Case Reports in Pediatrics The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A Neonate with CLOVES Syndrome Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Congenital lipomatous overgrowth, vascular malformations, and epidermal nevi (CLOVE) syndrome is a recently delineated disorder that comprises vascular malformations (typically truncal), dysregulated adipose tissue, scoliosis, enlarged bony structures (typically of the legs) without progression, or distorting bony overgrowth. The name CLOVE was subsequently extended to CLOVES to emphasize the association with scoliosis/skeletal and spinal anomalies and seizures/central nervous system malformations. We herein report a very rare case of CLOVES syndrome with the findings of lipomatous overgrowth in the cheek (facial asymmetry), vascular malformation (hemangiomas), epidermal nevi (large port wine stains), and skeletal abnormalities (widened first interdigital space, dystrophia in the nail of the first digit of the right foot, and bilateral hypertrophy of the first digits of the feet). Dilek Sarici, Mustafa Ali Akin, Selim Kurtoglu, Filiz Tubas, and Serdar Umit Sarici Copyright © 2014 Dilek Sarici et al. All rights reserved. Neonatal Pulmonary Hemosiderosis Sun, 19 Oct 2014 09:56:20 +0000 Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare complex entity characterized clinically by acute or recurrent episodes of hemoptysis secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. The radiographic features are variable, including diffuse alveolar-type infiltrates, and interstitial reticular and micronodular patterns. We describe a 3-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis and moderate respiratory distress. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was the first working diagnosis at the Emergency Department and was confirmed, 2 weeks later, by histological studies (bronchoalveolar lavage). The immunosuppressive therapy by 1 mg/kg/d prednisone was immediately started, the baby returned home on steroid therapy at a dose of 0,5 mg/kg/d. The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis should be evocated at any age, even in the neonate, when the clinical presentation (hemoptysis and abnormal radiological chest images) is strongly suggestive. Boris Limme, Ramona Nicolescu, and Jean-Paul Misson Copyright © 2014 Boris Limme et al. All rights reserved. Serious Delayed Hair Toe Tourniquet Syndrome with Bone Erosion and Flexor Tendon Lesion Tue, 14 Oct 2014 08:14:25 +0000 Hair toe tourniquet syndrome (HTTS) is an uncommon pediatric condition occurring when the toe is circumferentially strangulated by human hair or fibers. An 8-week-old little girl was admitted to the Emergency Department because of the worsening swelling in the right second and third toes, which had been been previously treated with a local antibiotic thinking of an infection. An unrecognized HTTS was leading the third toe to necrosis. An urgent release of the constricting band on the two toes was performed and bone erosion and partial flexor tendon lesion on the third toe were detected. We would like to raise awareness in the community and in colleagues about HTTS in children, because early recognition and urgent treatment are mandatory to provide an adequate management and prevent severe complications. Nicola Bizzotto, Andrea Sandri, Dario Regis, Guillherme Carpeggiani, Franco Lavini, and Bruno Magnan Copyright © 2014 Nicola Bizzotto et al. All rights reserved. Six-Digit CPK and Mildly Affected Renal Function in McArdle Disease Thu, 09 Oct 2014 08:41:46 +0000 A previously healthy, white 12-year-old girl presented with diffuse body aches and poor perfusion. She developed severe respiratory failure and marked rhabdomyolysis and was mechanically ventilated. Although her CPK peaked at 500,000 IU/L, her renal function was mildly affected and her creatinine did not exceed the 0.8 mg/dL. The rhabdomyolysis was gradually resolved following aggressive fluid hydration. The patient did not require dialysis and made a complete recovery. Genetic studies revealed the diagnosis of McArdle disease. George Spyropoulos, Panagiotis Kratimenos, Andrew D. Mcinnes, Richard J. DeGroote, and Ioannis Koutroulis Copyright © 2014 George Spyropoulos et al. All rights reserved. Kawasaki Disease with Retropharyngeal Edema following a Blackfly Bite Thu, 02 Oct 2014 07:39:21 +0000 We describe a patient with Kawasaki disease (KD) and retropharyngeal edema following a blackfly bite. An 8-year-old boy was referred to our hospital because of a 3-day-history of fever and left neck swelling and redness after a blackfly bite. Computed tomography of the neck revealed left cervical lymph nodes swelling with edema, increased density of the adjacent subcutaneous tissue layer, and low density of the retropharyngeum. The patient was initially presumed to have cervical cellulitis, lymphadenitis, and retropharyngeal abscess. He was administered antibiotics intravenously, which did not improve his condition. The patient subsequently exhibited other signs of KD and was diagnosed with KD and retropharyngeal edema. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and oral flurbiprofen completely resolved the symptoms and signs. A blackfly bite sometimes incites a systemic reaction in humans due to a hypersensitive reaction to salivary secretions, which may have contributed to the development of KD in our patient. Toru Watanabe Copyright © 2014 Toru Watanabe. All rights reserved. Cases of Atypical Lymphangiomas in Children Mon, 29 Sep 2014 06:14:36 +0000 Background. Lymphatic malformations or lymphangiomas are rare benign hamartomas that result from maldevelopment of primitive lymphatic sacs. They are most frequently found in the neck and axilla, while intra-abdominal and mediastinal lymphangiomas are uncommon. These are primarily tumours of infancy and childhood and are successfully treated with surgical excision. Summary of Cases. Five cases of lymphangioma comprising three intra-abdominal lymphangiomas and two unilateral axillary lymphangiomas presenting at one institution in Trinidad W.I. between 2005 and 2012 were examined. The presentations, location, workup, treatment, and outcome of these patients were studied. Conclusion. This paper discusses a range of extracervical lymphangioma cases seen at San Fernando General Hospital, Trinidad W.I. We report three intra-abdominal cases and the most common clinical presentations were abdominal pain and distension. Also two axillary cases were reported, which presented as painless axillary masses. The major concerns for excision of axillary lymphangioma by parents and surgeons were cosmesis and feasibility of complete resection without disruption of developing breast tissue and axillary vessels. We believe that ultrasound scan is very good at detection of the lesion, while CT is better at determining tumour content and planning for the operation. It is our opinion that complete surgical excision can be achieved. Prashant K. Minocha, Lakhan Roop, and Rambachan Persad Copyright © 2014 Prashant K. Minocha et al. All rights reserved. Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Revealed by Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in a Child Mon, 29 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a severe life-threatening disorder, responsible for extensive phagocytosis of hematopoietic cells and causing a multisystem organ failure. If lymphomas are common causes of HLH, the association with Hodgkin’s lymphoma is rarely described in children. We report a case of a 9-year-old boy presenting with HLH as an initial manifestation of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. He has been suffering from persistent high fever, asthenia, weight loss, and hepatosplenomegaly with no lymphadenopathy. The diagnosis of HLH secondary to infectious disease was initially worn. The patient received high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin with broad-spectrum antibiotics. However, his state got worse with the onset of dry cough and pleural effusion. Histopathologic examination of pleural fluid showed the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells. The outcome was favorable after treatment by corticosteroid and chemotherapy. Hodgkin’s lymphoma revealed by HLH is a source of delayed diagnosis and should be borne in mind in children. Sarra Benmiloud, Mohamed Hbibi, Sana Chaouki, Sana Abourazzak, and Moustapha Hida Copyright © 2014 Sarra Benmiloud et al. All rights reserved. Multiple Cardiac Rhabdomyomas, Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome, and Tuberous Sclerosis: An Infrequent Combination Mon, 22 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Cardiac rhabdomyomas are benign cardiac tumours and are often associated with tuberous sclerosis. They are often asymptomatic with spontaneus regresion but can cause heart failure, arrhythmias, and obstruction. There have also been a few isolated reports of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome occurring in association with tuberous sclerosis and the great majority has been detected in patients with concomitant rhabdomyomas. We report a 12-day-old infant girl with tuberous sclerosis who presented with intraparietal and intracavitary rhabdomyomas with a Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW). She represents one of the few published cases of WPW syndrome and tuberous sclerosis and particularly interesting because of intramural rhabdomyomas regression with persistent intracavitary rhabdomyomas after two years of followup. Elena Castilla Cabanes and Isaac Lacambra Blasco Copyright © 2014 Elena Castilla Cabanes and Isaac Lacambra Blasco. All rights reserved. Pulmonary Hemosiderosis in Children with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Wed, 17 Sep 2014 06:06:09 +0000 We describe a possible association between pulmonary hemosiderosis (PH) and a history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Both patients were born at 28-week gestation and presented with PH at ages 22 months and 6 years, respectively. Both initially presented with cough and tachypnea, and bronchoalveolar lavage showed evidence of hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Initial hemoglobin levels were < 4 g/dL and chest radiographs showed diffuse infiltrates that cleared dramatically within days after initiation of intravenous corticosteroids. In the first case, frank pulmonary blood was observed upon initial intubation, prompting the need for high frequency ventilation, immediate corticosteroids, and antibiotics. The mechanical ventilation wean was made possible by the addition of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and hydroxychloroquine. Slow tapering off of medications was accomplished over 6 years. These cases represent a possible correlation between prematurity-associated BPD and PH. We present a review of the literature regarding this possible association. In addition, MMF proved to be life-saving in one of the PH cases, as it has been in pulmonary hemorrhage related to systemic lupus erythematosus. Further studies are warranted to investigate the possible association between PH and prematurity-related BPD, as well as the use of MMF in the treatment of PH. David Kurahara, Marina Morie, Maya Yamane, Sarah Lam, Wallace Matthews, Keolamau Yee, and Kara Yamamoto Copyright © 2014 David Kurahara et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Case of Neonatal Complicated Appendicitis in a Child with Patau’s Syndrome Wed, 03 Sep 2014 06:32:36 +0000 Neonatal appendicitis is a rare condition with high mortality rate. Signs and symptoms are often nonspecific, imaging modalities are not always diagnostic, and preoperative diagnosis is difficult with subsequent delay and complications. Its pathophysiology may be different from appendicitis in older children and comorbidities can be found. We report a case of a female neonate with Patau’s syndrome, intestinal malrotation, and Fallot tetralogy in whom perforated appendix, probably occurring during fetal period due to vascular insufficiency, was found at laparotomy. Valentina Pastore and Fabio Bartoli Copyright © 2014 Valentina Pastore and Fabio Bartoli. All rights reserved. Cooccurrence of Darier’s Disease and Epilepsy: A Pediatric Case Report and Review of the Literature Mon, 01 Sep 2014 09:35:38 +0000 Darier’s disease is a skin disorder characterized by multiple eruptions of hyperkeratosis or crusted papules at seborrheic areas with histologic acantholysis and dyskeratosis. It is caused by mutations in a single gene, being ATP2A2 and that is expressed in the skin and brain. The cooccurrence of various neurologic and psychiatric diseases with Darier's disease has been reported frequently in literature. They include mood disorders, epilepsy, encephalopathy, and schizophrenia. In this study, we report a pediatric case with the cooccurrence of Darier’s disease and epilepsy. We also revised current English literature on this topic. Tamer Celik, Umit Celik, Cigdem Donmezer, Mustafa Komur, Orkun Tolunay, and Pelin Demirtürk Copyright © 2014 Tamer Celik et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Diprosopus: Perinatal Counseling and Management Sun, 31 Aug 2014 08:42:49 +0000 Diprosopus is a rare congenital malformation associated with high mortality. Here, we describe a patient with diprosopus, multiple life-threatening anomalies, and genetic mutations. Prenatal diagnosis and counseling made a beneficial impact on the family and medical providers in the care of this case. Kimberly M. Thornton, Timothy Bennett, Vivekanand Singh, Neil Mardis, Jennifer Linebarger, Howard Kilbride, and Kristin Voos Copyright © 2014 Kimberly M. Thornton et al. All rights reserved. Can Attention Deficits Predict a Genotype? Isolate Attention Difficulties in a Boy with Klinefelter Syndrome Effectively Treated with Methylphenidate Tue, 19 Aug 2014 07:42:56 +0000 This paper describes a 17-year-old boy who was diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) (XXY) at the age of 16 years. Although cognitive level was absolutely normal, he showed attentional difficulties that negatively affected school adjustment. He was successfully treated with methylphenidate. A significant improvement was observed in the ADHD Rating Scale IV and in the inattention subscale score of the Conners Scales. The CGI-S score improved from 3 to 1, and the CGI-I score at the end point was 1 (very much improved). Also attention measures, particularly forward and backward digit span, improved with MPH treatment. Given the widely variable and often aspecific features, KS may run undiagnosed in a large majority of affected patients. A close attention to the cognitive phenotype may favour a correct diagnosis, and a timely treatment. Antonella Gagliano, Eva Germanò, Loredana Benedetto, and Gabriele Masi Copyright © 2014 Antonella Gagliano et al. All rights reserved. Cutaneous Manifestation of Metastatic Infantile Choriocarcinoma Tue, 12 Aug 2014 08:56:26 +0000 Infantile choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant rare germ cell tumor that arises from the placenta. Simultaneous intraplacental choriocarcinoma involving both mother and infant is extremely rare. Cutaneous metastasis in infantile choriocarcinoma is even rarer with only a few case reports available. Here we describe a case of a female neonate who presented to the ED with a rapidly growing and bleeding vascular lesion to her right cheek. She was eventually diagnosed by biopsy with metastatic choriocarcinoma. In addition to the cutaneous tumor, she also had metastatic disease in her lungs. Her mother was subsequently found to have choriocarcinoma with metastatic disease to the lungs as well. Timothy Brooks and Laura Nolting Copyright © 2014 Timothy Brooks and Laura Nolting. All rights reserved. Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: A Case with Annular Pancreas Tue, 05 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease of cholesterol metabolism. It is a multiple malformation syndrome with typical dysmorphic features such as bitemporal narrowing, ptosis, epicanthus, microcephaly, micrognathia, and cardiovascular, skeletal, urogenital, and gastrointestinal anomalies. This report presents a typical case of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome with annular pancreas which is an unreported gastrointestinal abnormality. Mehmet Demirdöven, Hamza Yazgan, Mevlit Korkmaz, Arzu Gebeşçe, and Alparslan Tonbul Copyright © 2014 Mehmet Demirdöven et al. All rights reserved. The Value of Family History in Diagnosing Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders Tue, 05 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Eliciting proper family medical history is critical in decreasing morbidity and mortality in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). Communities with a common practice of consanguinity have a high rate of PIDs. We are presenting 2 cases where digging deeply into the family medical history resulted in the diagnosis of Omenn syndrome, a possibly fatal entity if not managed in a reasonable period. Mohamed A. Hendaus, Ahmad Alhammadi, Mehdi M. Adeli, and Fawzia Al-Yafei Copyright © 2014 Mohamed A. Hendaus et al. All rights reserved. Gitelman Syndrome in a School Boy Who Presented with Generalized Convulsion and Had a R642H/R642W Mutation in the SLC12A3 Gene Wed, 16 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 An 8-year-old Japanese boy presented with a generalized convulsion. He had hypokalemia (serum K 2.4 mEq/L), hypomagnesemia, and metabolic alkalosis (BE 5.7 mmol/L). In addition, his plasma renin activity was elevated. He was tentatively diagnosed with epilepsy on the basis of the electroencephalogram findings and was treated by potassium L-aspartate and carbamazepine to control the hypokalemia and seizure, respectively. However, a year later, the patient continued to have similar abnormal laboratory data. A presumptive diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome (GS) was then made and the patient’s peripheral blood mononuclear cells were subjected to sequence analysis of the SLC12A3 gene, which encodes a thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter. The patient was found to have compound heterozygous mutations, namely, R642H inherited from his father and R642W inherited from his mother. Thus, if a patient shows persistent hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis, GS must be considered, even if the patient exhibits atypical clinical symptoms. Shigeru Makino, Toshihiro Tajima, Jun Shinozuka, Aki Ikumi, Hitoshi Awaguni, Shin-ichiro Tanaka, Rikken Maruyama, and Shinsaku Imashuku Copyright © 2014 Shigeru Makino et al. All rights reserved. Perilobar Nephroblastomatosis: Natural History and Management Wed, 09 Jul 2014 10:38:38 +0000 Nephroblastomatosis (NB) has been considered as a precursor of Wilms tumor (WT). The natural history of NB seems to present significant variation as some lesions may regress spontaneously, while others may grow and expand or relapse and develop into WT later in childhood. Although, most investigators suggest adjutant chemotherapy, the effect and duration of treatment are not well established. Children with diffuse perilobar NB, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, and hemihypertrophy seem to particularly benefit from treatment. We discuss our experience on two cases of NB and we review the literature for the management of this rare condition. S. Stabouli, N. Printza, J. Dotis, A. Matis, D. Koliouskas, N. Gombakis, and F. Papachristou Copyright © 2014 S. Stabouli et al. All rights reserved. Acute Brachial Artery Thrombosis in a Neonate Caused by a Peripheral Venous Catheter Mon, 30 Jun 2014 12:03:27 +0000 This case describes the diagnostic testing and management of an acute thrombosis of the brachial artery in a female neonate. On day seven of life, clinical signs of acutely decreased peripheral perfusion indicated an occlusion of the brachial artery, which was confirmed by high-resolution Doppler ultrasound. Imaging also showed early stages of collateralization so that surgical treatment options could be avoided. Unfractionated heparin was used initially and then replaced by low-molecular-weight heparin while coagulation parameters were monitored closely. Within several days, brachial artery perfusion was completely restored. Acetylsalicylic acid was given for additional six weeks to minimize the risk of recurring thrombosis. If inadequately fixated in a high-risk location, a peripheral venous catheter can damage adjacent structures and thus ultimately cause arterial complications. Simon Berzel, Emilia Stegemann, Hans-Joerg Hertfelder, Katja Schneider, and Nico Hepping Copyright © 2014 Simon Berzel et al. All rights reserved. Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Child with Sickle Cell Anemia Sun, 29 Jun 2014 11:09:00 +0000 Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a chronic haemoglobinopathy that can affect many organs in the body including gastrointestinal tract. However, colonic involvement is very rare and usually in the form of ischemic colitis. We are reporting an 11-year-old Saudi girl with SCA who presented with persistent diarrhea and was found to have inflammaftory bowel disease. Khaled Alqoaer, Mohammed M. Ahmed, and Efteraj S. Alhowaiti Copyright © 2014 Khaled Alqoaer et al. All rights reserved. Acute Peripheral Facial Palsy after Chickenpox: A Rare Association Wed, 25 Jun 2014 15:47:30 +0000 Chickenpox, resulting from primary infection by the varicella-zoster virus, is an exanthematous disease very common during childhood and with good prognosis. However, serious complications, namely, neurological syndromes, may develop during its course, especially in risk groups, including adolescents. Peripheral facial palsy is a rare neurologic complication that has been previously described. Conclusion. We report the case of a teenager with peripheral facial palsy as a complication of chickenpox, aiming to increase the awareness of this rare association. Helena Ferreira, Ângela Dias, and Andreia Lopes Copyright © 2014 Helena Ferreira et al. All rights reserved. Apparent Life-Threatening Event following Maternal Use of Temazepam during Labour Sun, 15 Jun 2014 11:41:38 +0000 Benzodiazepines are one of the most frequently prescribed psychotropic drugs during pregnancy. Despite the fact that these drugs have been in use for a long time, there is still debate about the safety for the developing fetus and neonate. We present a case of a newborn with an apparent life-threatening event shortly after birth following maternal temazepam use during labour and advise to be reserved in prescribing any dose of any kind of benzodiazepine during labour. L. Damen, D. H. Visser, S. D. Sie, and M. M. van Weissenbruch Copyright © 2014 L. Damen et al. All rights reserved. Description of the First Case of Adenomyomatosis of the Gallbladder in an Infant Sun, 15 Jun 2014 11:38:23 +0000 We report here the case of the youngest patient with adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder in a female infant diagnosed at 4 months of age. This diagnosis was made based on characteristic ultrasonography findings in a patient that was undergoing routine surveillance for a suspected clinical diagnosis of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The patient remains asymptomatic and currently no surgical interventions have been needed. We review the pathophysiology and ultrasonographic findings of this rare condition and present a comparison with the only other four pediatric cases of adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder. Yuri A. Zarate, Katherine A. Bosanko, Chaowapong Jarasvaraparn, Jaime Vengoechea, and Elizabeth M. McDonough Copyright © 2014 Yuri A. Zarate et al. All rights reserved. Ophthalmic Treatment and Vision Care of a Patient with Rare Ring Chromosome 15: A Case Report Tue, 03 Jun 2014 11:38:15 +0000 The Aim. Ring chromosome 15 is a very rare genetic abnormality with a wide spectrum of clinical findings. Up to date, about 50 cases have been documented, whereas no reports on ophthalmological treatment of such patients have been published. The aim of this study is not only to describe a new patient, but also, for the first time, to present the results of nonoperative management of divergent strabismus. Material and Methods. We present an amblyopic patient with 46,XX, r(15) karyotype: treated conservatively for exotropia of 60 prism diopters. The management consisted of refractive and prismatic correction, eye occlusion, and orthoptic exercises between the age of 15 months and 8 years. Results. The deviation angle of exotropia was decreased to 10 prism diopters, the visual acuity improved to 1.0 in both eyes (Snellen chart) and the fixation pattern was normal. The prisms enabled permanent symmetrical stimulation of the retina, which lead to a development of normal single binocular vision (Maddox test, filter test, and synoptophore tests). Conclusions. Parental karyotype was normal; the analysis of a three-generation pedigree has shown no genetic abnormalities or pregnancy losses so the child’s karyotype anomaly was classified as de novo that is a single occurrence of this type of chromosomal disorder in this family. Strabismus in ring chromosome 15 patients is a difficult condition to manage, although success may be achieved. Lidia Puchalska-Niedbał, Stanisław Zajączek, Elżbieta Petriczko, and Urszula Kulik Copyright © 2014 Lidia Puchalska-Niedbał et al. All rights reserved. Two Cases of Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis Type 2 Presenting with Severe Coagulopathy without Jaundice Mon, 02 Jun 2014 06:11:47 +0000 Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) type 2 results from a mutation in the bile salt exporter pump, impeding bile acid transport. Patients usually present with jaundice, pruritus, growth failure, and fat soluble vitamin deficiencies. We present two patients diagnosed with PFIC type 2 due to severe coagulopathy and bleeding without jaundice. Eric Tibesar, Christine Karwowski, Paula Hertel, Ann Scheimann, and Wikrom Karnsakul Copyright © 2014 Eric Tibesar et al. All rights reserved. Huge Intrathoracic Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor in an Adolescent with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Sun, 25 May 2014 08:35:41 +0000 Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare soft tissue malignancy usually found in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) with a poor outcome. Although MPNST can be found in any part of the body including head and neck or extremities, intrathoracic MPNST with or without NF1 is uncommon, especially in children or adolescents. Reported herein is a case of huge intrathoracic MPNST in a 16-year-old girl with NF1, and a brief review of the literature. Jong Hyung Yoon, Hyun-Sung Lee, Jong In Chun, Seog-Yun Park, Hyeon Jin Park, and Byung-Kiu Park Copyright © 2014 Jong Hyung Yoon et al. All rights reserved. Aspiration Pneumonitis Caused by Polyethylene Glycol-Electrolyte Solution Treated with Conservative Management Sun, 18 May 2014 12:15:11 +0000 Polyethylene glycol (PEG) electrolyte solution, Golytely, is an osmotic laxative commonly used in preoperative bowel cleansing. In this case report, a 9-year-old boy developed aspiration pneumonitis following accidental infusion of PEG solution into his right lung following migration of his nasogastric tube (NGT). Hypoxemia and tachypnea without respiratory failure were observed after infusion. Because PEG is a nonabsorbable toxic material, previous case reports have advocated for the performance of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in the treatment of PEG pneumonitis. With close monitoring, our patient was able to be successfully treated without the need for invasive interventions including BAL or intubation. Generalizations about PEG absorption in the lung based on its permeability in the gastrointestinal tract should not deter the use of more conservative treatment in the appropriate patient. Ricardo A. Mosquera, Mark McDonald, and Cheryl Samuels Copyright © 2014 Ricardo A. Mosquera et al. All rights reserved. Septic Bursitis in an 8-Year-Old Boy Tue, 13 May 2014 07:25:32 +0000 Background. The prepatellar bursa can become inflamed owing to repeated trauma. Prepatellar bursitis is extremely rare in children. Methods. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who was treated for an erythematous, swollen, and severely painful right knee, fever, inability to bear weight on the leg, and purulent material draining from a puncture wound. We describe the differential diagnosis for tender swollen knee, including infection, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. If untreated, prepatellar bursitis can progress to patellar osteomyelitis. Results. Wound cultures grew Streptococcus pyogenes, with the infection resolving with amoxicillin. Conclusions. A high index of suspicion is necessary in children presenting with prepatellar bursitis to prevent potentially devastating sequelae of infection of the septic joint. Panagiotis Kratimenos, Ioannis Koutroulis, Dante Marconi, Jennifer Ding, Christos Plakas, and Margaret Fisher Copyright © 2014 Panagiotis Kratimenos et al. All rights reserved. Clostridium sordellii as a Cause of Fatal Septic Shock in a Child with Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Wed, 07 May 2014 07:37:51 +0000 Clostridium sordellii is a toxin producing ubiquitous gram-positive anaerobe, mainly associated with trauma, soft tissue skin infections, and gynecologic infection. We report a unique case of a new strain of Clostridium sordellii (not present in the Center for Disease Control (CDC) database) infection induced toxic shock syndrome in a previously healthy two-year-old male with colitis-related hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The patient presented with dehydration, vomiting, and bloody diarrhea. He was transferred to the pediatric critical care unit (PICU) for initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Due to increased edema and intolerance of PD, he was transitioned to hemodialysis through a femoral vascular catheter. He subsequently developed severe septic shock with persistent leukocytosis and hypotension, resulting in subsequent death. Stool culture confirmed Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli 0157:H7. A blood culture was positively identified for Clostridium sordellii. Clostridium sordelli is rarely reported in children; to our knowledge this is the first case described in a pediatric patient with HUS. Rebekah Beyers, Michael Baldwin, Sevilay Dalabih, and Abdallah Dalabih Copyright © 2014 Rebekah Beyers et al. All rights reserved. Troubling Toys: Rare-Earth Magnet Ingestion in Children Causing Bowel Perforations Wed, 30 Apr 2014 11:00:21 +0000 Ingestion of foreign bodies in the pediatric population is common and magnet ingestion is known to cause a significant morbidity. Rare-earth magnets are small 3–6 mm diameter spherical powerful magnets that are sold as popular desk toys for adults and were previously found in construction toys in attractive colors for children to play with. We describe 2 young healthy children who ingested rare-earth magnets Buckyballs while playing with these magnetic toys and later presented in emergency with acute abdomen. Abdominal imaging revealed several (26 and 5) pieces of rare-earth magnets in the bowel loops. Emergency surgical exploration revealed multiple gastrointestinal perforations and fistula formation at sites of bowel entrapment in between strong magnets apposed to one another. We highlight the potential dangers of rare-earth magnets in children and suggest increasing public awareness about risks involved in rare-earth magnets ingestion by children to overcome this serious public health issue. Parkash Mandhan, Muthana Alsalihi, Saleem Mammoo, and Mansour J. Ali Copyright © 2014 Parkash Mandhan et al. All rights reserved.