Case Reports in Nephrology http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Association of Acute Interstitial Nephritis with Carnivora, a Venus Flytrap Extract, in a 30-Year-Old Man with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Tue, 15 Apr 2014 12:20:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2014/486173/ Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury and has been associated with a variety of medications. This is the case of 30-year-old man with Hodgkin’s lymphoma who on routine labs before chemotherapy was found to have acute nonoliguric renal failure. A kidney biopsy was performed and confirmed the diagnosis of acute interstitial nephritis. The patient had taken several medications including a higher dose of Carnivora, a Venus flytrap extract, composed of numerous amino acids. The medication was discontinued and kidney function improved towards the patient’s baseline indicating that this may be the possible cause of his AIN. Proximal tubular cell uptake of amino acids increasing transcription of nuclear factor-kappaB is a proposed mechanism of AIN from this compound. Susan Ziolkowski and Catherine Moore Copyright © 2014 Susan Ziolkowski and Catherine Moore. All rights reserved. Acute Renal Failure and Jaundice without Methemoglobinemia in a Patient with Phenazopyridine Overdose: Case Report and Review of the Literature Wed, 05 Mar 2014 13:29:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2014/845372/ Phenazopyridine is a commonly used urinary analgesic available throughout the United States. Ingestion of large quantities can lead to methemoglobinemia, hemolytic anemia, jaundice, and acute renal failure. We report a case of a 78-year-old male with previously normal renal function who developed acute renal failure and jaundice without methemoglobinemia or hyperbilirubinemia after taking nearly 8 g of phenazopyridine over the course of 4 days. Initially presenting with oliguria, the urine output began to increase by day 2 of his admission, and the creatinine peaked 11 days after he began taking phenazopyridine, and he was discharged safely soon after. To our knowledge, this is the first such case of renal failure and jaundice without methemoglobinemia or hemolytic anemia in an adult patient with normal renal function. Ian Holmes, Nathaniel Berman, and Vinicius Domingues Copyright © 2014 Ian Holmes et al. All rights reserved. Blockade of Alternative Complement Pathway in Dense Deposit Disease Thu, 06 Feb 2014 13:32:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2014/201568/ A patient aged 17 with dense deposit disease associated with complement activation, circulating C3 Nef, and Factor H mutation presented with nephrotic syndrome and hypertension. Steroid therapy, plasma exchange, and rituximab failed to improve proteinuria and hypertension despite a normalization of the circulating sC5b9 complex. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against C5, was used to block the terminal product of the complement cascade. The dose was adapted to achieve a CH50 below 10%, but proteinuria and blood pressure were not improved after 3 months of treatment. Aurore Berthe-Aucejo, Mathieu Sacquépée, Marc Fila, Michel Peuchmaur, Emilia Perrier-Cornet, Véronique Frémeaux-Bacchi, and Georges Deschênes Copyright © 2014 Aurore Berthe-Aucejo et al. All rights reserved. Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis in Patients with Chronic Venous Catheters: A Case Report and Literature Review Thu, 30 Jan 2014 09:12:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2014/159370/ Chronic indwelling catheters have been reported to be associated with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) via the activation of the classical complement pathway in association with bacterial infections such as coagulase negative staphylococcus. We herein provide supporting evidence for the direct causal relationship between chronic catheter infections and MPGN via a case of recurrent MPGN associated with recurrent catheter infections used for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in a man with short gut syndrome. We also present a literature review of similar cases and identify common clinical manifestations that may serve to aid clinicians in the early identification of MPGN associated with infected central venous catheterization or vice versa. The importance of routine monitoring of kidney function and urinalysis among patients with chronic central venous catheterization is highlighted as kidney injury may herald or coincide with overtly infected chronic indwelling central venous catheters. John Sy, Cynthia C. Nast, Phuong-Thu T. Pham, and Phuong-Chi T. Pham Copyright © 2014 John Sy et al. All rights reserved. Severe Symptomatic Hypermagnesemia Associated with Over-the-Counter Laxatives in a Patient with Renal Failure and Sigmoid Volvulus Mon, 06 Jan 2014 12:31:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2014/560746/ Hypermagnesemia is an uncommon but a potentially serious clinical condition. Over-the-counter magnesium containing products are widely used as antacids or laxatives. Although generally well tolerated in patients with normal renal function, their unsupervised use in the elderly can result in severe symptomatic hypermagnesemia, especially in those patients with concomitant renal failure and bowel disorders. We report a case of severe symptomatic hypermagnesemia associated with over-the-counter laxatives in a 70-year-old male patient with renal failure and sigmoid volvulus, who was successfully treated with hemodialysis. Talal Khairi, Syed Amer, Samuel Spitalewitz, and Lutfi Alasadi Copyright © 2014 Talal Khairi et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Methanol Poisoning in a Child Mon, 06 Jan 2014 09:59:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2014/652129/ We report the case of a girl admitted to the emergency room with a history of four hours' acute illness, characterized by nausea, vomiting, salivation, headache, blurred vision, and acidotic “Kussmaul” breathing. Arterial blood gases showed severe mixed acidosis, metabolic and respiratory with high anion gap. She had ingested the contents of a scent bottle containing methanol, which she thought was a soft drink bottle. The girl was managed with hemodialysis and strong intravenous hydration. She improved well and made a full recovery. Reyner Loza and Dimas Rodriguez Copyright © 2014 Reyner Loza and Dimas Rodriguez. All rights reserved. Pseudorenal Failure Secondary to Reversed Intraperitoneal Autodialysis Wed, 25 Dec 2013 14:18:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/982391/ A 16-year-old boy was admitted for anuria, ascites, and abdominal pain. The patient had undergone a laparoscopic appendectomy two days prior to admission. Initial laboratory analysis revealed a plasma creatinine level of 5,07 mg/dL and blood urea nitrogen level of 75 mg/dL. Computed tomography imaging revealed diffuse abdominal ascites with normal kidneys without signs of hydronephrosis. Laprascopic revision found a 3 mm bladder tear and yielded an aspirate of 1,8 litre abdominal fluid. The abdominal fluid exhibited a fluid : serum creatinine ratio exceeding 1, indicating uroperitoneum. This case underscores the importance of bladder ruptures causing uroperitoneum presenting with azotemia. Pieter Martens Copyright © 2013 Pieter Martens. All rights reserved. Withdrawal from Dialysis and Palliative Care for Severely Ill Dialysis Patients in terms of Patient-Centered Medicine Wed, 04 Dec 2013 17:45:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/761691/ We treated a dementia patient with end stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). The patient also had severe chronic heart disease and suffered from untreatable respiratory distress during the clinical course of his illness. We therefore initiated peritoneal dialysis therapy (PD) as renal replacement therapy, although we had difficulties continuing stable PD for many reasons, including a burden on caregivers and complications associated with PD therapy itself. Under these circumstances we considered that palliative care prior to intensive care may have been an optional treatment. This was a distressing decision regarding end-of-life care for this patient. We were unable to confirm the patient’s preference for end-of-life care due to his dementia. Following sufficiently informed consent the patient’s family accepted withdrawal from dialysis (WD). We simultaneously initiated nonabandonment and continuation of careful follow-up including palliative care. We concluded that the end-of-life care we provided would contribute to a peaceful and dignified death of the patient. Although intensive care based on assessment of disease is important, there is a limitation to care, and therefore we consider that WD and palliative care are acceptable options for care of our patients in the terminal phase of their lives. Hideaki Ishikawa, Nao Ogihara, Saori Tsukushi, and Junichi Sakamoto Copyright © 2013 Hideaki Ishikawa et al. All rights reserved. Tolvaptan in the Treatment of Acute Hyponatremia Associated with Acute Kidney Injury Wed, 20 Nov 2013 10:38:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/801575/ Hyponatremia defined as a plasma sodium concentration of less than 135 mmol/L is a very common disorder, occurring in hospitalized patients. Hyponatremia often results from an increase in circulating arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels and/or increased renal sensitivity to AVP, combined with an increased intake of free water. Hyponatremia is subdivided into three groups, depending on clinical history and volume status: hypovolemic, euvolemic, and hypervolemic. Acute symptomatic hyponatremia is usually treated with hypertonic (3%) saline. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone hypersecretion (SIADH) and hypervolemic hyponatremia caused by heart failure or cirrhosis are treated with vasopressin antagonists (vaptans) since they increase plasma sodium (Na2+) concentration via their aquaretic effects (augmentation of free-water clearance). The role of tolvaptan in the treatment of acute hyponatremia and conversion of oliguric to nonoliguric phase of acute tubular necrosis has not been previously described. Shilpa Gopinath, Kalyana C. Janga, Sheldon Greenberg, and Shree K. Sharma Copyright © 2013 Shilpa Gopinath et al. All rights reserved. Pulmonary-Renal Syndrome with Negative ANCAs and Anti-GBM Antibody Thu, 31 Oct 2013 10:54:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/434531/ We report the case of a 76-year-old woman who was referred to our hospital for a gradually worsening cough and renal dysfunction. Although pneumonia was initially suspected, imaging findings of the lungs revealed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage at a later date. Renal failure developed and hemodiafiltration was performed on the 9th day. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis with crescent formation was diagnosed by renal biopsy. This case presentation has important clinical implications because uncategorizable pulmonary-renal syndrome (PRS) without the presence of ANCAs and anti-GBM antibody is extremely rare and has high rates of morbidity and mortality. No treatment has been established. Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Atsuhisa Shirakami, Takashi Haku, Takashige Taoka, Yoshikazu Nakanishi, Toru Inai, and Takanori Hirose Copyright © 2013 Hiroshi Yamaguchi et al. All rights reserved. Seizure, Deafness, and Renal Failure: A Case of Barakat Syndrome Tue, 22 Oct 2013 17:00:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/261907/ Barakat syndrome (also known as HDR syndrome) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness, and renal disease caused by mutation of the GATA3 gene located at chromosome 10p15. The exact prevalence of this disorder is not known but is very rare, with only about a dozen cases reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of 58-year-old man from Ardabil who presented with seizure due to hypocalcemia. Further history revealed bilateral deafness. Audiogram confirmed sensorineural hearing loss of both sides. His laboratory data were consistent with hypoparathyroidism and renal failure. He was diagnosed to have Barakat syndrome based on his clinical and laboratory data. In conclusion, we need to be aware of rare inherited conditions in a patient with abnormal physical and laboratory findings even though their initial presentation was seizure and hypocalcemia. Nasrollah Maleki, Bahman Bashardoust, Manouchehr Iranparvar Alamdari, and Zahra Tavosi Copyright © 2013 Nasrollah Maleki et al. All rights reserved. Pyrazinamide-Induced Exfoliative Dermatitis in a Patient on Hemodialysis: A Rare Complication Wed, 18 Sep 2013 18:29:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/387293/ A 60-year-old male patient on maintenance hemodialysis was started on antituberculosis therapy with isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for pulmonary tuberculosis. After 4 weeks of therapy, he developed pruritic lesions in the extremities followed by exfoliation. The lesions progressively spread over the entire body. Lesions resolved after withdrawal of antituberculosis medications and administration of oral corticosteroids and antihistamines. After 2 weeks antituberculosis drugs were rechallenged one at a time. Administration of oral pyrazinamide resulted in reappearance of symptoms (pruritis and erythema) within 48 hours. Pyrazinamide was substituted with ofloxacin while other three drugs were restarted without any side effects. The case illustrates a rare but potentially dangerous complication of pyrazinamide therapy. Krishnaswamy Jaisuresh Copyright © 2013 Krishnaswamy Jaisuresh. All rights reserved. Bilateral Renal Mass-Renal Disorder: Tuberculosis Sun, 15 Sep 2013 17:47:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/724693/ A 30-year-old woman has presented complaining of weakness and fatigue to her primary care physician. The renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When the renal masses have been discovered by sonography in this setting, the functional imaging may be critical. We reported a case about bilateral renal masses in a young female patient with tuberculosis and renal insufficiency. Magnetic resonance (MR) has revealed the bilateral renal masses in patient, and this patient has been referred to our hospital for further management. The patient’s past medical and surgical history was unremarkable. Ozlem Tiryaki, Celalettin Usalan, and Samet Alkan Copyright © 2013 Ozlem Tiryaki et al. All rights reserved. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy in Two Patients without Any Cardiac Symptom on Maintenance Hemodialysis Thu, 12 Sep 2013 10:32:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/640976/ Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a disorder characterized by left ventricular apical ballooning and electrocardiographic changes in the absence of coronary artery disease. While reversible in many cases, the mechanism of this disorder remains unclear. The most frequent clinical symptoms of takotsubo cardiomyopathy on admission are chest pain and dyspnea, resembling acute myocardial infarction. Here, we describe two cases of takotsubo cardiomyopathy without chest pain or dyspnea in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. The asymptomatic nature of these two cases may be due to the patients being on hemodialysis. Periodic electrocardiograms (ECG) may be helpful in screening this population for asymptomatic takotsubo cardiomyopathy and in evaluating its incidence. Jun Muratsu, Atsuyuki Morishima, Hiroyasu Ueda, Hisatoyo Hiraoka, and Katsuhiko Sakaguchi Copyright © 2013 Jun Muratsu et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Case of Aeromonas Hydrophila Catheter Related Sepsis in a Patient with Chronic Kidney Disease Receiving Steroids and Dialysis: A Case Report and Review of Aeromonas Infections in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Sat, 24 Aug 2013 08:26:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/735194/ Aeromonas hydrophila (AH) is an aquatic bacterium. We present a case of fifty-five-year-old gentleman with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to crescentic IgA nephropathy who presented to us with fever. He was recently pulsed with methyl prednisolone followed by oral prednisolone and discharged on maintenance dialysis through a double lumen dialysis catheter. Blood culture from peripheral vein and double lumen dialysis catheter grew AH. We speculate low immunity due to steroids and uremia along with touch contamination of dialysis catheter by the patient or dialysis nurse could have led to this rare infection. Dialysis catheter related infection by AH is rare. We present our case here and take the opportunity to give a brief review of AH infections in CKD patients. Muhammad Abdul Mabood Khalil, Abdur Rehman, Waqar Uddin Kashif, Manickam Rangasami, and Jackson Tan Copyright © 2013 Muhammad Abdul Mabood Khalil et al. All rights reserved. Prolonged Recovery Time from Zoledronic Acid Induced Acute Tubular Necrosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Mon, 29 Jul 2013 14:02:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/651246/ Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) due to bisphosphonates has been reported with Zoledronic acid but the time to recovery (if any) has been usually less than 4 months. Possible recovery time from ATN of any cause is usually less than 6 months. In this paper, we present the case of a 59-year-old Caucasian female with metastatic breast cancer who had received 16 monthly injections of Zoledronic acid for treatment of tumor induced hypercalcemia and developed several episodes of mild acute kidney injury which resolved by withholding treatment. Unfortunately, after the sixteenth injection, the patient experienced severe acute kidney injury, with a peak serum creatinine of 8.0 mg/dL. Although urinalysis showed muddy brown casts, because of atypical recovery time and presence of eosinophiluria and subnephrotic range proteinuria, a kidney biopsy was performed. Diagnosis of typical acute tubular necrosis was confirmed without any other concomitant findings. The course was remarkable for an unusually slow recovery of renal function over 15 months without need for renal replacement therapy until the patient expired from her metastatic cancer two years later. We reviewed all the published cases of acute kidney injury due to Zoledronic acid and suggest recommendations for clinicians and researchers. Frederic Rahbari-Oskoui, Odicie Fielder, Nima Ghasemzadeh, and Randolph Hennigar Copyright © 2013 Frederic Rahbari-Oskoui et al. All rights reserved. Adalimumab (TNFα Inhibitor) Therapy Exacerbates IgA Glomerulonephritis Acute Renal Injury and Induces Lupus Autoantibodies in a Psoriasis Patient Wed, 24 Jul 2013 09:24:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/812781/ Adalimumab (Humira) is a tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, Crohn's disease, ankylosing spondylitis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (Sullivan and Preda (2009), Klinkhoff (2004), and Medicare Australia). Use of TNFα inhibitors is associated with the induction of autoimmunity (systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, and sarcoidosis or sarcoid-like granulomas) (Ramos-Casals et al. (2010)). We report a patient with extensive psoriasis presenting with renal failure and seropositive lupus markers without classical lupus nephritis after 18 months treatment with adalimumab. He has renal biopsy proven IgA nephritis instead. Renal biopsy is the key diagnostic tool in patients presenting with adalimumab induced nephritis and renal failure. He made a remarkable recovery after adalimumab cessation and steroid treatment. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of a psoriasis patient presenting with seropositive lupus markers without classical lupus nephritis renal failure and had renal biopsy proven IgA glomerulonephritis after receiving adalimumab. S. S. Wei and R. Sinniah Copyright © 2013 S. S. Wei and R. Sinniah. All rights reserved. Polyoma BK Virus: An Oncogenic Virus? Sun, 07 Jul 2013 14:46:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/858139/ We report a case of a 65-year-old gentleman with a history of end stage renal disease who underwent a successful cadaveric donor kidney transplant four years ago. He subsequently developed BK virus nephropathy related to chronic immunosuppressant therapy. Three years later, misfortune struck again, and he developed adenocarcinoma of the bladder. Syed Hassan, Zaid Alirhayim, Syed Ahmed, and Syed Amer Copyright © 2013 Syed Hassan et al. All rights reserved. Cryoglobulinemia due to Hepatitis C with Pulmonary Renal Syndrome Wed, 05 Jun 2013 16:04:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/278975/ Cryoglobulinemia is an uncommon condition typically due to hepatitis C infection. Its clinical presentation is varied and often reflects deposition of immune complex and complement deposition. Renal compromise is observed in approximately one third of patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia and reports of concomitant pulmonary involvement are quite rare. We report a case of a patient who presented with pulmonary and renal manifestations of cryoglobulinemia with a serum rheumatoid factor over one hundred times the upper limit of normal and benefited from high-dose steroids and plasmapheresis in the acute setting. Tariq Abdulkarim, Mohammad Saklayen, and Jayson Yap Copyright © 2013 Tariq Abdulkarim et al. All rights reserved. Minimal Change Disease and IgA Deposition: Separate Entities or Common Pathophysiology? Tue, 21 May 2013 10:54:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/268401/ Introduction. Minimal Change Disease (MCD) is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children, while IgA nephropathy is the most common cause of glomerulonephritis worldwide. MCD is responsive to glucocorticoids, while the role of steroids in IgA nephropathy remains unclear. We describe a case of two distinct clinical and pathological findings, raising the question of whether MCD and IgA nephropathy are separate entities or if there is a common pathophysiology. Case Report. A 19-year old man with no medical history presented to the Emergency Department with a 20-day history of anasarca and frothy urine, BUN 68 mg/dL, Cr 2.3 mg/dL, urinalysis 3+ RBCs, 3+ protein, and urine protein : creatinine ratio 6.4. Renal biopsy revealed hypertrophic podocytes on light microscopy, podocyte foot process effacement on electron microscopy, and immunofluorescent mesangial staining for IgA. The patient was started on prednisone and exhibited dramatic improvement. Discussion. MCD typically has an overwhelming improvement with glucocorticoids, while the resolution of IgA nephropathy is rare. Our patient presented with MCD with the uncharacteristic finding of hematuria. Given the improvement with glucocorticoids, we raise the question of whether there is a shared pathophysiologic component of these two distinct clinical diseases that represents a clinical variant. Brandon S. Oberweis, Aditya Mattoo, Ming Wu, and David S. Goldfarb Copyright © 2013 Brandon S. Oberweis et al. All rights reserved. Acute Oxalate Nephropathy Associated with Orlistat: A Case Report with a Review of the Literature Wed, 08 May 2013 19:27:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/124604/ Orlistat is a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor used for weight reduction in obese individuals. Enteric hyperoxaluria caused by orlistat leads to oxalate absorption. Acute oxalate nephropathy is a rare complication of treatment with orlistat. Herein we report a patient presenting with acute renal failure which improved minimal with intravenous hydration. She was found to have oxalate crystals on renal biopsy. Patient admitted orlistat use over the counter for weight reduction on further questioning. The purpose of this case review is to increase awareness among patients since they are more focused on losing weight. This case also calls for the provider attention to educate patients regarding side effects of orlistat because of easy availability of orlistat over the counter. Dhara Chaudhari, Conchitina Crisostomo, Charles Ganote, and George Youngberg Copyright © 2013 Dhara Chaudhari et al. All rights reserved. Diabetic Muscle Infarction: A Rare Cause of Acute Limb Pain in Dialysis Patients Tue, 07 May 2013 08:34:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/931523/ Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare microangiopathic complication occurring in patients with advanced diabetes mellitus. Diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease stage Vd are prone to develop this complication. The presenting symptom is a localized painful swelling of the affected limb. Symptoms usually resolve spontaneously during the following weeks, but frequent relapse can occur and in some cases swelling may lead to compartment syndrome. Biochemical blood analyses show an elevated C-reactive protein, but creatine kinase is often normal. Diagnosis can be made on clinical presentation and imaging, with magnetic resonance imaging as the gold standard. Histology is often not contributive. Treatment consists of rest, analgesics, rigorous glycemic control and low-dose aspirin. Severe cases of compartment syndrome require fasciotomy. In the current paper, we present two diabetic patients with cystic fibrosis, who are treated with automated peritoneal dialysis and suffered from episodic lower limb infarction. We subsequently review 48 episodes of diabetic muscle infarction previously reported in the literature in patients with end-stage renal disease. G. De Vlieger, B. Bammens, F. Claus, R. Vos, and K. Claes Copyright © 2013 G. De Vlieger et al. All rights reserved. Ectopic Thoracic Kidney and End-Stage Renal Disease in a 38-Year-Old Nigerian Thu, 02 May 2013 16:06:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/158494/ This patient is a 38-year-old housewife who presented with a one-month history of difficulty, in breathing, chest pain and bilateral leg swelling and had a blood pressure of 260/150 mmHg, features of malignant hypertension and hypertensive heart disease. Chest CT scan revealed a chest location of the left kidney. She also had elevated serum urea and creatinine and proteinuria (++). The right kidney was normally located with loss of corticomedullary differentiation. She is on maintenance haemodialysis and is being worked up for possible left nephrectomy. U. E. Ekrikpo, E. E. Effa, and E. E. Akpan Copyright © 2013 U. E. Ekrikpo et al. All rights reserved. Lithium Toxicity in the Setting of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Medications Wed, 03 Apr 2013 08:50:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/839796/ Lithium toxicity is known to affect multiple organ systems, including the central nervous system. Lithium levels have been used in the diagnosis of toxicity and in assessing response to management. There is evidence that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) can increase lithium levels and decrease renal lithium clearance. We present a case of lithium toxicity, which demonstrates this effect and also highlights the fact that lithium levels do not correlate with clinical improvement, especially the neurological deficit. Syed Hassan, Fatima Khalid, Zaid Alirhayim, and Syed Amer Copyright © 2013 Syed Hassan et al. All rights reserved. Nephrotic Syndrome Associated with Lung Cancer: A Rare Case of Malignancy Associated with AA Amyloidosis Thu, 28 Mar 2013 13:01:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/831903/ Nonhematologic malignancies are rarely reported to be associated with AA amyloidosis. Although the association between renal cell carcinoma and systemic AA amyloidosis has been established, the evidence linking pulmonary cancer to AA amyloidosis is scarce. Here, a case of biopsy-proven renal AA amyloidosis complicated with nephrotic syndrome associated with lung carcinoma is reported. Victor Gueutin, Anne-Lyse Langlois, Nathalie Shehwaro, Ryme Elharraqui, Philippe Rouvier, and Hassane Izzedine Copyright © 2013 Victor Gueutin et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Case of Renal Recovery in a Young Patient with Multiple Myeloma Wed, 27 Mar 2013 18:48:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/531205/ Multiple myeloma (MM) is an uncommon hematologic malignancy accounting for 1% of all malignancies. Renal involvement is a common complication of MM. Rapid intervention to reverse renal dysfunction may be critical for management, especially in patients with light chain cast nephropathy. Recovery rate ranges from 5% to 15%. We describe an atypical presentation of MM in a young patient who presented with severe renal insufficiency requiring renal replacement therapy and achieved complete renal recovery with chemotherapy. Hasan J. Salameh, Adeel Ahmad, and Tina Kochar Copyright © 2013 Hasan J. Salameh et al. All rights reserved. A Case Series of Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis in Renal Transplant Patients Sun, 24 Feb 2013 10:14:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/213273/ Tuberculosis is a disease relatively frequent in renal transplant patients, presenting a wide variety of clinical manifestations, often involving various organs and potentially fatal. Gastrointestinal tuberculosis, although rare in the general population, is about 50 times more frequent in renal transplant patients. Intestinal tuberculosis has a very difficult investigational approach, requiring a high clinical suspicion for its diagnosis. Therapeutic options may be a problem in the context of an immunosuppressed patient, requiring adjustment of maintenance therapy. The authors report two cases of isolated gastro-intestinal tuberculosis in renal transplant recipients that illustrates the difficulty of making this diagnosis and a brief review of the literature on its clinical presentation, diagnosis, and therapeutic approach. Pedro Azevedo, Cristina Freitas, Hugo Silva, Pedro Aguiar, Pedro Farrajota, Manuela Almeida, Sofia Pedroso, La Salete Martins, Leonídio Dias, José Ramón Vizcaíno, António Castro Henriques, and António Cabrita Copyright © 2013 Pedro Azevedo et al. All rights reserved. Acute Progression of Adult-Onset Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome due to CFH Mutation: A Case Report Thu, 21 Feb 2013 10:30:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/739820/ Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS), unlike typical HUS, is not due to bacteria but rather to an idiopathic or genetic cause that promotes dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway. It leads to hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal impairment. Although aHUS secondary to a genetic mutation is relatively rare, when occurring due to a mutation in Factor H (CFH), it usually presents with younger onset and has a more severe course, which in the majority ends with end-stage renal failure. Paradoxically to most available data, our case features acute aHUS due to a CFH mutation with late onset (38-year-old) and rapid progression to end-stage renal disease. Due to current data indicating a high risk of graft failure in such patients, the diagnosis of aHUS secondary to a genetic cause has disqualified our patient from a living (family) donor renal transplantation and left her with no other option but to begin permanent renal replacement therapy. Bartlomiej Posnik, Dorota Sikorska, Krzysztof Hoppe, Krzysztof Schwermer, Krzysztof Pawlaczyk, and Andrzej Oko Copyright © 2013 Bartlomiej Posnik et al. All rights reserved. Fever, Haematuria, and Acute Graft Dysfunction in Renal Transplant Recipients Secondary to Adenovirus Infection: Two Case Reports Thu, 14 Feb 2013 11:17:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/195753/ We report two cases of adenoviral infection in kidney transplant recipients that presented with different clinical characteristics under similar demographic and posttransplant conditions. The first case presented with fever, gross haematuria, and acute graft dysfunction 15 days following renal transplantation. A graft biopsy, analyzed with immunohistochemistry, yielded negative results. However, the diagnosis was confirmed with blood and urine real-time PCR for adenovirus 3 days after the initial clinical manifestations. The immunosuppression dose was reduced, and ribavirin treatment was started, for which the patient quickly developed toxicity. Antiviral treatment allowed for transient response; however, a relapse occurred. The viral real-time PCR became negative upon immunosuppression reduction and administration of IVIG; graft function normalized. In the second case, the patient presented with fever and dysuria 1 month after transplantation. The initial imaging studies revealed graft enlargement and areas of hypoperfusion. In this case, the diagnosis was also confirmed with blood and urine real-time PCR for adenovirus 3 days after the initial clinical manifestations. Adenoviral nephritis was confirmed through a graft biopsy analyzed with light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and PCR in frozen tissue. The immunosuppression dose was reduced, and IVIG was administered obtaining excellent clinical results along with a negative real-time PCR. J. Ramírez, I. C. Bostock, A. Martin-Onraët, S. Calleja, A. Sánchez-Cedillo, L. A. Navarro-Vargas, A. L. Noriega-Salas, O. Martínez-Mijangos, N. O. Uribe-Uribe, M. Vilatoba, B. Gabilondo, L. E. Morales-Buenrostro, and J. Alberú Copyright © 2013 J. Ramírez et al. All rights reserved. A Retrospectively Diagnosed Case of IgG4-Related Tubulointerstitial Nephritis Showing Good Renal Outcome and Pathological Progress Wed, 30 Jan 2013 15:26:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2013/953214/ A 74-year-old man was hospitalized for diabetic nephropathy evaluation and assessment of the effect of treatment on his tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN). When he was 62 years old, he developed polyarthralgia and had superficial lymph node swelling, mildly increased serum creatinine concentration, hypergammaglobulinemia, hypocomplementemia, high serum IL-2R level, and positive titer of antinuclear antibody. Several tissues were biopsied. Mild chronic sialadenitis and reactive lymphadenitis were identified. Renal specimen showed mild glomerular ischemia, extensive storiform fibrosis, and abundant infiltrating monocytes and plasma cells. He was treated with oral prednisolone and cyclophosphamide. After the treatment, most of his clinical parameters quickly returned to within the reference range. However, he developed diabetes mellitus soon after steroid therapy. At the time of rebiopsy, a high level of serum IgG4 was detected. The second renal biopsy showed diabetic nephropathy without any tubulointerstitial damage. The first biopsied tissues were retrospectively investigated. Large numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells were detected in the kidneys and lymph nodes. A retrospective diagnosis of IgG4-related TIN with lymph node involvement was made. In conclusion, this paper describes a retrospectively diagnosed case of IgG4-related TIN with lymph node involvement, showing good clinical and pathological prognosis. Qiong Wu, Raima Nakazawa, Hisae Tanaka, Masayuki Endoh, and Masafumi Fukagawa Copyright © 2013 Qiong Wu et al. All rights reserved.