Case Reports in Oncological Medicine The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Two Cases of Heavy Chain MGUS Tue, 26 Apr 2016 09:30:19 +0000 Heavy chain diseases are rare variants of B-cell lymphomas that produce one of three classes of immunoglobulin heavy chains, without corresponding light chains. We describe two patients with asymptomatic heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy. The first patient is a 51-year-old woman with alpha paraprotein on serum immunofixation. The second case is a 46-year-old woman with gamma paraprotein on urine immunofixation. Neither patient had corresponding monoclonal light chains. Workup for multiple myeloma and lymphoma was negative in both patients. These two cases illustrate that heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy can exist in the absence of clinically apparent malignancy. Only a few reports of “heavy chain MGUS” have been described before. In the absence of specialized guidelines, we suggest a similar follow-up as for MGUS, while taking into account the higher probability of progression to lymphoma than to myeloma. Jan Van Keer, Björn Meijers, Michel Delforge, Gregor Verhoef, and Koen Poesen Copyright © 2016 Jan Van Keer et al. All rights reserved. An Unusual Cause of Subacute Headache in a Patient Undergoing Chemotherapy for Advanced Testicular Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumour Thu, 21 Apr 2016 13:49:58 +0000 Testicular (germ cell) cancer is a model of a chemocurable malignancy and tends to have a favourable prognosis even in advanced stages due to exquisite sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy. However, both acute and longer-term toxicities of multiagent chemotherapy remain significant as causes of morbidity, very occasionally mortality, and impaired quality-of-life. Here, we report a case of acute cerebral venous sinus thrombosis occurring within 10 days of chemotherapy initiation in a young patient without comorbidities, whose only predisposing factors were malignancy, chemotherapy, and perhaps mild dehydration. The clinical presentation was also unusual with headache of moderate severity only without focal or global neurologic deficits. We suspect that cisplatin may have had direct vasculotoxic effects. The patient recovered fully after short-duration anticoagulation but oncologists must remain aware of unusual and unpredictable complications of cytotoxic treatment. Helen M. Clarke, Ankit R. Rao, and Emilio Porfiri Copyright © 2016 Helen M. Clarke et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Hyperammonemia Associated with High Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Activity Tue, 19 Apr 2016 11:47:45 +0000 Over the past decades, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has been widely used to treat several types of carcinoma, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In addition to its common side effects, including diarrhea, mucositis, neutropenia, and anemia, 5-FU treatment has also been reported to cause hyperammonemia. However, the exact mechanism responsible for 5-FU-induced hyperammonemia remains unknown. We encountered an esophageal carcinoma patient who developed hyperammonemia when receiving 5-FU-containing chemotherapy but did not exhibit any of the other common adverse effects of 5-FU treatment. At the onset of hyperammonemia, laboratory tests revealed high dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity and rapid 5-FU clearance. Our findings suggested that 5-FU hypermetabolism may be one of the key mechanisms responsible for hyperammonemia during 5-FU treatment. Keiki Nagaharu, Kenji Ikemura, Yoshiki Yamashita, Hiroyasu Oda, Mikiya Ishihara, Yumiko Sugawara, Satoshi Tamaru, Toshiro Mizuno, and Naoyuki Katayama Copyright © 2016 Keiki Nagaharu et al. All rights reserved. Durable Clinical Benefit of Pertuzumab in a Young Patient with BRCA2 Mutation and HER2-Overexpressing Breast Cancer Involving the Brain Mon, 18 Apr 2016 16:32:09 +0000 Patients with HER2-positive breast cancer and brain metastases have limited treatment options, and, as a result of their poor performance status and worse prognosis, they are underrepresented in clinical trials. Not surprisingly, these patients may not be fit enough to receive any active treatment and are offered supportive therapy. BRCA2 mutations are reported to be rarely associated with HER2-overexpressing advanced breast cancer and even more rarely with brain metastases at diagnosis. We report on a BRCA2-positive breast cancer patient with metastatic disease in multiple sites, including the brain, and poor performance status who exhibited an extraordinary clinical and imaging response to the novel anti-HER2 therapy pertuzumab after multiple lines of therapy including anti-HER2 targeting. To our knowledge, the clinicopathologic and therapeutic characteristics of this patient point to a unique case and an urgent need for further investigation of pertuzumab in patients with brain metastases. Anna Koumarianou, Christina Kontopoulou, Vassilis Kouloulias, and Christina Tsionou Copyright © 2016 Anna Koumarianou et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Case of Primary Anterior Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor in an Elderly Adult Male Wed, 06 Apr 2016 12:20:05 +0000 Mediastinal germ cell tumors are extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGGCTs) commonly seen in children and young adults. They are more common in men. Clinically they are classified as teratomas, seminomas, and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Primary mediastinal yolk sac neoplasm is an extremely rare tumor. We present here a very rare case of primary yolk sac tumor of the anterior mediastinum in a 73-year-old male. Mediastinal germ cell tumors have a worse prognosis than gonadal germ cell tumors. Chemotherapy followed by adjuvant surgery improves overall response in EGGCTs. However, comorbidities can render treatment with chemotherapy and surgery challenging in elderly patients. Sammy G. Nakhla and Srinath Sundararajan Copyright © 2016 Sammy G. Nakhla and Srinath Sundararajan. All rights reserved. Primary Intradural Extramedullary Spinal Melanoma in the Lower Thoracic Spine Tue, 05 Apr 2016 11:43:22 +0000 Background Context. Up to date, only four cases of primary intradural extramedullary spinal cord melanoma (PIEM) have been reported. No previous reports have described a case of PIEM located in the lower thoracic spine with long-term follow-up. Purpose. Demonstrating an unusual, extremely rare case of melanoma manifestation. Study Design. Case report. Methods. We report a case of a 57-year-old female suffering from increasing lower extremity pain, left-sided paresis, and paraesthesia due to spinal cord compression caused by PIEM in the lower thoracic spine. Results. Extensive investigation excluded other possible primary melanoma sites and metastases. For spinal cord decompression, the tumor at level T12 was resected, yet incompletely. Adjuvant radiotherapy was administered two weeks after surgery. The patient was recurrence-free at 104 weeks after radiotherapy but presents with unchanged neurological symptoms. Conclusion. Primary intradural extramedullary melanoma (PIEM) is extremely rare and its clinical course is unpredictable. Kathrin Hering, Anke Bresch, Donald Lobsien, Wolf Mueller, Rolf-Dieter Kortmann, and Clemens Seidel Copyright © 2016 Kathrin Hering et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Thyroid Metastasis from Uveal Melanoma and Response to Immunotherapy Agents Thu, 24 Mar 2016 13:16:56 +0000 Thyroid metastasis is a rare occurrence with cutaneous melanoma and even more uncommon with uveal melanoma. The management of such metastasis is uncertain due to its infrequency and, in the era of immunotherapy, the effect of these novel drugs on uncommon metastasis, such as to the thyroid, is unknown. We report the rare case of a thyroid metastasis in a patient diagnosed with ocular melanoma initially managed with enucleation. Metastatic disease developed in the lung and thyroid gland. The case patient received the immunotherapy ipilimumab with stable disease in the thyroid and progressive disease elsewhere. The patient was then further treated with a second immunotherapy agent, pembrolizumab, and remains with stable disease one year later. We discuss the current literature on thyroid metastases from all causes and the optimal known management strategies. Furthermore, we provide an original report on the response of this disease to the novel immunomodulators, ipilimumab, and pembrolizumab with stable disease four years after initial diagnosis of ocular melanoma. Dearbhaile Catherine Collins, Ruben Yela, Noel Horgan, and Derek Gerard Power Copyright © 2016 Dearbhaile Catherine Collins et al. All rights reserved. Odontogenic Myxoma in Children: A Case Report and Literature Review Tue, 15 Mar 2016 09:27:40 +0000 Benign odontogenic lesions are rare entities but are very important due to their locally aggressive nature. Odontogenic myxoma is even rarer in children than in adults. There is no evidence in the literature in regard to the best treatment approach, in terms of conservative or aggressive surgery, for this type of tumor. This paper reports a case of odontogenic myxoma in a child treated with a compromised approach through bone osteotomies and a review of the literature about this disease, especially in pediatric patients. Mariana Dalbo Contrera Toro, Icléia Siqueira Barreto, Eliane Maria Ingrid Amstalden, Carlos Takahiro Chone, and Leopoldo Nizam Pfeilsticker Copyright © 2016 Mariana Dalbo Contrera Toro et al. All rights reserved. Postpartum Regression of a Presumed Cavernous Meningioma Tue, 15 Mar 2016 09:27:12 +0000 Meningiomas are known to be more common in females than males. They are also known in rare cases to grow in size during pregnancy, which can complicate its management. We describe a 31-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with blurring of her vision and diplopia during the third trimester of her pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a small left cavernous sinus meningioma. The patient was treated conservatively until her uncomplicated delivery. A postpartum MRI scan showed complete regression of the suspected meningioma. Currently the patient is contemplating a further pregnancy. See Yung Phang and Peter Whitfield Copyright © 2016 See Yung Phang and Peter Whitfield. All rights reserved. Diagnosis and Treatment of Mucinous Appendiceal Neoplasm Presented as Acute Appendicitis Mon, 14 Mar 2016 06:26:45 +0000 Appendiceal mucocele is a rare cause of acute abdomen. Mucinous appendiceal neoplasms represent 0.2–0.7% of all appendix specimens. The aim of this study is to report a case of a mucinous appendiceal neoplasm presented as acute appendicitis, discussing the clinical and surgical approach in the emergency setting. A 72-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with a clinical examination indicative of acute abdomen. The patient underwent abdominal computed tomography scan which revealed a cystic lesion in the right iliac fossa measuring 8.3 × 5.2 × 4.1 cm, with calcified walls, and a mean density indicative of high protein content. The patient was taken to the operating room and a right hemicolectomy was performed. The postoperative course was unremarkable. The histopathological examination revealed a low-grade mucinous appendiceal neoplasm with negative regional lymph nodes. Ultrasound and CT are useful in diagnosing appendiceal mucocele and synchronous cancers in the emergency setting. The initial operation should include appendectomy and resection of the appendicular mesenteric fat along with any fluid collection for cytologic examination. During urgent appendectomy it is important to consider every mucocele as malignant in order to avoid iatrogenic perforation causing pseudomyxoma peritonei. Although laparotomy is recommended, the laparoscopic approach is not contraindicated. Ioannis Kehagias, Apollon Zygomalas, Georgios Markopoulos, Thanasis Papandreou, and Pantelis Kraniotis Copyright © 2016 Ioannis Kehagias et al. All rights reserved. Plasmablastic Lymphoma Mimicking Acute Pancreatitis Sun, 13 Mar 2016 11:36:14 +0000 Background. Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare B-cell neoplasm. It predominantly occurs in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and exhibits a highly aggressive clinical behavior. Case Presentation. We describe an unusual case of a 37-year-old HIV-positive male who presented with acute pancreatitis secondary to multiple peripancreatic masses compressing the pancreas. Histopathological examination of the lesions showed diffuse and cohesive pattern of large B-cells resembling immunoblasts or plasmablasts. The neoplastic cells were positive for BOB1 and MUM1, partially positive for CD79a, and negative for CD20, CD56, CD138, CD3, CD5, AE1/AE3, and HHV8. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA in situ hybridization was positive. These features were consistent with PBL. The patient was initiated on cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy, demonstrating a striking response. Conclusion. To our research, this is the first report of PBL with the initial presentation of acute pancreatitis. The findings in this case suggest that PBL should be included in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic tumors. Faisal Inayat, Hafeez Ul Hassan Virk, Ahmad R. Cheema, and Muhammad Wasif Saif Copyright © 2016 Faisal Inayat et al. All rights reserved. Bronchogenic Carcinoma with Cardiac Invasion Simulating Acute Myocardial Infarction Wed, 02 Mar 2016 11:31:50 +0000 Cardiac metastases in bronchogenic carcinoma may occur due to retrograde lymphatic spread or by hematogenous dissemination of tumour cells, but direct invasion of heart by adjacent malignant lung mass is very uncommon. Pericardium is frequently involved in direct cardiac invasion by adjacent lung cancer. Pericardial effusion, pericarditis, and tamponade are common and life threatening presentation in such cases. But direct invasion of myocardium and endocardium is very uncommon. Left atrial endocardium is most commonly involved in such cases due to anatomical contiguity with pulmonary hilum through pulmonary veins, and in most cases left atrial involvement is asymptomatic. But myocardial compression and invasion by adjacent lung mass may result in myocardial ischemia and may present with retrosternal, oppressive chest pain which clinically may simulate with the acute myocardial infarction (AMI). As a result, it leads to misdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis of lung cancer. Here we report a case of non-small-cell carcinoma of right lung which was presented with asymptomatic invasion in left atrium and retrosternal chest pain simulating AMI due to myocardial compression by adjacent lung mass, in a seventy-four-year-old male smoker. Anirban Das, Sibes K. Das, Sudipta Pandit, and Rathindra Nath Karmakar Copyright © 2016 Anirban Das et al. All rights reserved. Laparoscopic Resection of Recurrence from Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Liver Transplantation: Case Reports and Review of the Literature Tue, 01 Mar 2016 11:00:26 +0000 Background. Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after liver transplantation (LT) indicates a poor prognosis. Surgery is considered the only curative option for selected patients with HCC recurrence following LT. Traditionally, the preference is given to the open approach. Methods. In this report, we present two cases of laparoscopic resections (LR) for recurrent HCC after LT, performed at Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet. Results. Both procedures were executed without intraoperative and postoperative adverse events. Whereas one of the patients had a recurrence one year after LR, the other patient did not have any sign of disease during 3-year follow-up. Conclusions. We argue that, in selected cases, patients with HCC recurrence following LT may benefit from LR due to its limited tissue trauma and timely start of subsequent treatment if curative resection cannot be obtained. In patients with relatively favorable prognosis, LR facilitates postoperative recovery course and avoids unnecessary laparotomy. Mushegh A. Sahakyan, Airazat M. Kazaryan, Ewa Pomianowska, Andreas Abildgaard, Pål-Dag Line, Bjørn Atle Bjørnbeth, Bjørn Edwin, and Bård Ingvald Røsok Copyright © 2016 Mushegh A. Sahakyan et al. All rights reserved. Primary Malignant Neuroendocrine Tumour of Pleura: First Case Report Mon, 29 Feb 2016 18:44:44 +0000 Metastatic tumours of pleura are the most common malignant tumours causing malignant pleural effusion. Lungs are the most common primary sites. Primary pleural tumours are rarely seen and diffuse malignant mesothelioma is the most common malignant tumour of pleura. Primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura is not reported in the literature. Here, we report a rare case of primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura in a fifty-two-year-old, nonsmoker female who presented with right-sided pleural effusion and ipsilateral, dull aching chest pain. Clinical presentations of inflammatory lesions like tuberculous pleuritis and benign and malignant neoplasms of pleura are indistinguishable; hence, fluid cytology, pleural biopsy, and immunohistochemistry are necessary for exact tissue diagnosis of the tumours, which is mandatory for correct treatment and prognostic assessment. Anirban Das and Abhishek Pratap Copyright © 2016 Anirban Das and Abhishek Pratap. All rights reserved. Paclitaxel Induced MDS and AML: A Case Report and Literature Review Mon, 29 Feb 2016 17:23:59 +0000 Therapy related acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) have been classically linked to alkylating agents and topoisomerase inhibitors. They constitute about 1% of all AMLs. There is less evidence on association of taxanes (paclitaxel and docetaxel) with these myeloid neoplasms. We present a case of paclitaxel therapy related acute myelogenous leukemia after treatment of endometrial cancer with a regimen containing paclitaxel and carboplatin. A 63-year-old female underwent surgery followed by a total of 6 cycles of chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Six months after last cycle of chemotherapy, she was diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome with refractory anemia and excess blasts. Six weeks later, she had worsening anemia and thrombocytopenia which prompted a bone marrow biopsy which revealed acute myelomonocytic leukemia. A thorough literature review revealed 12 other case reports where taxanes have been implicated in the development of therapy related myeloid neoplasm. Based on the timeline of events in our patient, paclitaxel is the likely culprit in the pathogenesis of this myeloid neoplasm. This rare but significantly grave adverse effect should be kept in consideration when deciding on treatment options for gynecological malignancies. Udit Bhaskar Bhatnagar, Daulath Singh, Alexy Glazyrin, and Jill Moormeier Copyright © 2016 Udit Bhaskar Bhatnagar et al. All rights reserved. A 27-Year-Old Patient Fulfilling the Diagnostic Criteria of Both CMML and JMML Mon, 29 Feb 2016 08:52:00 +0000 Chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML) are two disease entities that come under the myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms category. Each of the two conditions has its own diagnostic criteria. In addition, they have different ages of presentation; while CMML is typically a disease of the elderly, JMML is a disease of young children. Here we are presenting the case of a 27-year-old male patient who, at the time of diagnosis, fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of both diseases. In addition he had radiological changes of type 1 neurofibromatosis. Possible explanations of the patient case have been discussed. Assem A. Elghazaly, Mohmmed U. Manzoor, Mai A. AlMishari, and Mamoun H. Ibrahim Copyright © 2016 Assem A. Elghazaly et al. All rights reserved. Unusual Presentation of Hypothyroidism in a Pregnant Woman, Mimicking Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm Mon, 29 Feb 2016 08:44:55 +0000 Hypothyroidism is a common health issue worldwide with varying clinical manifestations. We report a woman who experienced an incomplete abortion and undiagnosed hypothyroidism who was referred to the oncologist with the suspicion of metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN). A 29-year-old woman with incomplete abortion was referred to an oncologist for possible GTN due to persistent active vaginal bleeding, an elevated beta human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), abnormal cervical inspection exam, abnormal liver function tests, ovarian enlargement, ascites, and a pleural effusion. She was found to have hypothyroidism in further work-up. She was managed with thyroid hormone replacement therapy and her condition improved after 6 weeks. Complete resolution of the ovarian mass and pericardial and pleural effusion was achieved. This case describes an important experience; hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any woman with an incomplete abortion presenting with an ovarian mass. Evaluation and correct diagnosis are important to prevent mismanagement. Soheila Aminimoghaddam, Narmin Karisani, Maryam Mazloomi, and Maryam Rahimi Copyright © 2016 Soheila Aminimoghaddam et al. All rights reserved. Primary Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Liver in a Patient with Sjogren Syndrome Mon, 22 Feb 2016 15:55:10 +0000 Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) has the highest incidence of malignant lymphoproliferative disorders transformation among autoimmune diseases. We present a case of extranodal high grade lymphoma of the liver in a 52-year-old patient with long history of SS. Lymphoma manifested with sharp significant pain in the right hypochondrium, weakness, and profuse night sweats. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan (CT-scan) of the abdomen revealed multiple low density foci with homogeneous structure and clear contours in both lobes of the liver. Histologically, proliferation of medium sized lymphoma cells with round-oval and slightly irregular nuclei with fine chromatin was shown. Immunohistochemical and molecular features of the tumors allowed diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). To exclude secondary liver lesion by non-Hodgkin lymphoma, chest and small pelvis CT-scan, endoscopy of upper and lower gastrointestinal tract and study of bone marrow were performed. After 8 cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone), the complete remission was achieved, which persists after 45 months of follow-up. Primary hepatic lymphomas are extremely rare, and previously only low-grade hepatic lymphomas have been described in SS. To our knowledge, the patient described here represents the first reported case of DLBCL with primary liver involvement in SS. Vadim Gorodetskiy, Wolfram Klapper, Natalya Probatova, and Vladimir Vasilyev Copyright © 2016 Vadim Gorodetskiy et al. All rights reserved. Angiomyolipoma and Malignant PEComa: Discussion of Two Rare Adrenal Tumors Mon, 22 Feb 2016 14:17:06 +0000 Angiomyolipoma and PEComa are rare tumors descending from perivascular epithelial cells (PECs), with distinctive IHC, morphological, and ultrastructural features. The kidney is the most frequent site of origin, but not the only one; however, adrenal gland angiomyolipomas are extremely rare. We describe two cases being found in the adrenal glands. Given the paucity of literature on the subject, more information on this disease is necessary for diagnosis and treatment. Here, we describe two complete case reports, from presentation to treatment and follow-up, along with imaging and microscopic pathology samples, and provide a comprehensive review as to the history and current literature available regarding these extremely rare tumors. Douglas Kwazneski II, Megan Merrill, Jessica Young, and Harry Sell Jr. Copyright © 2016 Douglas Kwazneski II et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Concurrence of Leiomyomatosis Peritonealis Disseminata, Leiomyosarcoma of the Pelvis and Leiomyomatous Nodule of the Liver Mon, 22 Feb 2016 14:15:28 +0000 Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (LPD) is a rare entity that is characterized by the presence of multiple subperitoneal or peritoneal smooth muscle nodules throughout the peritoneal surface mimicking a malignant process. LPD follows a benign course in general, and it is often found incidentally during abdominal surgery. There have been reported cases of LPD with malignant degeneration although the association is uncertain. Concurrent finding of LPD and leiomyosarcoma of the pelvis is very rare that could be coincidental, malignant transformation of LPD to leiomyosarcoma, or progression of undetected primary leiomyosarcoma. There are only a few previously reported cases in the literature. Herein, we report a case of 56-year-old woman with a history of leiomyoma of uterus who presented with progressive abdominal swelling secondary to mass lesions in the pelvis. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy and debulking of the tumors, and the histologic examination of the tumors revealed coexistence of LPD and leiomyosarcoma. After recovery from the operation, core needle biopsy of the superficial, residual liver mass was obtained to investigate potential liver metastasis, and the histopathologic findings are consistent with leiomyoma which represents the first simultaneous occurrence of LPD, leiomyosarcoma, and leiomyomatous nodule of the liver. Aung Myint Tun, Nay Min Tun, Kyaw Zin Thein, Ei Ei Naing, Shah Giashuddin, and Maxim Shulimovich Copyright © 2016 Aung Myint Tun et al. All rights reserved. Long Term Survival and Continued Complete Response of Vemurafenib in a Metastatic Melanoma Patient with BRAF V600K Mutation Thu, 18 Feb 2016 11:23:16 +0000 Introduction. BRAF kinase inhibitors such as Vemurafenib have shown improvement in overall survival, progression-free survival, and response rates in patients with metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600K mutation. However, there were no cases of complete remission reported in patients with V600K mutation before. Case Presentation. A 53-year-old man with metastatic melanoma and dialysis dependent end stage renal failure was treated safely with Vemurafenib for a BRAF V600K mutation positive melanoma and the case was reported elsewhere. After a long follow-up of the same patient treated with Vemurafenib, a complete radiological response was observed and the renal functions remained stable throughout the treatment. Main toxicities reported were grade 1 photosensitivity and skin cancers. Vemurafenib was discontinued but patient remains disease free 12 months after stopping treatment and the clinical review is ongoing. Conclusion. This is the first reported case of complete radiological response to a BRAF inhibitor in metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600K mutation and remains disease free even after discontinuation of treatment. This also shows clinical safety of Vemurafenib in end stage renal failure and highlights the need for closer look at the subgroup of patients with BRAF V600K mutation and its tumour biology. K. Sahadudheen, Md. Rafiqul Islam, and M. Iddawela Copyright © 2016 K. Sahadudheen et al. All rights reserved. Acute Coronary Syndrome Manifesting as an Adverse Effect of All-trans-Retinoic Acid in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Case Report with Review of the Literature and a Spotlight on Management Thu, 11 Feb 2016 07:38:19 +0000 Background. Acute promyelocytic leukemia is characterized by t(15;17). This leads to the formation of PML/RARα which blocks the differentiation of blasts at the stage of promyelocytes. This is reversed by all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), a vitamin A derivative. Acute myocardial ischemia is a rare side effect of ATRA. Case Report. We report a case of acute coronary syndrome manifesting as an adverse effect of ATRA in a lady with APL who had no other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions. We emphasize the need for high index of suspicion for the diagnosis of this entity. In the light of this case, the rare instances of ATRA associated acute myocardial ischemia recorded in the literature and the options available for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia sans ATRA have been reviewed. K. Govind Babu, K. N. Lokesh, M. C. Suresh Babu, and Gita R. Bhat Copyright © 2016 K. Govind Babu et al. All rights reserved. Capecitabine Induced Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: Do We Have Always to Switch off the Chemotherapy? Sun, 07 Feb 2016 14:20:00 +0000 Capecitabine is a well tolerated and safe 5-fluorouracil agent for adjuvant, neoadjuvant chemotherapy or metastatic cases. Neurological side effects require discontinuation of chemotherapy. We report this unique case of a 50-year-old female, who presented an isolated episode of dysarthria and ataxia under bevacizumab, capecitabine, and oxaliplatin treatment due to reversible multifocal leukoencephalopathy that did not recur after readministration of chemotherapy. Anastasia Bougea, Panagiota Voskou, Constantinos Kilidireas, and Elisabeth Andreadou Copyright © 2016 Anastasia Bougea et al. All rights reserved. Metachronous, Single Metastasis to the Parotid, from Primary Breast Cancer: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Thu, 28 Jan 2016 13:42:09 +0000 Background. The parotid gland is an unusual site for metastatic disease and when metastasis occurs, it commonly originates from head and neck primaries. Spread from distant infraclavicular sites such as the breast, into the parotid, is even more unusual with very few cases reported in the literature. Case Report. We describe the case of a 65-year-old woman presenting for a rapidly enlarging right parotid mass. She had a history of an invasive ductal carcinoma of the right breast and was disease-free in the past 6 years prior to her presentation. She was thereafter diagnosed as having a solitary parotid metastasis from breast origin. A total parotidectomy was done and she was referred for adjuvant radiotherapy. Conclusion. Any parotid metastasis should be investigated, especially in patients with a prior history of cancer where the possibility of metastasis, even if improbable, should be kept in mind. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the first diagnostic procedure to be done and immunocytochemistry can provide valuable information even if it is not always needed for diagnosis. Superficial parotidectomy when feasible with adjuvant radiotherapy is the preferred approach for solitary metastasis of the parotid. The prognosis, however, remains poor regardless of the treatment modality used. Michel Kmeid, François G. Kamar, Selim Nasser, and Nabil Moukarzel Copyright © 2016 Michel Kmeid et al. All rights reserved. Colonic Metastasis with Anemia Leading to a Diagnosis of Primary Lung Adenocarcinoma Wed, 27 Jan 2016 11:33:50 +0000 Metastasis occurs with 50% of lung carcinomas, most commonly to lymph nodes, adrenal glands, liver, bone, and brain. It is extremely rare for lung cancer to present with symptoms of a gastrointestinal metastasis and even more so pertaining to the colon. To the best of our knowledge, only 12 such cases have been reported in the literature. We describe a case of a 71-year-old female presenting with refractory iron deficiency anemia that was found to have a lesion in the transverse colon. Pathology revealed adenocarcinoma of the lung and a subsequent lung lesion was discovered in a retrograde fashion. Vasa Jevremovic, Amer Abboud, and Stuart Krauss Copyright © 2016 Vasa Jevremovic et al. All rights reserved. Myxoid Chondrosarcoma of Maxilla in a Pediatric Patient: A Rare Case Report Sun, 24 Jan 2016 12:28:19 +0000 Myxoid variant of chondrosarcoma is an uncommon potentially lethal malignant tumor which is even rare in pediatric age group. In the present paper, we report one such case of intermediate grade myxoid chondrosarcoma of left side of maxilla in a 12-year-old girl. The present case had a firm, painless, and lobulated growth in premolar-molar region which was associated with bicortical expansion. Maxillofacial imaging showed ill-defined radiolucency with displaced maxillary molars. Osteolytic changes were evident with the alveolus and walls of maxillary sinus. Owing to the age of the patient, surgical excision was selected as the modality of management followed by postoperative radiotherapy. This report encompasses the entire gamut of clinicopathological, radiological, and treatment modalities employed for chondrosarcoma. Pranali Nimonkar, Nitin Bhola, Anendd Jadhav, Anuj Jain, Rajiv Borle, Rajul Ranka, and Minal Chaudhary Copyright © 2016 Pranali Nimonkar et al. All rights reserved. Pulmonary Fibrosis after Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin in Elderly Patient with Cutaneous Angiosarcoma Wed, 20 Jan 2016 11:09:00 +0000 Introduction. Angiosarcoma is a rare cancer of the inner lining of blood vessels and can arise anywhere in the body, most commonly presenting as cutaneous disease in elderly patient, involving head and neck (H&N), especially the scalp. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) is one of the available treatments in patients with advanced or metastatic disease. Common toxicities are myelosuppression, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, nausea, and stomatitis. Regarding PLD-related pulmonary fibrosis in an uncommon toxicity, there are few cases reported in literature. None of these occurred in angiosarcoma. Methods. This is a case report describing an elderly patient treated with PLD for advanced H&N cutaneous angiosarcoma who developed G5 pulmonary toxicity after the second PLD administration. Results. According to our data and patient clinical outcome, we believe that she passed away from fatal PLD-induced pulmonary fibrosis. This is the first case of fatal interstitial pneumonitis in a 77-year-old woman treated with PLD for angiosarcoma. The case has been reported for its rarity. Conclusions. Pathophysiology of this phenomenon is still unclear and more studies are necessary to understand the true incidence of pulmonary toxicities in patients in treatments with PLD and its mechanism. Marco Mazzotta, Raffaele Giusti, Daniela Iacono, Salvatore Lauro, and Paolo Marchetti Copyright © 2016 Marco Mazzotta et al. All rights reserved. Simultaneous Low- and High-Grade Primary Leiomyosarcomas in Two Separate Organs in a Thirty-Year Survivor of Hereditary Retinoblastoma Wed, 30 Dec 2015 11:46:41 +0000 Patients with hereditary retinoblastoma have a heightened risk of developing subsequent bone and soft tissue sarcomas, exacerbated by radiation and alkylating chemotherapy. Secondary leiomyosarcomas are rare. A 29-year-old patient with bilateral retinoblastoma history presented with concurrent, independent malignancies found to be Rb-suppressed uterine and Rb-positive bladder leiomyosarcomas. She had undergone both ifosfamide chemotherapy and radiation therapy but demonstrated rare simultaneous primary leiomyosarcomas not previously described in association with ifosfamide. This rare case underlines the protean genetic predisposition to malignancy in this patient population, heightening awareness of lifelong malignancy potential, and the necessity for continuous periodic screening. Katherine Moore, Ossama Tawfik, Allyson Hays, and Isaac Opole Copyright © 2015 Katherine Moore et al. All rights reserved. Avoidance Behaviours and Missed Opportunities in a Case of Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma Wed, 30 Dec 2015 08:49:03 +0000 We describe the case of a 96-year-old woman who presented with a large fungating squamous cell carcinoma on her neck. In the Western hemisphere, it is rare to see patients with advanced tumours at their first presentation. We summarise the events leading to her late presentation to the hospital and explore the contributing factors. These may have included avoidance behaviour secondary to fears and misconceptions about cancer treatment. We conclude that healthcare professionals should be aware of these factors, and every effort should be made to address hidden fears and misconceptions when caring for patients with terminal illnesses. This will allay the patients’ anxiety, thereby enabling them to make an informed choice about their future care. David Kelsey, Simon Zakeri, Chandra Hettiaratchi, and Ndubisi Offonry Copyright © 2015 David Kelsey et al. All rights reserved. Persistent Hypoglycemia in Patient with Hodgkin’s Disease Tue, 29 Dec 2015 11:14:59 +0000 Hypoglycemia is a rare complication of Hodgkin’s disease. Several explanations have been postulated but the exact pathophysiology is not well understood. We are presenting a case of newly diagnosed Stage IV Hodgkin’s disease that developed persistent and recurrent hypoglycemia despite giving glucagon, repeated 50% dextrose, and D5 and D10 continuous infusion. Hypoglycemia workup showed the C-peptide level to be low. Patient was suspected of having hypoglycemia related to lymphoma and was given a trial of prednisone which resolved the hypoglycemic episodes and made the patient euglycemic for the rest of his hospital stay. The presence of a substance that mimicked the effects of insulin was highly suspected. Several case reports strengthen the hypothesis of an insulin-like growth factor or antibodies secreted by the cancer cells causing hypoglycemia in Hodgkin’s disease but none of them have been confirmed. Further investigation is warranted to more clearly define the pathophysiology of persistent hypoglycemia in patients with Hodgkin’s disease. Harold Cinco Lim, Lubna Bashir Munshi, and David Sharon Copyright © 2015 Harold Cinco Lim et al. All rights reserved.