Case Reports in Pathology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Tumour with Intraorbital Location: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature Tue, 26 Jan 2016 11:11:13 +0000 The Perivascular Epithelioid Cell tumours (PEComas) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms recognized as entity by the World Health Organization. The tumour cells have an uncertain origin and are characterized by distinctive histological and immunohistochemical features. We report a case of PEComa occurring as intraorbital lesion in a 47-year-old man. We found only two other cases described in the literature and we considered all three cases together in order of histology, immunohistochemistry, and clinical outcome. We found a strict histological overlapping and quite similar immunohistological results. All three cases showed a favourable clinical course probably related to small size of tumours (<5 cm), low mitotic rate (<2 mitoses in 50 HPF), and absence of necrosis. Idania Lubo, Ileana Fermín, Olindo Massarelli, Roberta Gobbi, and Paolo Cossu Rocca Copyright © 2016 Idania Lubo et al. All rights reserved. Pulmonary Empty Spaces: Silicone Embolism—A Decade of Increased Incidence and Its Histological Diagnosis Thu, 21 Jan 2016 14:28:33 +0000 Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a critical complication related to multiple disorders and different medical or cosmetic procedures. This case report presents two patients who were admitted for respiratory symptoms in the setting of previously receiving silicone injections for cosmetic purposes and were diagnosed with silicone pulmonary embolism. The relevance of including questions about all cosmetic procedures as a part of a medical history is highlighted, in particular about silicone injections. The diagnosis is confirmed by histological means. Additionally, our review showed the change of most common sites of silicone injections and a significant increase in cosmetic procedures causing silicone embolism during the past twelve years. Kirill Lyapichev, Felix Manuel Chinea, Julio Poveda, Jeniffer Pereda, Pablo A. Bejarano, and Monica T. Garcia-Buitrago Copyright © 2016 Kirill Lyapichev et al. All rights reserved. Fibrolipoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Sun, 17 Jan 2016 17:32:51 +0000 Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms derived from mature adipose tissue. However, they rarely arise in the oral cavity. Fibrolipoma is a histological variant of lipoma that mainly affects the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic issues. This article describes the case of a 71-year-old male with a fibrolipoma of the left buccal mucosa and a review of previous articles about fibrolipoma. Masayasu Iwase, Naotaka Saida, and Yoko Tanaka Copyright © 2016 Masayasu Iwase et al. All rights reserved. Biliary Adenofibroma with Invasive Carcinoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature Wed, 13 Jan 2016 11:32:44 +0000 We report a case of biliary adenofibroma with an invasive carcinoma in a 71-year-old female who presented with bilateral upper abdominal pain. Imaging revealed a 6.3 cm heterogeneously enhancing mass in the left lateral segment of the liver. Histologically, the adenofibroma showed the characteristic components as previously described of biliary adenofibromata, namely, cystic and tubular structures lined by cuboidal to low columnar biliary type epithelium and a dense fibrous stroma composed of spindled cells. Intimately admixed with the adenofibroma was a distinct tumor composed of malignant clear cells which demonstrated stromal and vascular invasion. Although mitotic figures were inconspicuous, Ki67 was brisk and p53 demonstrated 25–50 positivity. Sections also showed a von Meyenberg complex located adjacent to the tumor. This case expands the understanding of this rare tumor and proves two important assertions from previous case reports. First, the presence of an associated von Meyenberg complex with similar morphology and immunohistochemical staining pattern suggests that biliary adenofibromata and von Meyenberg complexes may share related histogenesis. Second, biliary adenofibromata harbor malignant potential and may show malignant transformation. Furthermore, this case highlights the need for these rare tumors to be followed aggressively, as their biological behavior is poorly understood. Anjali Godambe, Elizabeth M. Brunt, Keith H. Fulling, and Taher Reza Kermanshahi Copyright © 2016 Anjali Godambe et al. All rights reserved. Trichohepatoenteric Syndrome or Syndromic Diarrhea—Report of Three Members in a Family, First Report from Iran Wed, 06 Jan 2016 08:34:44 +0000 Introduction. Intractable diarrhea of infancy (IDI) includes several types of early onset diarrhea; one of the rare etiologies is trichohepatoenteric (THE) syndrome, also known as syndromic diarrhea (SD) which was primarily described by Stankler et al. Hereby we report a family with several affected members which to our knowledge is the first case report from Iran. Report of Cases. A three-year-old boy referred with short stature, poor weight gain, and intermittent steatotic diarrhea to our center. He was born to healthy, relative parents (cousins). He did not gain any weight after four months of age and began having intermittent steatotic diarrhea, abdominal distension, and fever. He was hospitalized several times. Two other children in the family also showed somewhat similar symptoms. Two sweat tests were negative for cystic fibrosis. Workup for Celiac disease was performed several times which was negative; however, gluten-free diet was tried several times which was not effective. Workup for Hirschsprung’s disease was performed but colon was ganglionic. Evidence of liver involvement was approved by elevated liver enzymes and coarse echo of liver on sonography. Discussion. Trichoenterohepatic syndrome should be put in mind in cases of intractable diarrhea presenting in a family with several affected members. Early diagnosis would save patients from unnecessary workups. F. E. Mahjoub, F. Imanzadeh, S. Mahdavi Izadi, and A. Nahali Moghaddam Copyright © 2016 F. E. Mahjoub et al. All rights reserved. Metastatic Chordoma: A Diagnostic Challenge on Fine Needle Aspiration Sun, 03 Jan 2016 14:21:06 +0000 Chordomas are primary low grade malignant tumors of bone that usually arise within both ends of axial skeleton. The Notochord is a midline, ectoderm-derived structure that defines the phylum of chordates. Chordomas may pose difficult diagnostic challenges when encountered in secondary locations, such as lungs or other parenchymatous organs. We report the cytologic findings of a metastatic chordoma sampled through CT-scan guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of lower lobe lung nodule in a 54-year-old man diagnosed with recurrent chordoma involving the lumber spine and paraspinal region. Ghassan Tranesh and Aziza Nassar Copyright © 2016 Ghassan Tranesh and Aziza Nassar. All rights reserved. Comment on “Retained Placenta Accreta Mimicking Choriocarcinoma” Sun, 03 Jan 2016 14:20:39 +0000 Mehmet Aral Atalay and Bilge Cetinkaya Demir Copyright © 2016 Mehmet Aral Atalay and Bilge Cetinkaya Demir. All rights reserved. Metachronous Occurrence of Granular Cell Tumor in Breast Skin and Scalp: Diagnostic Challenging Differentiating Benign from Malignant and a Literature Review Sun, 03 Jan 2016 12:34:54 +0000 Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a Schwann cell related benign neoplasm of soft tissue. GCT is an uncommon entity that occurs in a wide variety of body sites, but it is generally presented in the skin, oral cavity, superficial soft tissue, and respiratory and digestive tracts. Most of the GCTs are benign but clinically and radiologically these may mimic malignancy. Histopathological diagnosis is gold standard for establishing the true nature of the lesion. GCT is most commonly solitary but in about 10% of cases can be multifocal, usually involving various skin and soft tissue sites versus involving various internal sites. Therefore, these can involve skin and soft tissue or submucosa and viscera. GCT is usually benign; however, local recurrence is common due to incomplete removal. Malignant cases are rarely reported in 1-2% of cases. In this study, we report clinical and histopathological findings of a 36-year-old woman with metachronous GCT in breast and scalp. The clinical features raise the question of whether these are metachronous benign GCTs or whether this is establishment of malignant behavior. The aim of this report is to present the histopathological and clinical features of GCT and the diagnostic challenge of differentiating benign from malignant GCT. Hampar Akkaya, Havva Serap Toru, Ebru Sebnem Ayva, Zulfikar Karabulut, and Cicek Durusoy Copyright © 2016 Hampar Akkaya et al. All rights reserved. Unexpected Malignant Diagnosis in Colonic Biopsies: Malignant Transformation of Ovarian Mature Teratomas—Two Case Reports and Review of the Literature Thu, 31 Dec 2015 08:24:05 +0000 Colorectal adenocarcinoma is the second cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in the colorectum is extremely unusual. Malignant transformation from mature cystic teratoma of the ovary is a rare event. The most common transformation is squamous cell carcinoma, followed by adenocarcinoma. It occurs more often in elderly patients, who usually present with advance disease. We report two unusual cases of postmenopausal women diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma in colon biopsies. After surgical resections, the carcinoma was proven to be the result of malignant transformation of ovarian mature cystic teratomas. Since squamous cell carcinoma of the colorectum is extremely rare, the presence of squamous cell carcinoma in a colonic biopsy in a female patient should alert the clinicians to other possible primary sites, as seen in these cases. Claudia P. Rojas, Parvin Ganjei-Azar, and Monica T. Garcia-Buitrago Copyright © 2015 Claudia P. Rojas et al. All rights reserved. Isolated Ocular Manifestation of Relapsed Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Presenting as Myeloid Blast Crisis in a Patient on Imatinib Therapy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Thu, 24 Dec 2015 13:28:06 +0000 Blast phase in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has rarely been reported to involve extramedullary sites like skin, lymph nodes, and central nervous system. Clinical history, characteristic hematologic findings (elevated leukocyte counts, myelocytic predominance, and basophilia), and Philadelphia chromosome are of high diagnostic significance especially in isolated extramedullary presentations. We describe a unique case of CML relapse with blast phase involving the eye. A 66-year-old man with a known diagnosis of CML on imatinib and in molecular remission for 3 years presented with a painful blind eye. Histologic examination revealed diffuse involvement of choroid, iris, vitreous humor, and the optic nerve by blast cells. The blasts expressed CD34, aberrant TdT, and a myeloid phenotype (CD13, CD33, and CD117). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of vitreous fluid detected BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangement. Additionally, trisomy 8 and gains of 9 and 22 were seen which were not present in the initial diagnostic marrow study 3 years ago. At relapse, the bone marrow, peripheral blood, and the cerebrospinal fluid were not involved by CML. Patient received induction chemotherapy and single dose prophylactic intrathecal methotrexate and was maintained on antityrosine kinase therapy and eventually underwent allogenic stem cell transplantation. Rohit Gulati, Yaser Alkhatib, Vijayalakshmi Donthireddy, Michelle Madden Felicella, Madhu P. Menon, and Kedar V. Inamdar Copyright © 2015 Rohit Gulati et al. All rights reserved. Primary Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nipple Mon, 21 Dec 2015 11:37:40 +0000 Squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common cutaneous cancers; however, primary squamous cell carcinoma of the nipple is extremely rare. Among the few reported cases, the majority have occurred in older women with rare cases seen in younger women and male patients. Our patient presented with an exophytic mass of the right nipple while pregnant. A superficial biopsy was reviewed at an outside institution and then at our institution and diagnosed as squamous papilloma and then as hyperkeratosis of the nipple, respectively. The subsequent excisional biopsy revealed multiple nests of tumor cells extending into the dermis with associated chronic inflammatory infiltrate, and the lesion was diagnosed as a primary invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the nipple. Following that, a wide local excision of the excision site and sampling of the regional lymph nodes were negative for carcinoma. Due to the rarity of this diagnosis, it is not known whether prognosis and response to therapy differ from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma at other sites. Therefore, risk stratification and therapy have been based on those for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Avani A. Pendse and Siobhan M. O’Connor Copyright © 2015 Avani A. Pendse and Siobhan M. O’Connor. All rights reserved. The Potential Malignancy of a Solitary Fibrous Tumour of the Lung Thu, 17 Dec 2015 07:21:32 +0000 Solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs) are rare neoplasms that in the majority of cases are benign. We present the case of a 52-year-old male, with a 23-year history of a slow growing pleural mass, presenting to our department with worsening dyspnoea and localised chest discomfort. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the potential malignancy of a solitary fibrous tumour of the lung along with the key features in diagnosis and management. Rajeev Shukla, Davide Patrini, Elaine Borg, David Lawrence, Martin Hayward, and Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos Copyright © 2015 Rajeev Shukla et al. All rights reserved. Adipocyte-Like Differentiation in a Posttreatment Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma Thu, 10 Dec 2015 06:46:30 +0000 We describe a 16-year-old boy with rhabdomyosarcoma, consistent with embryonal subtype, of the lower extremity who received systemic neoadjuvant chemotherapy and subsequent excision. Microscopic sections of the postchemotherapy excision demonstrated diffuse, prominent, and immature adipocyte-like differentiation, in addition to skeletal muscle differentiation. Adipocyte-like differentiation was confirmed by a combination of positive Oil Red O and adipophilin immunohistochemical staining. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of an unusual phenomenon of differentiation of a soft tissue rhabdomyosarcoma into adipocyte-like cells after chemotherapy. Dana Balitzer, Timothy H. McCalmont, and Andrew E. Horvai Copyright © 2015 Dana Balitzer et al. All rights reserved. A Large Extragnathic Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour Sun, 06 Dec 2015 11:33:49 +0000 Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are developmental cysts which occur typically in the jawbones. They present more commonly in the posterior mandible of young adults than the maxilla. OKCs have been reclassified under odontogenic tumours in 2005 by the WHO and have since been termed as keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs). Here we report a case of a recurrent buccal lesion in a 62-year-old man which was provisionally diagnosed as a space infection (buccal abscess) but surprisingly turned out to be a soft tissue KCOT in an unusual location on histopathologic examination. Soumya Makarla, Radhika M. Bavle, Sudhakara Muniswamappa, and Srinath Narasimhamurthy Copyright © 2015 Soumya Makarla et al. All rights reserved. Complete Resolution of Pseudomalignant Erosion in a Reflux Gastroesophageal Polyp with Proton Pump Inhibitor Tue, 24 Nov 2015 09:17:26 +0000 Pseudomalignant erosion is a diagnostic pitfall for pathologists in the differential diagnosis of malignant neoplasms. Here, we present a challenging case of a biopsy specimen from the eroded head of a polyp at the esophagogastric junction. A malignant neoplasm could not be ruled out due to the presence of bizarre stromal cells. A second biopsy performed after the administration of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 4 weeks revealed endoscopic resolution of the polyp along with the complete histological resolution of the bizarre stromal cells and led to the diagnosis of pseudomalignant erosion in a reflux gastroesophageal polyp. In conclusion, histological and endoscopic response to PPI therapy is an important clue for the correct diagnosis of reflux gastroesophageal polyps with pseudomalignant erosion. Takahiko Nakajima, Haruo Yagi, Hayato Baba, Takashi Minamisaka, Shigeharu Miwa, Shinichi Hayashi, Takeshi Nishida, Hideki Hatta, Koichi Tsuneyama, and Johji Imura Copyright © 2015 Takahiko Nakajima et al. All rights reserved. MYC Amplification in Angiosarcoma Arising from an Arteriovenous Graft Site Sun, 22 Nov 2015 07:19:37 +0000 Angiosarcoma arising in association with an arteriovenous graft (AVG) or fistula is a unique clinicopathologic scenario that appears to be gaining recognition in the literature. Among reported cases, none has described high-level MYC gene amplification, a genetic aberration that is increasingly unifying the various clinicopathologic subdivisions of angiosarcoma. We therefore report the MYC gene status in a case of angiosarcoma arising at an AVG site. Kristen M. Paral, Gordana Raca, and Thomas Krausz Copyright © 2015 Kristen M. Paral et al. All rights reserved. An Uncommon Case of Chronic Tubercular Appendicitis Mon, 16 Nov 2015 08:44:45 +0000 Tuberculosis (TB) is a common disease that ranks as the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide, after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, primary TB of the appendix is rare and may or may not be associated with specific clinical features. Thus, diagnosis is made only after histopathological examination. It suggests that all surgically removed appendices should be subjected to histopathological examination. This reported case is an uncommon case of chronic tubercular appendicitis. Sushna Maharjan Copyright © 2015 Sushna Maharjan. All rights reserved. A Rare Case of Erdheim-Chester Disease and Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Overlap Syndrome Thu, 22 Oct 2015 13:50:48 +0000 A 48-year-old woman with a past medical history of seizures and end-stage renal disease secondary to obstructive uropathy from retroperitoneal fibrosis presented to the emergency department with seizures and altered mental status. A Glasgow Coma Scale of 4 prompted intubation, and she was subsequently admitted to the intensive care unit. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain performed to elucidate the aetiology of her seizure showed a dural-based mass within the left temporoparietal lobe as well as mass lesions within the orbits. Further imaging showed extensive retroperitoneal fibrosis extending to the mediastinum with involvement of aorta and posterior pleural space. Imaging of the long bones showed bilateral sclerosis and cortical thickening of the diaphyses. Imaging of the maxillofacial structures showed osseous destructive lesions involving the mandible. These clinical and radiological features were consistent with a diagnosis of Erdheim-Chester disease; however, the patient’s skin biopsy was consistent with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Shahzaib Nabi, Adeel Arshad, Tarun Jain, Fawad Virk, Rohit Gulati, and Rana Awdish Copyright © 2015 Shahzaib Nabi et al. All rights reserved. A Histologically Diagnosed Case with Infantile Osteopetrosis Complicated by Hypopituitarism Tue, 20 Oct 2015 12:29:45 +0000 Malignant infantile osteopetrosis is a rarely seen severe disorder which appears early in life with general sclerosis of the skeleton. It is caused by functionally defective osteoclasts which fail to resorb bone. Affected infants can exhibit a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations including impaired hematopoiesis, hepatosplenomegaly, visual impairment, and hypocalcemia. With the exception of secondary hyperparathyroidism, involvement of the endocrine system seems to be quite rare. Hypopituitarism is defined as underproduction of the growth hormone in combination with deficiencies of other pituitary hormones. Any lesion that damages hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, or anterior pituitary can cause secondary hypopituitarism. In this report, we presented a rare combination of malignant infantile osteopetrosis and secondary hypopituitarism in a newborn who presented predominantly with endocrinological symptoms. This is the first case report of malignant infantile osteopetrosis accompanied by hypopituitarism secondary to sclerosis of the sella turcica. On the other hand, this is a very interesting case which was diagnosed based on histological examination of bone marrow biopsy specimens despite lack of any clinical suspicion. Gulden Diniz, Ozgur Olukman, Sebnem Calkavur, Muammer Buyukinan, and Canan Altay Copyright © 2015 Gulden Diniz et al. All rights reserved. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Metastatic to the Kidney: Report of a Case with Cytohistologic Correlation Tue, 13 Oct 2015 09:37:03 +0000 Here we report a case of a 45-year-old female who underwent thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer and presented 20 years later with a left renal mass. CT-guided core biopsy was performed, and imprints and histologic sections of the biopsy showed cells resembling thyroid follicular cells with a background containing colloid. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity for thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor 1, consistent with metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). The patient later underwent radical nephrectomy; histologic sections of the resected tumor revealed an encapsulated lesion morphologically similar to the biopsy specimen. Thyroid metastases to the kidney are extremely rare and are often detected during postthyroidectomy surveillance by elevation in thyroid hormone levels, 131I scintigraphy, or 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in positron emission tomography studies. Treatment involves total thyroidectomy, resection of the metastatic foci, and 131I therapy. The differential diagnoses of renal metastasis of FTC include the encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), which possesses some of the nuclear features seen in conventional PTC but may occasionally be indistinguishable from FTC in cytologic preparations, and renal lesions such as benign thyroidization of the kidney and thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney, which mimic FTC in histologic appearance but do not stain with thyroid markers. Vikas Nath, Mithra Baliga, Jack Lewin, Frederico Souza, and Israh Akhtar Copyright © 2015 Vikas Nath et al. All rights reserved. Synchronous Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Auricular Myxoma Mon, 05 Oct 2015 06:14:12 +0000 Synchronic occurrence of benign and malignant tumors is extremely rare. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma represents 1% to 2% of all hepatocarcinomas, while myxomas represent about half of all the cases of primary tumors of the heart. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a left atrial myxoma that was surgically removed. Several weeks later, the patient returned to the hospital with abdominal pain. CT scan showed a mass in the left lobe of the liver that was resected and diagnosed as fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. As of this writing, the patient is healthy. Yessica M. González-Cantú, Cristina Rodriguez-Padilla, Martha Lilia Tena-Suck, Alberto García de la Fuente, Rosa María Mejía-Bañuelos, Raymundo Díaz Mendoza, Samuel Quintanilla-Garza, and Yolaester Batisda-Acuña Copyright © 2015 Yessica M. González-Cantú et al. All rights reserved. Retained Placenta Accreta Mimicking Choriocarcinoma Thu, 01 Oct 2015 12:00:51 +0000 This case demonstrates a rare event of retained invasive placenta masquerading as choriocarcinoma. The patient presented with heavy vaginal bleeding following vaginal delivery complicated by retained products of conception. Ultrasound and computed tomography demonstrated a vascular endometrial mass, invading the uterine wall and raising suspicion for choriocarcinoma. Hysterectomy revealed retained invasive placenta. Maureen P. Kohi, Gabrielle A. Rizzuto, Nicholas Fidelman, Jennifer Lucero, and Mari-Paule Thiet Copyright © 2015 Maureen P. Kohi et al. All rights reserved. Anal Papilloma: An Exceptional Presentation of Fibrocystic Disease in Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands Thu, 01 Oct 2015 10:51:33 +0000 Previously ectopic breast tissue was thought to be derived from the caudal remnants of the primitive embryonic milk ridges; anogenital mammary-like glands are presently considered as normal constituents of the anogenital region. We report a case of young female, who presented with an anal papilloma. Histopathological examination revealed extensive fibrocystic changes in anogenital mammary-like glands. To date, a lot of benign changes and a wide range of benign and malignant neoplasms have been reported in these glands. However, extensive fibrocystic change of these glands in anal region is very rare. In addition, fibrocystic disease of anal mammary glands, masquerading clinically as an anal papilloma, has not been reported in literature. Hence, it is essential for clinicians and the pathologists to be aware of such a rare presentation. The features of fibrocystic disease in perianal region are also discussed. Priya Subashchandrabose, Muthuvel Esakkai, Palani Venugopal, Ilavarasan Kannaiyan, Chitra Srinivasan, Punuru Tejashwini Reddy, and Evelyn Elizabeth Ebenezer Copyright © 2015 Priya Subashchandrabose et al. All rights reserved. Spindle Cell Lipoma Occurring in the Buccal Mucosa: An Unusual Location of This Benign Lipomatous Neoplasm Wed, 30 Sep 2015 09:39:52 +0000 Spindle cell lipoma is a benign lipomatous neoplasm, which rarely occurs in the oral cavity. The aims of this paper are to report a case of spindle cell lipoma located in buccal mucosa and discuss the main clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical findings of this entity. Thus, we report a 4-year history of an asymptomatic smooth surface nodule in an elderly Caucasian man with clinical hypothesis of fibroma. The histopathological examination showed spindle cells, mature adipose tissue, and many mast cells in a stroma of connective tissue presenting ropey collagen fibers bundles. After immunohistochemical analysis, the final diagnosis was spindle cell lipoma. Noala Vicensoto Moreira Milhan, Ana Sueli Rodrigues Cavalcante, Yonara Maria Freire Soares Marques, Yasmin Rodarte Carvalho, and Ana Lia Anbinder Copyright © 2015 Noala Vicensoto Moreira Milhan et al. All rights reserved. Eumycetoma Osteomyelitis of the Calcaneus in a Child: A Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation following Total Calcanectomy Mon, 21 Sep 2015 11:21:11 +0000 Fungi are unusual causes of pedal osteomyelitis in children and adolescents. Eumycetoma is a chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by various genera of fungi. A provisional diagnosis of foot mycetoma is made after clinical assessment. Radiologic-pathologic correlation is an essential supplement for the accurate diagnosis of osteoarticular infections. This paper aims to sensitize orthopedic surgeons, radiologists, and pathologists to the importance of correlative imaging findings in relation to surgical and microscopic pathology in osteoarticular infections, specifically eumycetoma osteomyelitis of the foot. From our review of the published data, the present case is the first report of radiologic-pathologic correlation in eumycetoma osteomyelitis of the calcaneus. This paper describes a case of eumycetoma osteomyelitis of the calcaneus in a child in which diagnostic X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were correlated with the surgical and microscopic pathologic features, for establishing an appropriate diagnosis and treatment. We conclude that there is a significant agreement between radiologic and pathologic evaluation for assessment of eumycetoma osteomyelitis of the calcaneus. Radiologic-pathologic correlation amplified our interpretation of imaging information available on plain radiographs and MRI and augmented diagnostic confidence. Similarly, anatomic-histopathological correlations consolidated diagnostic accuracy. Tamer Ahmed EL-Sobky, John Fathy Haleem, and Shady Samir Copyright © 2015 Tamer Ahmed EL-Sobky et al. All rights reserved. Clonal CD8+ T Lymphocytic Proliferation and Karyotypical Abnormalities in an EBV Associated Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Wed, 16 Sep 2015 12:15:22 +0000 EBV associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and EBV-positive T cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood share many histologic and clinical features, which sometimes makes it very difficult to render a definitive diagnosis. In this report, we present a 16-year-old male who developed symptoms clinically consistent with EBV associated hematophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis including fulfilling most of HLH diagnostic criteria and responding promptly to HLH targeted therapy. However, histologic and cytogenetics features of this case are very concerning for EBV-positive T cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood. This case demonstrates an ambiguous boundary of these two disease entities and emphasizes the importance of comprehensive evaluation and clinical correlation with cases suspicious of EBV driven hemophagocytic or lymphoproliferative process. Jiehao Zhou, Dehua Wang, and Mehdi Nassiri Copyright © 2015 Jiehao Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Importance of NAB2-STAT6 Fusion in the Diagnosis of Pancreatic Solitary Fibrous Tumor with Hamartoma-Like Features: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Sun, 06 Sep 2015 11:54:16 +0000 We report a case of pancreatic hamartoma-like solitary fibrous tumor which was differentiated from pancreatic hamartoma with the detection of NAB2-STAT6 fusion, a specific mutation for solitary fibrous tumors. A pancreatic well-demarcated solid nodule,  mm, of 82-year-old man was surgically enucleated. Microscopic findings were close to a pancreatic hamartoma that consisted of sparsely distributed pancreatic ducts and acini in heavily collagenized fibrous stroma. Neither islet nor peripheral nerve existed in the tumor. The fibroblastic cells in the stroma were immune-positive for CD34, CD99, and bcl-2. But these expressions were not decisive in the differentiation between solitary fibrous tumor and pancreatic hamartoma, because CD34 was positive for both tumors, and CD99 and bcl-2 expressions were not elucidated in the previous cases of pancreatic hamartomas. Thus, we evaluated NAB2-STAT6 fusion. The fibroblastic cells were positive for STAT6 and sequencing analysis revealed the gene fusion between NAB2 exon 4 and STAT6 exon 2, with which the final diagnos is of solitary fibrous tumor was achieved. In conclusion, detection of NAB2-STAT6 fusion has a great diagnostic value for pancreatic solitary fibrous tumors with hamartoma-like features. Kei Tanaka, Takashi Kishimoto, Masayuki Ohtsuka, Yukio Nakatani, and Masaru Miyazaki Copyright © 2015 Kei Tanaka et al. All rights reserved. Massive Localized Lymphedema Arising from Abdominal Wall: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Mon, 31 Aug 2015 13:34:05 +0000 Massive localized lymphedema (MLL) is a rare pseudosarcomatous lesion due to localized lymphatic obstruction from variable causes. It is most common on medial aspect of thigh and inguinal region. Abdominal localization is rare and may cause clinical diagnostic confusion with other malignant tumors due to its large size. We report a case of abdominal wall MLL of a 56-year-old male patient under clinical suspicion of well differentiated liposarcoma. The literature search and differential diagnosis will be addressed. In doubt cases, immunohistochemical stain or fluorescent in situ hybridization can help to separate this entity from the other mimickers. Teodóra Tóth, Yi-Che Chang Chien, Sándor Kollár, and Ilona Kovács Copyright © 2015 Teodóra Tóth et al. All rights reserved. Leishmaniasis Panamensis Masquerading as Myiasis and Sporotrichosis: A Clinical Pitfall Sun, 30 Aug 2015 12:02:47 +0000 We report a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis panamensis in nonendemic Costa Rica. A 19-year-old female presented with nonhealing, unilateral eruption of erythematous papules with superficial central ulceration in a sporotrichoid pattern on right upper arm and back. Given the clinical picture and geographic locale, the patient was initially diagnosed with myiasis or human botfly infestation; however, the sporotrichoid pattern of the bites is an unlikely finding in myiasis. Peripheral blood smear, Giemsa stain, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were consistent for Leishmania spp. Ulceration resolved with 20-day course of IV sodium stibogluconate. Peter G. Pavlidakey, Thy Huynh, Kristopher Michael McKay, and Naveed Sami Copyright © 2015 Peter G. Pavlidakey et al. All rights reserved. Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor, a “Floating Island” Pattern in Pleural Fluid Cytology: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:42:36 +0000 Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare aggressive sarcoma with characteristic clinical and pathologic features. It typically involves pelvic and abdominal organs of young male patients, and patients usually present at advanced stage with poor prognosis. A few reports are available describing the cytopathologic features of DSRCT in serous effusions, with the majority of published cases depicting undifferentiated small blue cells that need to be distinguished from other small blue cell tumors. We report an interesting case of DSRCT involving a pleural effusion with a “floating island” pattern that has been described in hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and adrenal cortical carcinoma. In our case, the epithelioid tumor cells form cohesive aggregates surrounded by a single layer of spindle cells, mimicking the “endothelial wrapping” in other tumors with “floating island” patterns. We demonstrate, by ancillary testing, that these peripheral spindle cells are tapered/flattened DSRCT cells, in contrast to endothelial wrapping cells, as seen in other tumors with this unique cytomorphology. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing DSRCT showing a “floating island” pattern that needs to be differentiated from metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and adrenal cortical carcinoma in effusion cytology. Hui Zhu, Emily Marie McMeekin, and Charles D. Sturgis Copyright © 2015 Hui Zhu et al. All rights reserved.