Case Reports in Radiology http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A Rare Case of Pulmonary Atresia with Ventricular Septal Defect with a Right Sided Aortic Arch and a Calcified Pulmonary AVM Presenting in an Adult without Cyanosis Mon, 15 Dec 2014 00:10:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/614647/ Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (PA-VSD) with pulmonary arterial supply arising from the aorta representing large MAPCAs associated with a right sided aortic arch is an uncommon anomaly. Most of the patients succumb to severe respiratory compromise or congestive cardiac failure very early. We report the clinical details and imaging findings of a case of PA-VSD with a right sided aortic arch and a calcified pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in a 21-year-old postpartum female with no previous episodes of cyanosis who was diagnosed as having a cardiac anomaly on echocardiography when she presented with breathlessness during the 8th month of the pregnancy. Devendra V. Kulkarni, Rahul G. Hegde, Ankit Balani, and Anagha R. Joshi Copyright © 2014 Devendra V. Kulkarni et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Suspected Aspirated Beverage Can Pull Tab: Radiographs May Not Be Enough Sun, 14 Dec 2014 11:28:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/196960/ A 67-year-old male presented to the emergency department with concern for accidental aspiration of an aluminum beverage can pull tab. Neck and chest radiographs did not reveal an aspirated foreign body. Despite ongoing complaint of dysgeusia and adamancy of aspiration by the patient, he was discharged to home without recommendation for further follow-up. Seven months later, a computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest performed as part of an unrelated lung cancer work up confirmed the presence of a left mainstem bronchus metallic foreign body compatible with a pull tab. This case report illustrates the poor negative predictive value of radiographs for a suspected aluminum foreign body and demonstrates the superiority of CT for this purpose. In such presentations it is imperative to have a low threshold for performing further diagnostic evaluation with CT due to the relatively high radiolucency of aluminum. Amy L. Kotsenas, Norbert G. Campeau, Richard A. Oeckler, and Ronald S. Kuzo Copyright © 2014 Amy L. Kotsenas et al. All rights reserved. Lobar Collapse and Obliteration of Air Bronchogram Allowing Early Diagnosis of Endobronchial Aspergillus Infection following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Wed, 10 Dec 2014 12:21:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/715073/ Endobronchial fungal infection (EBFI) is notoriously difficult to diagnose early since it may present few systemic features and does not cause characteristic parenchymal lesions on lung CT scanning. We report a 9-year-old girl who suffered extended neutropenia following graft failure after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for severe aplastic anaemia. CT scan prior to retransplantation was normal despite persistent cough but lobar collapse was shown on repeat scan 16 days later. The probable diagnosis of EBFI (later proven on bronchoscopy) was only suspected when subsequent chest X-ray (CXR) demonstrated lack of an air bronchogram in the partially collapsed lung. Early radiological suspicion resulted in multiagent antifungal therapy followed by delayed lobectomy, and led to this being the first reported case of Aspergillus EBFI not to result in respiratory failure. Elizabeth Thompson, Manigandan S. Thyagarajan, Elizabeth Johnson, David Weeden, Mary Morgan, Sarah J. Groves, and Colin G. Steward Copyright © 2014 Elizabeth Thompson et al. All rights reserved. Radiofrequency Ablation in the Management of Advanced Stage Thymomas: A Case Report on a Novel Multidisciplinary Therapeutic Approach Wed, 10 Dec 2014 00:10:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/697480/ We describe in this report a case of successful radiofrequency ablation of an unresectable stage III-type B3 thymoma, and we discuss the role of this novel approach in the management of patients with advanced stage thymoma. The patient, a 59-year-old Caucasian male underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy with only a slight reduction of the mass. Subsequently, an explorative sternotomy and debulking were performed; before closing the thorax, radiofrequency ablation of the residual tumor was carried out and a partial necrosis of the mass was achieved. A further percutaneous radiofrequency ablation was performed subsequently, obtaining complete necrosis of the lesion. Successively, the patient underwent adjuvant radiotherapy. As a result of this multidisciplinary treatment, complete and stable response was obtained. It is hard to say which of the single treatments had the major impact on cure; nevertheless, the results obtained suggest that radiofrequency ablation must be taken into account for the treatment of advanced stage thymomas, and its effectiveness must be further assessed in future studies. Panagiotis Paliogiannis, Carlo Pala, Renato Versace, and Claudio Pusceddu Copyright © 2014 Panagiotis Paliogiannis et al. All rights reserved. Bilateral Maxillary Sinus Hypoplasia Mon, 08 Dec 2014 09:04:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/148940/ Maxillary sinus hypoplasia (MSH) is an uncommon abnormality of paranasal sinuses noted in clinical practice. Computed tomography (CT) scan helps in diagnosing the anomaly along with any anatomical variation that may be associated with it. MSH is usually associated with other anomalies like uncinate process hypoplasia. Three types of MSH have been described. Type 1 MSH shows mild maxillary sinus hypoplasia, type 2 shows significant sinus hypoplasia with narrowed infundibular passage and hypoplastic or absent uncinate process, and type 3 is cleft like maxillary sinus hypoplasia with absent uncinate process. CT and endoscopic examination usually complement each other in diagnosing MSH. Sachin Khanduri, Sumit Agrawal, Saakshi Chhabra, and Swati Goyal Copyright © 2014 Sachin Khanduri et al. All rights reserved. Myasthenia Gravis following Low-Osmolality Iodinated Contrast Media Wed, 03 Dec 2014 07:28:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/963461/ We describe the case of 79-year-old man admitted to our general hospital for a 6-week history of progressive dysphagia to solids and liquids associated with weight loss. To reach a diagnosis a total body CT scan with low-osmolality iodinate contrast agent was performed. Two hours later the patient developed an acute respiratory failure requiring orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. The laboratory and neurological tests allow formulating the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. In literature, other three case reports have associated myasthenic crisis with exposure to low-osmolality contrast media. This suggests being careful in administering low-osmolality contrast media in myasthenic patients. Luca Bonanni, Michele Dalla Vestra, Andrea Zancanaro, and Fabio Presotto Copyright © 2014 Luca Bonanni et al. All rights reserved. Atypical CT Findings in Plexiform Ameloblastoma Mon, 24 Nov 2014 10:15:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/623093/ Ameloblastoma is an uncommon epithelial odontogenic neoplasm that is nonmineralized, locally aggressive, and, in most cases, benign. Most ameloblastomas develop in the molar-ramus region of the mandible with 70% of them arising in the molar-ramus area. Radiologically they are unilocular or multilocular radiolucency with a honeycomb or soap bubble appearance. The radiographic appearance of ameloblastoma can vary according to the type of tumor. CT is usually helpful in determining the contours of the lesion, its contents, and its extension into soft and hard tissues. Through this case we would bring to light some of the unusual CT findings which include the destruction of the surrounding structures by the lesion which appeared to be normal routine lesion when viewed clinically. Karandeep Singh Arora, Nagesh Binjoo, Richa Modgil, Lalit Singh Negi, and Prabhpreet Kaur Copyright © 2014 Karandeep Singh Arora et al. All rights reserved. Renal Sinus Fat Invasion and Tumoral Thrombosis of the Inferior Vena Cava-Renal Vein: Only Confined to Renal Cell Carcinoma Tue, 18 Nov 2014 07:00:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/140365/ Epithelioid angiomyolipoma (E-AML), accounting for 8% of renal angiomyolipoma, is usually associated with tuberous sclerosis (TS) and demonstrates aggressive behavior. E-AML is macroscopically seen as a large infiltrative necrotic tumor with occasional extension into renal vein and/or inferior vena cava. However, without history of TS, renal sinus and venous invasion E-AML would be a challenging diagnosis, which may lead radiologists to misinterpret it as a renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this case presentation, we aimed to report cross-sectional imaging findings of two cases diagnosed as E-AML and pathological correlation of these aforementioned masses mimicking RCC. Turker Acar, Mustafa Harman, Serkan Guneyli, Sait Sen, and Nevra Elmas Copyright © 2014 Turker Acar et al. All rights reserved. Left-Sided Patent Ductus Arteriosus in a Right-Sided Aortic Arch Mon, 17 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/896071/ We present a 31-year-old female with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and right-sided aortic arch (RAA) with left-sided patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) originating from the left brachiocephalic artery. This is a rare finding but most common site for a PDA in TOF and a RAA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of this rare finding on MRI in the literature. Ming-Yen Ng, Paaladinesh Thavendiranathan, Andrew Michael Crean, Qin Li, and Djeven Parameshvara Deva Copyright © 2014 Ming-Yen Ng et al. All rights reserved. Favourable Experience with M-Mode Sonography in the Diagnosis of Pneumothorax in Two Patients with Thoracic Subcutaneous Emphysema Thu, 13 Nov 2014 09:51:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/906127/ Introduction. Thoracic subcutaneous emphysema may be caused by various pathologies. In mechanically ventilated patients, timely diagnostic workup is particularly important, as the presence of subcutaneous surgical emphysema may indicate pneumothorax, representing a risk factor for the development of life threatening tension pneumothorax. Thoracic ultrasound is of proven value for the detection of pneumothorax but has so far been considered of little value in the context of subcutaeneous emphysema, due to poor visibility of anatomic structures. Case Presentation. We present the successful use of diagnostic M-mode sonography in two mechanically ventilated patients who developed thoracic subcutaneous emphysema. In both cases B-mode sonography was inconclusive. Conclusion. M-mode sonography may be more sensitive than B-mode sonography in the detection of lung sliding and could become a useful diagnostic tool when pneumothorax needs to be ruled in or ruled out and visibility of the pleura is limited. T. Berlet and R. Etter Copyright © 2014 T. Berlet and R. Etter. All rights reserved. A Rare Case of Right Retrocaval Ureter with Duplication of Infrarenal IVC Thu, 13 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/345712/ Retrocaval ureter, also known as circumcaval ureter, is a rare congenital anomaly which commonly presents with loin pain in middle age group. Here, ureter passes between the inferior vena cava (IVC) and psoas muscle and gets compressed. Duplication of IVC is another rare congenital anomaly in the development of IVC. We present a case of a 49-year-old male who presented with loin pain and upon thorough investigation was found to have retrocaval ureter along with duplication of the infrarenal IVC. We bring forward this rare type of combination of two congenital malformations. Anees Dudekula and Sonali D. Prabhu Copyright © 2014 Anees Dudekula and Sonali D. Prabhu. All rights reserved. Spinal Nerve Root Haemangioblastoma Associated with Reactive Polycythemia Thu, 06 Nov 2014 09:22:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/798620/ Haemangioblastomas are uncommon tumours that usually occur in the cerebellum and, less commonly, in the intramedullary spinal cord. The extramedullary spinal canal is an uncommon location for these tumours. Also haemangioblastoma at this site is not known to be associated with polycythemia. We present the clinical, imaging, and histological findings of an adult patient with extramedullary spinal haemangioblastoma and reactive polycythemia. Radiography and computed tomography (CT) revealed a medium-sized tumour that most likely arose from an extramedullary spinal nerve root. This tumour appeared to be slow growing as evidenced by the accompanying well-defined bony resorption with a sclerotic rim and mild neural foraminal widening. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed prominent flow voids consistent with tumoural hypervascularity. CT-guided biopsy was performed. Although preoperative angiographic embolisation was technically successful, excessive intraoperative tumour bleeding necessitated tumour debulking rather than complete tumour resection. Histology of the resected specimen revealed haemangioblastoma. Seven months postoperatively, the patients back pain and polycythemia have resolved. Eric K. C. Law, Ryan K. L. Lee, James F. Griffith, Deyond Y. W. Siu, and Ho Keung Ng Copyright © 2014 Eric K. C. Law et al. All rights reserved. Disseminated Alveolar Hydatid Disease Resembling a Metastatic Malignancy: A Diagnostic Challenge—A Report of Two Cases Wed, 08 Oct 2014 09:27:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/638375/ Alveolar hydatid disease or alveolar echinococcosis is a disease of the parasite Echinococcus multilocularis that is potentially fatal if left untreated. It primarily involves the liver but can be disseminated to other organs like the lungs and the brain by hematogenous route. Multiorgan involvement and the aggressive appearance of lesions make alveolar hydatid disease easy to confuse with a metastatic malignancy. For this reason, histopathological confirmation is essential for definite diagnosis. We present the imaging features of this disease in two patients in order to emphasize that these lesions can be easily misdiagnosed as malignancies. Mesut Bulakci, Erdem Yilmaz, Ferhat Cengel, Ahmet Gocmez, Merve Gulbiz Kartal, Emine Goknur Isik, Erhan Celenk, Gulcin Yegen, and Artur Salmaslioglu Copyright © 2014 Mesut Bulakci et al. All rights reserved. Concurrent Intracranial and Spinal Subdural Hematoma in a Teenage Athlete: A Case Report of This Rare Entity Mon, 29 Sep 2014 11:39:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/143408/ A 15-year-old male high school football player presented with episodes of headache and complete body stiffness, especially in the arms, lower back, and thighs, immediately following a football game. This was accompanied by severe nausea and vomiting for several days. Viral meningitis was suspected by the primary clinician, and treatment with corticosteroids was initiated. Over the next several weeks, there was gradual symptom improvement and the patient returned to his baseline clinical status. The patient experienced a severe recurrence of the previous myriad of symptoms following a subsequent football game, without an obvious isolated traumatic episode. In addition, he experienced a new left sided headache, fatigue, and difficulty ambulating. He was admitted and an extensive workup was performed. CT and MRI of the head revealed concurrent intracranial and spinal subdural hematomas (SDH). Clinical workup did not reveal any evidence of coagulopathy or predisposing vascular lesions. Spinal SDH is an uncommon condition whose concurrence with intracranial SDH is an even greater clinical rarity. We suggest that our case represents an acute on chronic intracranial SDH with rebleeding, membrane rupture, and symptomatic redistribution of hematoma to the spinal subdural space. Daniel S. Treister, Sara E. Kingston, Gabriel Zada, Manu Singh, Jesse G. A. Jones, Jena N. Mills, Alexander Lerner, Orest B. Boyko, Meng Law, Anandh Rajamohan, and Mark S. Shiroishi Copyright © 2014 Daniel S. Treister et al. All rights reserved. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Marchiafava-Bignami Syndrome: A Cornerstone in Diagnosis and Prognosis Tue, 23 Sep 2014 09:28:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/609708/ Marchiafava-Bignami syndrome is a rare condition. However, with the advent of MRI, more and more of these cases are being diagnosed. Thus, it becomes essential for a radiologist to be familiar with its imaging features as well as clinical presentation. A 50-year-old chronic alcoholic presented to the emergency room with history of 3 episodes of seizures 2 days earlier. The patient had gait disturbances for the last few days. On examination, the patient was in a state of stupor. No neck rigidity was elicited. On MRI, the corpus callosum appeared diffusely hypointense on T1 weighted images and hyperintense on T2 weighted sequences without any evident enhancement after intravenous administration of Gadolinium. On fluid attenuation and inversion recovery images, central hypointensity with surrounding hyperintense rim involving the genu, body, and splenium of corpus callosum was noted. Additionally, cortical-subcortical signal intensity changes were also noted predominantly involving the right frontal lobe. On diffusion weighted imaging, all the above mentioned lesions showed restriction of diffusion. I am presenting here a case of Marchiafava-Bignami syndrome highlighting the role of MR imaging in diagnosing, prognosticating as well as in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of this rare clinical entity. Kathyayini Paidipati Gopalkishna Murthy Copyright © 2014 Kathyayini Paidipati Gopalkishna Murthy. All rights reserved. Lump on Back: A Rare Case of Parosteal Lipoma of Scapula Mon, 22 Sep 2014 07:35:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/169157/ Lipomas are benign tumors of mature adipose tissue which can occur in subcutaneous, intramuscular, intermuscular, parosteal, and intraosseous compartments. Parosteal lipoma is a rare type of lipoma, accounting for less than 0.1% of primary bone neoplasms and 0.3% of all lipomas. Parosteal lipomas commonly arise in the femur and extremities. Around 150 cases have been reported in English literature with scapula being a rare site of involvement. They are known to be associated with underlying bony changes like focal cortical hyperostosis, pressure erosion of the underlying bone, and bowing deformity or with underlying osteochondroma. We report a rare case of a parosteal lipoma arising in the scapula with a bony excrescence in a 38-year-old male. Ankit Balani, Ashwini Sankhe, Tilak Dedhia, Maunil Bhuta, Narayan Lakhotia, and Jagir Yeshwante Copyright © 2014 Ankit Balani et al. All rights reserved. Hemorrhage in the Wall of Pyogenic Brain Abscess on Susceptibility Weighted MR Sequence: A Report of 3 Cases Tue, 16 Sep 2014 05:46:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/907584/ Background and Purpose. In pyogenic brain abscess, hemorrhage in the walls is considered exceptional. Recently, hemorrhagic changes in the walls of pyogenic abscess have been demonstrated on susceptibility weighted imaging with 3T MRI. Here, we report hemorrhagic changes in the walls of pyogenic brain abscess on susceptibility weighted imaging with 1.5T MRI. Method. MRI of brain was done using 1.5T MRI with diffusion weighted sequence, susceptibility weighted sequence, and other standard sequences in 3 consecutive cases of pyogenic brain abscess. Stereotactic biopsy and cultures were obtained in 2 cases. One case was treated empirically with antibiotics. Results. Susceptibility sequence demonstrated hemorrhage in the wall of brain abscess in all three cases. All three cases also demonstrated restricted diffusion on diffusion weighted imaging. Conclusion. Susceptibility weighted imaging can demonstrate hemorrhagic changes in the walls of pyogenic brain abscess on 1.5T MRI. Presence of hemorrhage in the walls of ring enhancing lesions should not automatically lead to a diagnosis of tumor. Krishnamoorthy Thamburaj, Amit K. Agarwal, Shyamsunder B. Sabat, and Dan T. Nguyen Copyright © 2014 Krishnamoorthy Thamburaj et al. All rights reserved. 63-Year-Old Male with Gastric Outlet Obstruction Mon, 15 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/767165/ We describe a case of a 63-year-old male with complicated Bouveret’s syndrome, both in its presentation and in its management. Bouveret’s syndrome is a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction resulting from mechanical obstruction from gallstones at the pyloroduodenal segment. As Bouveret’s syndrome can be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians, we aim to identify clinical and radiologic pearls that can lower the threshold for the diagnosis of Bouveret’s syndrome. Bhavraj Khalsa, Patrick Rudersdorf, Dattesh Dave, Brian R. Smith, and Chandana Lall Copyright © 2014 Bhavraj Khalsa et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Imaging of Primary Hepatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Case and Discussion of the Literature Tue, 02 Sep 2014 12:47:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/156491/ Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are derived from neuroendocrine cells that are capable of producing functional peptide hormones. These tumors occur most frequently in the GI tract and lungs. GI NETs frequently metastasize into the liver, though NETs of primary hepatic origin are extremely rare. Ultrasound, CT, and MRI are typically all employed for characterization of these lesions but their appearance on diagnostic imaging can be highly variable. Reported here is an interesting case of a primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor (PHNET), along with a discussion of the imaging characteristics of these tumors. Additionally, the current standards for definitive diagnosis and treatment of PHNETs are discussed. Trenton Kellock, Betty Tuong, Alison C. Harris, and Eric Yoshida Copyright © 2014 Trenton Kellock et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Cystic Meningioma Simulating Arachnoid Cyst: Report of an Unusual Case” Tue, 02 Sep 2014 09:42:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/293805/ Jorge Docampo, Nadia Gonzalez, Claudio Vazquez, Carlos Morales, and Eduardo Gonzalez-Toledo Copyright © 2014 Jorge Docampo et al. All rights reserved. Imaging of Hidradenitis Suppurativa and Its Complications Thu, 21 Aug 2014 07:31:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/294753/ We present a 56-year-old man with known diabetes mellitus and a 10-year history of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and highlight, through MR imaging findings, the relentless natural progression of the disease, characterized by recurrent exacerbations of abscesses and fistulae and complications of perianal fistulae and sacral osteomyelitis. We also demonstrate the appearance of this condition on PET-CT with F-18 FDG, which was performed for staging after postexcision tissue specimen revealed well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The association of arthritis and possible dactylitis was also manifested in our patient. Discussion of HS in the radiology literature is limited and, to our knowledge, there has been no case report describing these imaging findings in the same patient. Feng Poh and Siew Kune Wong Copyright © 2014 Feng Poh and Siew Kune Wong. All rights reserved. CT, MRI and DWI Features of a Solid Organizing Hepatic Abscess Wed, 13 Aug 2014 13:31:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/930569/ Solid organizing hepatic abscess is a rare form of focal infection, which needs differentiation from benign and malignant solid masses. We report a case of a 30-year-old man with a solid organizing hepatic abscess, diagnosed by imaging and ex juvantibus criteria. CT and MRI findings are presented and role of DWI is outlined. Noninvasive diagnosis of a solid organizing hepatic abscess is possible in the appropriate clinical setting; percutaneous or surgical biopsy may be indicated in equivocal cases. Sergio Savastano, Giampiero Pellizzer, Lorenzo Di Grazia, Dario Giacomini, and Mario Beghetto Copyright © 2014 Sergio Savastano et al. All rights reserved. Pleuroperitoneal Leak: An Unusual Cause of Acute Shortness of Breath in a Peritoneal Dialysis Patient Mon, 04 Aug 2014 13:24:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/614846/ Introduction. Pleuroperitoneal leak is an uncommon complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), with an estimated incidence of 1.6%. It should be suspected in these patients when they present with recurrent unilateral pleural effusions and/or acute shortness of breath following dialysate infusion. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 25-year-old female patient who had acute hydrothorax as a result of pleuroperitoneal leak complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), which was confirmed on peritoneal scintigraphy. Conclusion. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients presenting with acute shortness of breath and/or recurrent unilateral pleural effusion should be investigated with peritoneal scintigraphy to exclude pleuroperitoneal leak. D. P. Ramaema and P. Mpikashe Copyright © 2014 D. P. Ramaema and P. Mpikashe. All rights reserved. Peritoneal Inclusion Cysts in Female Children: Pathogenesis, Treatment, and Multimodality Imaging Review Mon, 21 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/427427/ We report the multimodality imaging findings of peritoneal inclusion cysts in two adolescent females each with a prior history of abdominal surgery. The few reports of peritoneal inclusion cysts in the pediatric population have largely focused on the clinical and pathological features of this entity. We wish to emphasize the imaging findings of peritoneal inclusion cysts on multiple modalities, the advantage of MRI in confirming the diagnosis, and the need to keep considering this diagnosis in patients who present with a pelvic cystic mass, with a history of surgery, even if remote. Additionally, we review the pathology, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment options of peritoneal inclusion cysts. Rachelle Goldfisher, Divya Awal, and John Amodio Copyright © 2014 Rachelle Goldfisher et al. All rights reserved. Isolated Asymptomatic Short Sternum in a Healthy Young Girl Sun, 20 Jul 2014 07:11:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/761582/ Congenital sternal defects are rare deformities frequently associated with other anomalies of the chest wall and other organ systems. Although pectus excavatum, pectus carinatum, and cleft sternum can present as isolated deformity, in most cases they are associated with heart and inner organs anomalies and described as symptoms of syndromes like Marfan syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Poland anomaly, and Cantrell pentalogy. In contrast, the etiology of an isolated defect is not well understood. We observed a short sternum (dysmorphic manubrium, hypoplastic body, and complete absence of the xiphoid process) in a completely asymptomatic 13-year-old woman. A comprehensive instrumental exams panel was performed to exclude associated anomalies of the heart and of the other organ systems. The patient was completely asymptomatic and she did not need any medical or surgical treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first case of isolated short sternum reported in literature. Francesco Turturro, Cosma Calderaro, Antonello Montanaro, Luca Labianca, Giuseppe Argento, and Andrea Ferretti Copyright © 2014 Francesco Turturro et al. All rights reserved. Subcutaneous Emphysema, Pneumomediastinum, Pneumoretroperitoneum, and Pneumoscrotum: Unusual Complications of Acute Perforated Diverticulitis Thu, 17 Jul 2014 09:29:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/431563/ Pneumomediastinum, and subcutaneous emphysema usually result from spontaneous alveolar wall rupture and, far less commonly, from disruption of the upper airways or gastrointestinal tract. Subcutaneous neck emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and retropneumoperitoneum caused by nontraumatic perforations of the colon have been infrequently reported. The main symptoms of spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema are swelling and crepitus over the involved site; further clinical findings in case of subcutaneous cervical and mediastinal emphysema can be neck and chest pain and dyspnea. Radiological imaging plays an important role to achieve the correct diagnosis and extension of the disease. We present a quite rare case of spontaneous subcutaneous cervical emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and pneumoretroperitoneum due to perforation of an occult sigmoid diverticulum. Abdomen ultrasound, chest X-rays, and computer tomography (CT) were performed to evaluate the free gas extension and to identify potential sources of extravasating gas. Radiological diagnosis was confirmed by the subsequent surgical exploration. S. Fosi, V. Giuricin, V. Girardi, E. Di Caprera, E. Costanzo, R. Di Trapano, and G. Simonetti Copyright © 2014 S. Fosi et al. All rights reserved. MRI in Diagnosis of a Giant Prostatic Utricle Tue, 15 Jul 2014 12:13:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/217563/ A prostatic utricle cyst is an epithelial lined diverticulum arising from the prostatic urethra and usually asymptomatic when small. When enlarged, it may be symptomatic and is typically accompanied by hypospadias. We present a case of a markedly enlarged prostatic utricle in a neonate without hypospadias, demonstrated on voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), ultrasound, and 1.5 Tesla MRI. Dustin Johnson, Kushal Parikh, William Schey, and Winnie Mar Copyright © 2014 Dustin Johnson et al. All rights reserved. Isolated Nasopharyngeal Castleman Disease: An Uncommon Diagnosis in an Unusual Location Mon, 14 Jul 2014 09:59:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/475690/ Localised nasopharyngeal Castleman disease has rarely been reported. We present a case involving a 23-year-old female, describe the clinical, imaging, and histopathologic features of this challenging diagnosis, and review the literature. O. McDonnell, Melinda Morris, and Z. Khaleel Copyright © 2014 O. McDonnell et al. All rights reserved. Antenatal Diagnosis of Alobar Holoprosencephaly Mon, 14 Jul 2014 07:36:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/724671/ A twenty-year-old second gravida presented to the department of radiodiagnosis for routine obstetric ultrasound examination. Ultrasonography revealed a live fetus of 17 weeks with absent falx, fused thalami, monoventricle, proboscis, and cyclopia. Fetal MRI was performed and the findings were confirmed. Even though ultrasonography is diagnostic in the detection of fetal anomalies, MRI plays a vital role due to its multiplanar capability and excellent soft tissue resolution. The importance of presenting this classical case of alobar holoprosencephaly is to sensitize the clinicians and radiologists to the imaging manifestations of holoprosencephaly and to stress the importance of early diagnosis. If diagnosed in utero at an early stage of pregnancy, termination can be performed and maternal psychological trauma of bearing a deformed fetus can be avoided. Rajesh Raman and Geetha Mukunda Jagadesh Copyright © 2014 Rajesh Raman and Geetha Mukunda Jagadesh. All rights reserved. Tuber Cinereum Diverticula in a 28-Month-Old with Xq21 Deletion Syndrome Sun, 13 Jul 2014 12:01:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/413574/ A developmentally delayed 28-month-old male toddler was referred to us for brain MRI. Imaging revealed corpus callosum dysgenesis, forniceal hypoplasia, vermian hypoplasia, and hypothalamic dysmorphism characterized by tuber cinereum diverticula. Subsequent chromosomal microarray showed an Xq21 deletion. We present a case of Xq21 deletion syndrome with midline brain anomalies and a novel hypothalamic malformation. Matthew T. Whitehead and Gilbert Vezina Copyright © 2014 Matthew T. Whitehead and Gilbert Vezina. All rights reserved.