Table 1: Inclusion and exclusion criteria for the stroke study.

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria

Age 21 to 80 yearsBrainstem stroke
>6 months from a first clinical nonhemorrhagic or hemorrhagic strokeEpilepsy
Medically stableSeverely impaired cognition and communication
Unilateral lower extremity hemiparesisHistory of peroneal nerve injury
Able to ambulate 16 feet (5 meters) continuously with minimal assistance or less, without the use of an Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO)History of Parkinson's, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, and uncontrolled seizure disorder
AFO is clinically indicated (foot drop during ambulation)Uncompensated hemineglect (extinguishing to double simultaneous stimulation)
Electrical stimulation of the paretic ankle dorsiflexors produces ankle dorsiflexion to neutral without painEdema of the paretic lower extremity
Full-voluntary dorsiflexion of the contralateral ankleAbsent sensation of lower leg and foot
Skin intact on hemiparetic lower extremityHistory of cardiac arrhythmias with hemodynamic instability
Cardiac pacemaker or other implanted electronic system
Botulinum toxin injections to any lower-extremity muscle in the last 3 months
Evidence of deep venous thrombosis or thromboembolism