Case Reports in Oncological Medicine The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. An Extremely Rare Case of Advanced Metastatic Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Sinonasal Tract Wed, 27 Jul 2016 09:00:55 +0000 Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC) is a rare form of malignancy. It mainly presents as bronchogenic neoplasm, and the extrapulmonary form accounts for only 0.1% to 0.4% of all cancers. These extrapulmonary tumors have been described most frequently in the urinary bladder, prostate, esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum, gall bladder, head and neck, cervix, and skin. Primary SNEC of the sinonasal tract is extremely rare with only less than 100 cases reported in the literature. Because of extreme rarity and aggressiveness of the tumor, the management for this entity varies considerably mandating multimodality approach. In this paper, we report a patient presented with left-sided facial swelling, and the histopathologic examination confirmed primary SNEC of left sinonasal tract. The tumor involved multiple paranasal sinuses with invasion into the left orbit and left infratemporal fossa and metastasized to cervical lymph nodes and bone. The patient encountered devastating outcome in spite of optimal medical management and treatment with palliative chemotherapy highlighting the necessity for further research of primary SNEC of head and neck. Yu Yu Thar, Poras Patel, Tiangui Huang, and Elizabeth Guevara Copyright © 2016 Yu Yu Thar et al. All rights reserved. Myofibroblastoma of the Breast: Literature Review and Case Report Mon, 25 Jul 2016 10:15:32 +0000 Myofibroblastoma of the breast is a rare benign spindle cell tumor. The main aim of this study is to review the literature of this rare tumor. We present a case of a mammary myofibroblastoma occurring in an 82-year-old man, emphasizing the clinical, radiological, and pathological features. The tumor was successfully identified and managed in our hospital. We would like to draw the attention of clinicians to myofibroblastoma as a rare possibility in the differential diagnosis of a breast mass. Mario Metry, Mohamad Shaaban, Magdi Youssef, and Michael Carr Copyright © 2016 Mario Metry et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Undiagnosed HIV Infection in a 57-Year-Old Woman with Multiple Myeloma: Consequences on Chemotherapy Efficiency and Safety Wed, 20 Jul 2016 08:57:37 +0000 Background. Non-AIDS-defining cancers represent a rising health issue among HIV-infected patients. Nevertheless, HIV testing is not systematic during the initial cancer staging. Here, we report a case of HIV infection diagnosed three years after chemotherapy initiation for multiple myeloma. Results. A 57-year-old woman diagnosed with multiple myeloma underwent a first round of chemotherapy by bortezomib/lenalidomide and then with bortezomib/liposomal-doxorubicine/dexamethasone, with partial remission, poor hematological tolerance, and multiple episodes of pneumococcal infection. Allogenic stem cell transplantation was proposed leading to HIV testing, which revealed seropositivity, with an HIV viral load of and severe CD4 T cell depletion (24 cells/mm3). Chemotherapy by bendamustin was initiated. Multidisciplinary staff decided the initiation of antiretroviral therapy with tenofovir/emtricitabin/efavirenz and prophylaxis against opportunistic infections. After 34 months, patient achieved complete remission, sustained HIV suppression, and significant CD4 recovery (450 cells/mm3), allowing effective pneumococcal immunization without relapse. Conclusion. Our case illustrates the drawback that ignored HIV infection is still causing to cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and highlights the importance of early HIV testing in oncology. A multidisciplinary approach including oncologists/hematologists, virologists, and pharmacists is recommended in order to avoid drug interactions between chemotherapy and antiretroviral drugs. Moreover, prophylactic medication is recommended in these patients regardless of CD4+ cell count at the initiation of chemotherapy. I. Poizot-Martin, S. Brégigeon, C. Tamalet, R. Bouabdallah, O. Zaegel-Faucher, V. Obry-Roguet, A. Ivanova, C.E. Cano, and C. Solas Copyright © 2016 I. Poizot-Martin et al. All rights reserved. West Nile Virus Encephalitis in a Patient with Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Tue, 19 Jul 2016 12:59:06 +0000 Importance. Oftentimes, when patients with metastatic cancer present with acute encephalopathy, it is suspected to be secondary to their underlying malignancy. However, there are multiple causes of delirium such as central nervous system (CNS) infections, electrolyte abnormalities, and drug adverse reactions. Because West Nile Virus (WNV) neuroinvasive disease has a high mortality rate in immunosuppressed patients, a high index of suspicion is required in patients who present with fever, altered mental status, and other neurological symptoms. Observations. Our case report details a single patient with brain metastases who presented with unexplained fever, encephalopathy, and new-onset tremors. Initially, it was assumed that his symptoms were due to his underlying malignancy or seizures. However, because his unexplained fevers persisted, lumbar puncture was pursued. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis included WNV polymerase chain reaction and serologies were ordered which eventually led to diagnosis of WNV encephalitis. Conclusions and Relevance. Patients with metastatic cancer who present with encephalopathy are often evaluated with assumption that malignancy is the underlying etiology. This can lead to delays in diagnosis and possible mistreatment. Our case highlights the importance of maintaining a broad differential diagnosis and an important diagnostic consideration of WNV encephalitis in patients with cancer. Romina Deldar, Derek Thomas, and Anna Maria Storniolo Copyright © 2016 Romina Deldar et al. All rights reserved. Testicular Signet-Ring Cell Metastasis from a Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site: A Case Report and Literature Review Mon, 18 Jul 2016 12:52:15 +0000 Signet-ring cell carcinoma is a highly malignant adenocarcinoma consisting of cells characterized as cytoplasmic vacuoles filled with mucin. The most common primary location of this type of cancer is the stomach, but it may also be found in other organs such as prostate, testis, bladder, ovaries, or colon. To date, metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) site to the testis is an extremely rare entity in daily practice. Reviewing the literature, we have been able to detect only three cases of testicular metastases from CUP, two with histological diagnosis of a signet-ring cell carcinoma and one with an adenocarcinoma. In this short paper, we report a case of a 56-year-old man who presented to our Department with testicular mass and ascites. Following a standard diagnostic approach no primary tumor could be identified. CUP was the final clinical diagnosis, histologically characterized as poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells involving the peritoneum and the testicular structures. Aristomenes Kollas, George Zarkavelis, Anna Goussia, Aikaterini Kafantari, Anna Batistatou, Zoi Evangelou, Eva Sintou, and Nicholas Pavlidis Copyright © 2016 Aristomenes Kollas et al. All rights reserved. Metastatic Breast Carcinoma to the Prostate Gland Sun, 26 Jun 2016 12:13:02 +0000 Cancer of the male breast is an uncommon event with metastases to the breast occurring even less frequently. Prostate carcinoma has been reported as the most frequent primary to metastasize to the breast; however, the reverse has not been previously reported. Herein, we present, for the first time, a case of breast carcinoma metastasizing to the prostate gland. Prostate needle core biopsy revealed infiltrative nests of neoplastic epithelioid cells, demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to be positive for GATA3 and ER and negative for PSA and P501S. A prostate cocktail by IHC study demonstrated lack of basal cells (p63 and CK903) and no expression of P501S. The patient’s previous breast needle core biopsy showed strong ER positivity and negative staining for PR and HER2. Similar to the prostate, the breast was negative for CK5/6, p63, and p40. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis and comparing histology and IHC to prior known malignancies in the setting of atypical presentation or rare tumors. Meghan E. Kapp, Giovanna A. Giannico, and Mohamed Mokhtar Desouki Copyright © 2016 Meghan E. Kapp et al. All rights reserved. Histiocytic Sarcoma Associated with Coombs Negative Acute Hemolytic Anemia: A Rare Presentation Sun, 26 Jun 2016 11:52:05 +0000 Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) rarely involves extranodal sites, such as the spleen. We report a unique pediatric case of massive splenomegaly and refractory Coombs negative hemolytic anemia (CNHA) secondary to HS. The CNHA resolved completely after an emergent splenectomy. Next generation sequencing (NGS) revealed novel ASXL1, PTPN11, KIT, and TP53 mutations, unmasking a clonal heterogeneity within the same neoplasm. Sandeep Batra, Stephen C. Martin, Mehdi Nassiri, Amna Qureshi, and Troy A. Markel Copyright © 2016 Sandeep Batra et al. All rights reserved. Atypical Proliferating Trichilemmal Cyst with Malignant Breast Skin Transformation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Tue, 14 Jun 2016 08:41:39 +0000 Proliferating trichilemmal tumors (PTTs) are benign adnexal skin neoplasms that arise from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. These tumors are most commonly observed on the scalp and occur, most of the time, in elderly women. Malignant transformation of these neoplasms is a rare event; less than 50 cases have been reported in the English medical literature. We present the case of a 39-year-old Hispanic woman with a tumor located on the skin of one of her breasts that in her third surgical procedure the histologic examination revealed the presence of a malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor (MPTT). Furthermore, a review of the medical literature and a discussion of the clinical and pathologic features of this rare entity are provided. Marino Antonio Capurso-García, Verónica Bautista-Piña, Alan Pomerantz, Javier Andrés Galnares-Olalde, Ruben Blachman-Braun, Sergio Rodríguez-Rodríguez, and Monica Goldberg-Murow Copyright © 2016 Marino Antonio Capurso-García et al. All rights reserved. Diarrhoea Caused by Diffuse Metastatic Lobular Breast Cancer Sun, 22 May 2016 13:27:28 +0000 A 70-year-old woman with a history of lobular breast cancer presented to our Outpatient Clinic with diarrhoea for the past 3 years. Clinical examination and laboratory research were normal. Colonoscopy showed diffuse mild erythema and a decreased vascular pattern. Biopsies from the ascending colon, transverse colon, and descending colon showed metastases of lobular breast carcinoma. Although gastrointestinal metastases are rare in breast cancer, our case emphasizes the need for further diagnostic efforts in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and a history of breast carcinoma. Sjoerd F. Bakker, Willem Moolenaar, Marije M. van Santen, and Mathijs P. Hendriks Copyright © 2016 Sjoerd F. Bakker et al. All rights reserved. Neuroendocrine Cancer of Rectum Metastasizing to Ovary Wed, 18 May 2016 09:07:38 +0000 Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare malignancies that originate from the hormone-producing cells of the body’s neuroendocrine system. Rectal high grade NEC (HG-NEC) constituting less than 1% of colorectal cancers can cause large ovarian metastasis that may be the initial presenting complaint. Ovarian Krukenberg tumor from a primary rectal HG-NEC is a very unusual and exceedingly uncommon differential diagnosis for secondary ovarian malignancy. This case report describes one such extremely rare case of a woman who had presented to the gynecology department with features suggestive of ovarian malignancy and was ultimately diagnosed to have Krukenberg tumor originating from neuroendocrine cancer of rectum. We felt this is a good opportunity to spread more light on neuroendocrine neoplasms that are very rare in gynecological practice. Sapna Vinit Amin, Aswathy Kumaran, Sunanda Bharatnur, Akhila Vasudeva, Kartik Udupa, Dinesh Bangalore Venkateshiah, and Shaila T. Bhat Copyright © 2016 Sapna Vinit Amin et al. All rights reserved. Systemic Mastocytosis with Smoldering Multiple Myeloma: Report of a Case Mon, 16 May 2016 13:26:19 +0000 Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a disease characterized by a clonal infiltration of mast cells affecting various tissues of the body. It is grouped into six different subtypes according to the World Health Organization classification. It is called indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM) when there is no evidence of end organ dysfunction, while the presence of end organ dysfunction defines aggressive systemic mastocytosis (ASM). When SM coexists with a clonal hematological disorder, it is classified as systemic mastocytosis with associated clonal hematological nonmast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD). Over 80% of SM-AHNMD cases involve disorders of the myeloid cell lines. To our knowledge, there are only 8 reported cases to date of SM associated with a plasma cell disorder. We report a patient with ISM who was found to have concomitant smoldering multiple myeloma. His disease later progressed to ASM. We discuss this rare association between SM and a plasma cell disorder, and potential common pathophysiologic mechanisms linking the two disorders will be reviewed. We also discuss prognostic factors in SM as well as the management options considered during the evolution of the patient’s disease. Sassine Ghanem, Gwenalyn Garcia, Liu Ying, Matthew Hurford, and Marcel Odaimi Copyright © 2016 Sassine Ghanem et al. All rights reserved. Combination of Superselective Arterial Embolization and Radiofrequency Ablation for the Treatment of a Giant Renal Angiomyolipoma Complicated with Caval Thrombus Wed, 11 May 2016 06:32:10 +0000 This is a case of a 78-year-old male patient with multiple angiomyolipomas of a solitary right kidney. The largest of these tumors (maximum diameter: 13.4 cm) caused significant extrinsic compression of the inferior vena cava complicated by thrombosis of this vessel. Treatment of thrombosis with anticoagulants had been ineffective and the patient had experienced a bleeding episode from the largest right renal angiomyolipoma, which had been treated by transarterial embolization in another institution, 4 months prior to our intervention. Our approach included superselective transarterial embolization of the dominant, right kidney angiomyolipoma with hydrogel microspheres, which was combined, 20 days later, with ultrasonographically guided radiofrequency ablation. Both interventions were uneventful. Computed tomography 2 months after ablation showed a 53% reduction in tumor volume, reduced space-occupying effect on inferior vena cava, and resolution of caval thrombus. Nine months after intervention the patient has had no recurrence of thrombosis or hemorrhage and no tumor regrowth has been observed. The combination of superselective transarterial embolization and radiofrequency ablation seems to be a feasible, safe, and efficient treatment of large renal angiomyolipomas. Konstantinos N. Stamatiou, Hippocrates Moschouris, Kiriaki Marmaridou, Michail Kiltenis, Konstantinos Kladis-Kalentzis, and Katerina Malagari Copyright © 2016 Konstantinos N. Stamatiou et al. All rights reserved. Primary Diaphragmatic Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma in a Young Female Patient after Delivery Tue, 10 May 2016 14:05:15 +0000 A 26-year-old woman was admitted with the chief complaint of chest pain. She had delivered her first child 9 months before admission. Computed tomography showed a bulky mass in her left chest, and histopathological analysis revealed it to be dedifferentiated liposarcoma. We initiated doxorubicin chemotherapy, and the tumor mass reduced. After that, we performed vascular embolization along with chemotherapy, but tumor size did not reduce. On the 160th day of illness, the patient died. This is the first report of a primary diaphragmatic dedifferentiated liposarcoma diagnosed after delivery. Establishment of a regimen of chemotherapy for bulky unresectable liposarcoma is necessary. Shinya Sakata, Chieko Yoshida, Sho Saeki, Susumu Hirosako, Hidenori Ichiyasu, and Hirotsugu Kohrogi Copyright © 2016 Shinya Sakata et al. All rights reserved. Synchronous Diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma, Breast Cancer, and Monoclonal B-Cell Lymphocytosis on Initial Presentation Tue, 10 May 2016 12:08:37 +0000 The cooccurrence of more than one oncologic illness in a patient can present a diagnostic challenge. Here we report an unusual case of concomitant existence of multiple myeloma, breast cancer, and monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis on initial presentation. The challenge was to accurately diagnose each disease and stage in order to maximize the therapeutic regimen to achieve cure/remission. Successful management of the patient and increased life expectancy can be achieved by multidisciplinary management and patient-oriented approach in multiple primary malignant synchronous tumors. A. Vennepureddy, V. Motilal Nehru, Y. Liu, F. Mohammad, and J. P. Atallah Copyright © 2016 A. Vennepureddy et al. All rights reserved. Presentation of Two Cases with Early Extracranial Metastases from Glioblastoma and Review of the Literature Mon, 09 May 2016 10:53:54 +0000 Extracranial metastases from glioblastoma are rare. We report two patients with extracranial metastases from glioblastoma. Case 1 concerns a 59-year-old woman with multiple metastases that spread early in the course of disease. What makes this case unusual is that the tumor had grown into the falx close to the straight sinus and this might be an explanation to the early and extensive metastases. Case 2 presents a 60-year-old man with liver metastasis found at autopsy, and, in this case, it is more difficult to find an explanation. This patient had two spontaneous intracerebral bleeding incidents and extensive bleeding during acute surgery with tumor removal, which might have induced extracranial seeding. The cases presented might have hematogenous spreading in common as an explanation to extracranial metastases from GBM. Maria Dinche Johansen, Per Rochat, Ian Law, David Scheie, Hans Skovgaard Poulsen, and Aida Muhic Copyright © 2016 Maria Dinche Johansen et al. All rights reserved. Two Cases of Heavy Chain MGUS Tue, 26 Apr 2016 09:30:19 +0000 Heavy chain diseases are rare variants of B-cell lymphomas that produce one of three classes of immunoglobulin heavy chains, without corresponding light chains. We describe two patients with asymptomatic heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy. The first patient is a 51-year-old woman with alpha paraprotein on serum immunofixation. The second case is a 46-year-old woman with gamma paraprotein on urine immunofixation. Neither patient had corresponding monoclonal light chains. Workup for multiple myeloma and lymphoma was negative in both patients. These two cases illustrate that heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy can exist in the absence of clinically apparent malignancy. Only a few reports of “heavy chain MGUS” have been described before. In the absence of specialized guidelines, we suggest a similar follow-up as for MGUS, while taking into account the higher probability of progression to lymphoma than to myeloma. Jan Van Keer, Björn Meijers, Michel Delforge, Gregor Verhoef, and Koen Poesen Copyright © 2016 Jan Van Keer et al. All rights reserved. An Unusual Cause of Subacute Headache in a Patient Undergoing Chemotherapy for Advanced Testicular Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumour Thu, 21 Apr 2016 13:49:58 +0000 Testicular (germ cell) cancer is a model of a chemocurable malignancy and tends to have a favourable prognosis even in advanced stages due to exquisite sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy. However, both acute and longer-term toxicities of multiagent chemotherapy remain significant as causes of morbidity, very occasionally mortality, and impaired quality-of-life. Here, we report a case of acute cerebral venous sinus thrombosis occurring within 10 days of chemotherapy initiation in a young patient without comorbidities, whose only predisposing factors were malignancy, chemotherapy, and perhaps mild dehydration. The clinical presentation was also unusual with headache of moderate severity only without focal or global neurologic deficits. We suspect that cisplatin may have had direct vasculotoxic effects. The patient recovered fully after short-duration anticoagulation but oncologists must remain aware of unusual and unpredictable complications of cytotoxic treatment. Helen M. Clarke, Ankit R. Rao, and Emilio Porfiri Copyright © 2016 Helen M. Clarke et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Hyperammonemia Associated with High Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Activity Tue, 19 Apr 2016 11:47:45 +0000 Over the past decades, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has been widely used to treat several types of carcinoma, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In addition to its common side effects, including diarrhea, mucositis, neutropenia, and anemia, 5-FU treatment has also been reported to cause hyperammonemia. However, the exact mechanism responsible for 5-FU-induced hyperammonemia remains unknown. We encountered an esophageal carcinoma patient who developed hyperammonemia when receiving 5-FU-containing chemotherapy but did not exhibit any of the other common adverse effects of 5-FU treatment. At the onset of hyperammonemia, laboratory tests revealed high dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity and rapid 5-FU clearance. Our findings suggested that 5-FU hypermetabolism may be one of the key mechanisms responsible for hyperammonemia during 5-FU treatment. Keiki Nagaharu, Kenji Ikemura, Yoshiki Yamashita, Hiroyasu Oda, Mikiya Ishihara, Yumiko Sugawara, Satoshi Tamaru, Toshiro Mizuno, and Naoyuki Katayama Copyright © 2016 Keiki Nagaharu et al. All rights reserved. Durable Clinical Benefit of Pertuzumab in a Young Patient with BRCA2 Mutation and HER2-Overexpressing Breast Cancer Involving the Brain Mon, 18 Apr 2016 16:32:09 +0000 Patients with HER2-positive breast cancer and brain metastases have limited treatment options, and, as a result of their poor performance status and worse prognosis, they are underrepresented in clinical trials. Not surprisingly, these patients may not be fit enough to receive any active treatment and are offered supportive therapy. BRCA2 mutations are reported to be rarely associated with HER2-overexpressing advanced breast cancer and even more rarely with brain metastases at diagnosis. We report on a BRCA2-positive breast cancer patient with metastatic disease in multiple sites, including the brain, and poor performance status who exhibited an extraordinary clinical and imaging response to the novel anti-HER2 therapy pertuzumab after multiple lines of therapy including anti-HER2 targeting. To our knowledge, the clinicopathologic and therapeutic characteristics of this patient point to a unique case and an urgent need for further investigation of pertuzumab in patients with brain metastases. Anna Koumarianou, Christina Kontopoulou, Vassilis Kouloulias, and Christina Tsionou Copyright © 2016 Anna Koumarianou et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Case of Primary Anterior Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor in an Elderly Adult Male Wed, 06 Apr 2016 12:20:05 +0000 Mediastinal germ cell tumors are extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGGCTs) commonly seen in children and young adults. They are more common in men. Clinically they are classified as teratomas, seminomas, and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Primary mediastinal yolk sac neoplasm is an extremely rare tumor. We present here a very rare case of primary yolk sac tumor of the anterior mediastinum in a 73-year-old male. Mediastinal germ cell tumors have a worse prognosis than gonadal germ cell tumors. Chemotherapy followed by adjuvant surgery improves overall response in EGGCTs. However, comorbidities can render treatment with chemotherapy and surgery challenging in elderly patients. Sammy G. Nakhla and Srinath Sundararajan Copyright © 2016 Sammy G. Nakhla and Srinath Sundararajan. All rights reserved. Primary Intradural Extramedullary Spinal Melanoma in the Lower Thoracic Spine Tue, 05 Apr 2016 11:43:22 +0000 Background Context. Up to date, only four cases of primary intradural extramedullary spinal cord melanoma (PIEM) have been reported. No previous reports have described a case of PIEM located in the lower thoracic spine with long-term follow-up. Purpose. Demonstrating an unusual, extremely rare case of melanoma manifestation. Study Design. Case report. Methods. We report a case of a 57-year-old female suffering from increasing lower extremity pain, left-sided paresis, and paraesthesia due to spinal cord compression caused by PIEM in the lower thoracic spine. Results. Extensive investigation excluded other possible primary melanoma sites and metastases. For spinal cord decompression, the tumor at level T12 was resected, yet incompletely. Adjuvant radiotherapy was administered two weeks after surgery. The patient was recurrence-free at 104 weeks after radiotherapy but presents with unchanged neurological symptoms. Conclusion. Primary intradural extramedullary melanoma (PIEM) is extremely rare and its clinical course is unpredictable. Kathrin Hering, Anke Bresch, Donald Lobsien, Wolf Mueller, Rolf-Dieter Kortmann, and Clemens Seidel Copyright © 2016 Kathrin Hering et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Thyroid Metastasis from Uveal Melanoma and Response to Immunotherapy Agents Thu, 24 Mar 2016 13:16:56 +0000 Thyroid metastasis is a rare occurrence with cutaneous melanoma and even more uncommon with uveal melanoma. The management of such metastasis is uncertain due to its infrequency and, in the era of immunotherapy, the effect of these novel drugs on uncommon metastasis, such as to the thyroid, is unknown. We report the rare case of a thyroid metastasis in a patient diagnosed with ocular melanoma initially managed with enucleation. Metastatic disease developed in the lung and thyroid gland. The case patient received the immunotherapy ipilimumab with stable disease in the thyroid and progressive disease elsewhere. The patient was then further treated with a second immunotherapy agent, pembrolizumab, and remains with stable disease one year later. We discuss the current literature on thyroid metastases from all causes and the optimal known management strategies. Furthermore, we provide an original report on the response of this disease to the novel immunomodulators, ipilimumab, and pembrolizumab with stable disease four years after initial diagnosis of ocular melanoma. Dearbhaile Catherine Collins, Ruben Yela, Noel Horgan, and Derek Gerard Power Copyright © 2016 Dearbhaile Catherine Collins et al. All rights reserved. Odontogenic Myxoma in Children: A Case Report and Literature Review Tue, 15 Mar 2016 09:27:40 +0000 Benign odontogenic lesions are rare entities but are very important due to their locally aggressive nature. Odontogenic myxoma is even rarer in children than in adults. There is no evidence in the literature in regard to the best treatment approach, in terms of conservative or aggressive surgery, for this type of tumor. This paper reports a case of odontogenic myxoma in a child treated with a compromised approach through bone osteotomies and a review of the literature about this disease, especially in pediatric patients. Mariana Dalbo Contrera Toro, Icléia Siqueira Barreto, Eliane Maria Ingrid Amstalden, Carlos Takahiro Chone, and Leopoldo Nizam Pfeilsticker Copyright © 2016 Mariana Dalbo Contrera Toro et al. All rights reserved. Postpartum Regression of a Presumed Cavernous Meningioma Tue, 15 Mar 2016 09:27:12 +0000 Meningiomas are known to be more common in females than males. They are also known in rare cases to grow in size during pregnancy, which can complicate its management. We describe a 31-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with blurring of her vision and diplopia during the third trimester of her pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a small left cavernous sinus meningioma. The patient was treated conservatively until her uncomplicated delivery. A postpartum MRI scan showed complete regression of the suspected meningioma. Currently the patient is contemplating a further pregnancy. See Yung Phang and Peter Whitfield Copyright © 2016 See Yung Phang and Peter Whitfield. All rights reserved. Diagnosis and Treatment of Mucinous Appendiceal Neoplasm Presented as Acute Appendicitis Mon, 14 Mar 2016 06:26:45 +0000 Appendiceal mucocele is a rare cause of acute abdomen. Mucinous appendiceal neoplasms represent 0.2–0.7% of all appendix specimens. The aim of this study is to report a case of a mucinous appendiceal neoplasm presented as acute appendicitis, discussing the clinical and surgical approach in the emergency setting. A 72-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with a clinical examination indicative of acute abdomen. The patient underwent abdominal computed tomography scan which revealed a cystic lesion in the right iliac fossa measuring 8.3 × 5.2 × 4.1 cm, with calcified walls, and a mean density indicative of high protein content. The patient was taken to the operating room and a right hemicolectomy was performed. The postoperative course was unremarkable. The histopathological examination revealed a low-grade mucinous appendiceal neoplasm with negative regional lymph nodes. Ultrasound and CT are useful in diagnosing appendiceal mucocele and synchronous cancers in the emergency setting. The initial operation should include appendectomy and resection of the appendicular mesenteric fat along with any fluid collection for cytologic examination. During urgent appendectomy it is important to consider every mucocele as malignant in order to avoid iatrogenic perforation causing pseudomyxoma peritonei. Although laparotomy is recommended, the laparoscopic approach is not contraindicated. Ioannis Kehagias, Apollon Zygomalas, Georgios Markopoulos, Thanasis Papandreou, and Pantelis Kraniotis Copyright © 2016 Ioannis Kehagias et al. All rights reserved. Plasmablastic Lymphoma Mimicking Acute Pancreatitis Sun, 13 Mar 2016 11:36:14 +0000 Background. Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare B-cell neoplasm. It predominantly occurs in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and exhibits a highly aggressive clinical behavior. Case Presentation. We describe an unusual case of a 37-year-old HIV-positive male who presented with acute pancreatitis secondary to multiple peripancreatic masses compressing the pancreas. Histopathological examination of the lesions showed diffuse and cohesive pattern of large B-cells resembling immunoblasts or plasmablasts. The neoplastic cells were positive for BOB1 and MUM1, partially positive for CD79a, and negative for CD20, CD56, CD138, CD3, CD5, AE1/AE3, and HHV8. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA in situ hybridization was positive. These features were consistent with PBL. The patient was initiated on cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy, demonstrating a striking response. Conclusion. To our research, this is the first report of PBL with the initial presentation of acute pancreatitis. The findings in this case suggest that PBL should be included in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic tumors. Faisal Inayat, Hafeez Ul Hassan Virk, Ahmad R. Cheema, and Muhammad Wasif Saif Copyright © 2016 Faisal Inayat et al. All rights reserved. Bronchogenic Carcinoma with Cardiac Invasion Simulating Acute Myocardial Infarction Wed, 02 Mar 2016 11:31:50 +0000 Cardiac metastases in bronchogenic carcinoma may occur due to retrograde lymphatic spread or by hematogenous dissemination of tumour cells, but direct invasion of heart by adjacent malignant lung mass is very uncommon. Pericardium is frequently involved in direct cardiac invasion by adjacent lung cancer. Pericardial effusion, pericarditis, and tamponade are common and life threatening presentation in such cases. But direct invasion of myocardium and endocardium is very uncommon. Left atrial endocardium is most commonly involved in such cases due to anatomical contiguity with pulmonary hilum through pulmonary veins, and in most cases left atrial involvement is asymptomatic. But myocardial compression and invasion by adjacent lung mass may result in myocardial ischemia and may present with retrosternal, oppressive chest pain which clinically may simulate with the acute myocardial infarction (AMI). As a result, it leads to misdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis of lung cancer. Here we report a case of non-small-cell carcinoma of right lung which was presented with asymptomatic invasion in left atrium and retrosternal chest pain simulating AMI due to myocardial compression by adjacent lung mass, in a seventy-four-year-old male smoker. Anirban Das, Sibes K. Das, Sudipta Pandit, and Rathindra Nath Karmakar Copyright © 2016 Anirban Das et al. All rights reserved. Laparoscopic Resection of Recurrence from Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Liver Transplantation: Case Reports and Review of the Literature Tue, 01 Mar 2016 11:00:26 +0000 Background. Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after liver transplantation (LT) indicates a poor prognosis. Surgery is considered the only curative option for selected patients with HCC recurrence following LT. Traditionally, the preference is given to the open approach. Methods. In this report, we present two cases of laparoscopic resections (LR) for recurrent HCC after LT, performed at Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet. Results. Both procedures were executed without intraoperative and postoperative adverse events. Whereas one of the patients had a recurrence one year after LR, the other patient did not have any sign of disease during 3-year follow-up. Conclusions. We argue that, in selected cases, patients with HCC recurrence following LT may benefit from LR due to its limited tissue trauma and timely start of subsequent treatment if curative resection cannot be obtained. In patients with relatively favorable prognosis, LR facilitates postoperative recovery course and avoids unnecessary laparotomy. Mushegh A. Sahakyan, Airazat M. Kazaryan, Ewa Pomianowska, Andreas Abildgaard, Pål-Dag Line, Bjørn Atle Bjørnbeth, Bjørn Edwin, and Bård Ingvald Røsok Copyright © 2016 Mushegh A. Sahakyan et al. All rights reserved. Primary Malignant Neuroendocrine Tumour of Pleura: First Case Report Mon, 29 Feb 2016 18:44:44 +0000 Metastatic tumours of pleura are the most common malignant tumours causing malignant pleural effusion. Lungs are the most common primary sites. Primary pleural tumours are rarely seen and diffuse malignant mesothelioma is the most common malignant tumour of pleura. Primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura is not reported in the literature. Here, we report a rare case of primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura in a fifty-two-year-old, nonsmoker female who presented with right-sided pleural effusion and ipsilateral, dull aching chest pain. Clinical presentations of inflammatory lesions like tuberculous pleuritis and benign and malignant neoplasms of pleura are indistinguishable; hence, fluid cytology, pleural biopsy, and immunohistochemistry are necessary for exact tissue diagnosis of the tumours, which is mandatory for correct treatment and prognostic assessment. Anirban Das and Abhishek Pratap Copyright © 2016 Anirban Das and Abhishek Pratap. All rights reserved. Paclitaxel Induced MDS and AML: A Case Report and Literature Review Mon, 29 Feb 2016 17:23:59 +0000 Therapy related acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) have been classically linked to alkylating agents and topoisomerase inhibitors. They constitute about 1% of all AMLs. There is less evidence on association of taxanes (paclitaxel and docetaxel) with these myeloid neoplasms. We present a case of paclitaxel therapy related acute myelogenous leukemia after treatment of endometrial cancer with a regimen containing paclitaxel and carboplatin. A 63-year-old female underwent surgery followed by a total of 6 cycles of chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Six months after last cycle of chemotherapy, she was diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome with refractory anemia and excess blasts. Six weeks later, she had worsening anemia and thrombocytopenia which prompted a bone marrow biopsy which revealed acute myelomonocytic leukemia. A thorough literature review revealed 12 other case reports where taxanes have been implicated in the development of therapy related myeloid neoplasm. Based on the timeline of events in our patient, paclitaxel is the likely culprit in the pathogenesis of this myeloid neoplasm. This rare but significantly grave adverse effect should be kept in consideration when deciding on treatment options for gynecological malignancies. Udit Bhaskar Bhatnagar, Daulath Singh, Alexy Glazyrin, and Jill Moormeier Copyright © 2016 Udit Bhaskar Bhatnagar et al. All rights reserved.