Nwokeukwu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Tuberculosis is a major public health problem, and its control has been facing a lot of challenges with emergence of HIV. The occurrence of multidrug-resistant strain has also propounded the problem especially in children where diagnosis is difficult to make. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is in vitro resistant to isoniazid (H) and rifampicin (R). Paediatric multi-drug resistant tuberculosis with HIV coinfection is rare, and there is no documented report from Nigeria. Objective. To report a case of paediatric MDR-TB in Nigeria about it. Methods. The case note of the patient was retrieved, and relevant data were extracted and summarized. Results. A 9-year-old female HIV-positive pupil with a year history of recurrent cough, 3 months history of recurrent fever, and generalized weight loss was diagnosed and treated for tuberculosis but failed after retreatment. She was later diagnosed with MDR-TB and is presently on DOT-Plus regimen. Conclusion. Paediatric MDR-TB with HIV co-infection is rare. Early diagnosis and treatment is important to prevent spread of the disease. The use of Isoniazid preventive therapy is recommended for children who come in contact with patients with active tuberculosis and also for HIV patients without active tuberculosis.