Case Reports in Transplantation The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Treatment of Cytomegalovirus Infection with Cidofovir and CMV Immune Globulin in a Lung Transplant Recipient Wed, 13 Jan 2016 13:07:39 +0000 Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after lung transplantation is associated with increased risk for pneumonitis and bronchiolitis obliterans as well as allograft rejection and opportunistic infections. Ganciclovir is the mainstay of prophylaxis and treatment but CMV infections can be unresponsive. Apart from direct antiviral drugs, CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) preparations may be considered but are only licensed for prophylaxis. A CMV-seronegative 42-year-old man with cystic fibrosis received a lung from a CMV-seropositive donor. Intravenous ganciclovir prophylaxis was delayed until day 12 due to acute postoperative renal failure and was accompanied by five doses of CMVIG (10 g). By day 16, CMV-DNA was detectable and rising; CMV-specific T-cells were undetectable. Switch from ganciclovir to foscarnet prompted a transient decrease in CMV viral load, but after increasing again to reach 3600 copies/mL foscarnet was changed to intravenous cidofovir and CMVIG was restarted. CMV load continued to fluctuate and declined slowly, whereas CMV-specific T-cells were detected five months later and increased thereafter. At last follow-up, the patient was in very good clinical condition with no evidence of bronchiolitis obliterans. No side effects of this treatment were observed. In this hard-to-treat case, the combination of cidofovir with off-label use of CMVIG contributed to a successful outcome. Heinrike Wilkens and Martina Sester Copyright © 2016 Heinrike Wilkens and Martina Sester. All rights reserved. Septic Shock Induced by Bacterial Prostatitis with Morganella morganii subsp. morganii in a Posttransplantation Patient Mon, 21 Dec 2015 11:54:52 +0000 Bacterial infection is a common complication after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). Morganella morganii is ubiquitous Gram-negative facultative anaerobe, which may cause many kinds of opportunistic infection. Herein we report a case of a 55-year-old man who presented with frequent urination, urgency, and mild pain that comes and goes low in the abdomen and around the anus. The patient had a medical history of chronic prostatitis for 4 years. He received HLA-matched sibling allo-HSCT because of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma 29 months ago. The routine examination of prostatic fluid showed increased leukocytes and the culture of prostatic fluid showed Morganella morganii subsp. morganii. The patient developed chills and fever 18 hours after examination. Both urine culture and blood culture showed Morganella morganii subsp. morganii. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy and septic shock management. Taken together, Morganella morganii should be considered a possible pathogen when immunocompromised patients develop prostatitis. Also, prostatic massage could be a possible trigger of septic shock induced by Morganella morganii subsp. morganii in a posttransplantation patient. Xiaofan Li and Jianhui Chen Copyright © 2015 Xiaofan Li and Jianhui Chen. All rights reserved. Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Diffuse Skin Thickening as Kaposi Sarcoma Clinical Presentation Thu, 10 Dec 2015 12:20:36 +0000 A 56-year-old African patient received a kidney from a deceased donor with 4 HLA mismatches in April 2013. He received immunosuppression with basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. Immediate diuresis and a good allograft function were soon observed. Six months later, the serum creatinine level increased to 2.6 mg/dL. A renal allograft biopsy revealed interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy grade II. Toxicity of calcineurin inhibitor was assumed and, after a switch for everolimus, renal function improved. However, since March 2014, renal function progressively deteriorated. A second allograft biopsy showed no new lesions. Two months later, the patient was admitted due to anuria, haematochezia with anaemia, requiring 5 units of packed red blood cells, and diffuse skin thickening. Colonoscopy showed haemorrhagic patches in the colon and the rectum; histology diagnosis was Kaposi sarcoma (KS). A skin biopsy revealed cutaneous involvement of KS. Rapid clinical deterioration culminated in death in June 2014. This case is unusual as less than 20 cases of KS with gross gastrointestinal bleeding have been reported and only 6 cases had the referred bleeding originating in the lower gastrointestinal tract. So, KS should be considered in differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding in some kidney transplant patients. Sara Querido, Henrique Silva Sousa, Tiago Assis Pereira, Rita Birne, Patrícia Matias, Cristina Jorge, André Weigert, Teresa Adragão, Margarida Bruges, and Domingos Machado Copyright © 2015 Sara Querido et al. All rights reserved. Utility of Iron Staining in Identifying the Cause of Renal Allograft Dysfunction in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease Tue, 01 Dec 2015 09:28:03 +0000 Sickle cell nephropathy (SCN) is associated with iron/heme deposition in proximal renal tubules and related acute tubular injury (ATI). Here we report the utility of iron staining in differentiating causes of renal allograft dysfunction in patients with a history of sickle cell disease. Case 1: the patient developed acute allograft dysfunction two years after renal transplant. Her renal biopsy showed ATI, supported by patchy loss of brush border and positive staining of kidney injury molecule-1 in proximal tubular epithelial cells, where diffuse increase in iron staining (2+) was present. This indicated that ATI likely resulted from iron/heme toxicity to proximal tubules. Electron microscope confirmed aggregated sickle RBCs in glomeruli, indicating a recurrent SCN. Case 2: four years after renal transplant, the patient developed acute allograft dysfunction and became positive for serum donor-specific antibody. His renal biopsy revealed thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and diffuse positive C4d stain in peritubular capillaries. Iron staining was negative in the renal tubules, implying that TMA was likely associated with acute antibody-mediated rejection (AAMR, type 2) rather than recurrent SCN. These case reports imply that iron staining is an inexpensive but effective method in distinguishing SCN-associated renal injury in allograft kidney from other etiologies. Yingchun Wang, Mona Doshi, Salman Khan, Wei Li, and Ping L. Zhang Copyright © 2015 Yingchun Wang et al. All rights reserved. Treatment of Recurrent Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder with Autologous Blood Stem Cell Transplant Wed, 25 Nov 2015 12:49:46 +0000 Background. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) occur after solid organ transplantation. Treatment guidelines include reduction in immunosuppression (RIS), radiation, rituximab, chemotherapy, and immunological agents. We present a rare case of recurrent diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting as a PTLD in a heart transplant patient treated with autologous blood stem cell transplant (ASCT) after failure of conventional therapy. Case Presentation. A 66-year-old male presented with a neck mass. He has a history of Hodgkin’s disease status after staging laparotomy with splenectomy and heart transplantation due to dilated nonischemic cardiomyopathy 8 years prior to the development of PTLD. His examination was remarkable for right submandibular swelling. An excisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell NHL. Patient received RIS, rituximab, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy with a complete remission. His lymphoma relapsed and he subsequently was treated with RICE salvage chemotherapy and consolidative high-dose chemotherapy with BEAC regimen followed by ASCT resulting in a complete remission. Conclusion. Patients with PTLD present a difficult therapeutic challenge. In this case, the patient’s prior history of Hodgkin’s disease, splenectomy, and a heart transplant appear to be unique features, the significance of which is unclear. ASCT might be a promising therapy for patients with relapsed or refractory PTLD. Bharat Malhotra, Ahmad K. Rahal, Hussam Farhoud, Dennis F. Moore Jr., and K. James Kallail Copyright © 2015 Bharat Malhotra et al. All rights reserved. ELISA-Based Crossmatching Allowing the Detection of Emerging Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies through the Use of Stored Donors’ Cell Lysates Sun, 08 Nov 2015 12:42:49 +0000 About forty years ago the complement-dependent crossmatch assay (CDC-CM) was developed as standard procedure in order to select recipients without donor-specific antibodies directed against human leukocyte antigens of their given donors since the negative outcome of pretransplant crossmatching represents one of the most important requirements for a successful kidney graft survival. However, as a functional assay the CDC-CM strongly depends on the availability of donors’ isolated lymphocytes and in particular on their vitality highly limiting its applicability for recipients treated with special drugs and therapeutic antibodies or suffering from underlying autoimmune diseases. In the great majority of these cases ELISA-based crossmatching has been demonstrated to be an adequate alternative procedure nevertheless leading to valid results. With these case reports we show for the first time that ELISA-based crossmatching is suitable to demonstrate the upcoming donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies as a consequence of allografting using deep-frozen deceased donor’s material such as blood or spleen detergent lysate. Thus, this ELISA-based procedure first provides the option to routinely perform crossmatching using stored material of deceased donors in order to substitute or at least to complement virtual crossmatching, that is, the comparison of the recipients’ anti-HLA antibody specificities with the donors’ historically identified HLA types. G. Schlaf, K. Stöhr, A. Rothhoff, and W. Altermann Copyright © 2015 G. Schlaf et al. All rights reserved. Premalignant and Malignant Skin Lesions in Two Recipients of Vascularized Composite Tissue Allografts (Face, Hands) Tue, 13 Oct 2015 07:07:23 +0000 Recipients of solid organ transplants (RSOT) have a highly increased risk for developing cutaneous premalignant and malignant lesions, favored by the lifelong immunosuppression. Vascularized composite tissue allografts (VCA) have been introduced recently, and relevant data are sparse. Two patients with skin cancers (one with basal cell carcinoma and one with squamous cell carcinomas) have been so far reported in this patient group. Since 2000 we have been following 9 recipients of VCA (3 face, 6 bilateral hands) for the development of rejection and complications of the immunosuppressive treatment. Among the 9 patients, one face-grafted recipient was diagnosed with nodular-pigmented basal cell carcinoma of her own facial skin 6 years after graft, and one patient with double hand allografts developed disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis, a potentially premalignant dermatosis, on her skin of the arm and legs. Similar to RSOT, recipients of VCA are prone to develop cutaneous premalignant and malignant lesions. Prevention should be applied through sun-protective measures, regular skin examination, and early treatment of premalignant lesions. Jean Kanitakis, Palmina Petruzzo, Aram Gazarian, Sylvie Testelin, Bernard Devauchelle, Lionel Badet, Jean-Michel Dubernard, and Emmanuel Morelon Copyright © 2015 Jean Kanitakis et al. All rights reserved. Absent Right Side Iliac Arterial System, an Intraoperative Surprise during Live Related Recipient Renal Transplantation Tue, 11 Aug 2015 11:36:15 +0000 Introduction. Renal transplantation has become the standard of care for patients with end stage renal disease. We present a rare case of an absent right sided iliac arterial system encountered during recipient renal transplantation. The presence of such vascular anomaly intraoperatively can present a technically challenging situation to the surgeon. Case Presentation. During a routine renal transplantation of a 34-year-old man, we encountered a complete absence of right side iliac arterial system and a prominent branch arising from left hemipelvis and coursing to the right lower limb and the urinary bladder. The artery to the bladder was divided and anastomosed end to end to the donor renal artery. Intraoperatively the renal perfusion and the urine output were good. A posttransplant magnetic resonance angiogram done six weeks later revealed good vascular supply to the kidney and the lower limb. Conclusion. Absent iliac artery on one or both sides is a rare phenomenon. The presence of it during an unanticipated renal transplant surgery can pose a significant technical challenge to the surgeons. We advocate routine assessment of pelvic vasculature before recipient renal transplant surgery so as to avoid a difficult situation like this. Vijay Radhakrishnan, Rana Kumar, Datson George, and G. P. Abraham Copyright © 2015 Vijay Radhakrishnan et al. All rights reserved. Unusual Causes of Abrupt Anuria Early Post-Renal Transplantation Mon, 13 Jul 2015 11:27:54 +0000 Renal transplantation using living donors has superior outcomes in comparison to deceased donor transplantation and results in immediate allograft function in a majority of cases. Rarely may allograft be nonfunctional from the beginning, or anuria is noted after a period of good urine output. Surgical causes for anuria should be high on the differential diagnosis in immediate-to-early posttransplant period, especially in an unsensitized recipient. We present two unusual causes of early onset anuria after living related renal transplantation where early surgical reexploration salvaged renal allografts with excellent long term outcomes. Gurudev Konana Chennabasappa, Sonika Puri, Vijay Varma, and Mahesh Eswarappa Copyright © 2015 Gurudev Konana Chennabasappa et al. All rights reserved. Anti-Erythropoietin Antibody Associated Pure Red Cell Aplasia Resolved after Liver Transplantation Thu, 09 Jul 2015 09:48:07 +0000 Patients undergoing antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C often develop anemia secondary to ribavirin and interferon. Recombinant erythropoietin has been used to improve anemia associated with antiviral therapy and to minimize dose reductions, which are associated with decreased rates of sustained virologic response. A rare potential side effect of recombinant erythropoietin is anti-erythropoietin antibody associated pure red cell aplasia. In chronic kidney disease patients with this entity, there have been good outcomes associated with renal transplant and subsequent immunosuppression. In this case, a chronic liver disease patient developed anti-erythropoietin associated pure red cell aplasia and recovered after liver transplantation and immunosuppression. It is unclear whether it is the transplanted organ, the subsequent immunosuppression, or the combination that contributed to the response. In conclusion, anti-erythropoietin associated pure red cell aplasia is a serious complication of erythropoietin therapy, but this entity should not be considered a contraindication for solid organ transplantation. Annie K. Hung, Jennifer Guy, Caroline M. Behler, and Eugene E. Lee Copyright © 2015 Annie K. Hung et al. All rights reserved. Transplantation of Horseshoe Kidney from Living, Genetically Unrelated Donor Thu, 09 Jul 2015 07:08:39 +0000 We report a case of renal transplantation using a horseshoe kidney from a living, genetically unrelated donor. The recipient was a 60-year-old man with diabetic nephropathy, and the donor was the 63-year-old wife of the recipient with a horseshoe kidney free of complications. Computed tomography showed two renal arteries and one renal vein on the left side, and the isthmus was perfused by several accessory arteries and veins. To demarcate the boundary of the isthmus, the left renal artery was ligated and cannulated for in situ perfusion. Furthermore, the isthmus was clamped, and the boundary of the isthmus was confirmed. The kidney was divided at the left margin of the perfused boundary. The cut ends of the isthmus were closed by sutures. The left kidney was transplanted into the right iliac fossa of the recipient. Asymptomatic fluid collection occurred on the cut surface at the isthmus of the donor, and this fluid decreased in due course. On the other hand, the recipient experienced no surgical complication or rejection, while maintaining serum creatinine levels of 2.00–2.20 mg/dL over a 22-month follow-up period. Horseshoe kidneys may be used for transplantation in selected cases after a detailed preoperative evaluation. Kazuro Kikkawa, Takahito Wakamiya, Hiroki Kusumoto, Nagahide Matsumura, Yasuo Kohjimoto, and Isao Hara Copyright © 2015 Kazuro Kikkawa et al. All rights reserved. Constrictive Pericarditis in the Presence of Remaining Remnants of a Left Ventricular Assist Device in a Heart Transplanted Patient Thu, 21 May 2015 12:31:50 +0000 Constrictive pericarditis (CP) is a severe subform of pericarditis with various causes and clinical findings. Here, we present the unique case of CP in the presence of remaining remnants of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) in a heart transplanted patient. A 63-year-old man presented at the Heidelberg Heart Center outpatient clinic with progressive dyspnea, fatigue, and loss of physical capacity. Heart transplantation (HTX) was performed at another heart center four years ago and postoperative clinical course was unremarkable so far. Pharmacological cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) stress test was performed to exclude coronary ischemia. The test was negative but, accidentally, a foreign body located in the epicardial adipose tissue was found. The foreign body was identified as the inflow pump connection of an LVAD which was left behind after HTX. Echocardiography and cardiac catheterization confirmed the diagnosis of CP. Surgical removal was performed and the epicardial tubular structure with a diameter of 30 mm was carefully removed accompanied by pericardiectomy. No postoperative complications occurred and the patient recovered uneventfully with a rapid improvement of symptoms. On follow-up 3 and 6 months later, the patient reported about a stable clinical course with improved physical capacity and absence of dyspnea. R. Rivinius, M. Helmschrott, V. Koch, F. Sedaghat-Hamedani, P. Fortner, F. F. Darche, D. Thomas, A. Ruhparwar, B. Schmack, M. Karck, M. Akhavanpoor, C. Erbel, C. A. Gleissner, S. J. Buss, D. Mereles, P. Ehlermann, H. A. Katus, and A. O. Doesch Copyright © 2015 R. Rivinius et al. All rights reserved. Invasive Microascus trigonosporus Species Complex Pulmonary Infection in a Lung Transplant Recipient Thu, 14 May 2015 11:18:52 +0000 Because of the high incidence of morbidity and mortality associated with invasive fungal infections, antifungal prophylaxis is often used in solid organ transplant recipients. However, this prophylaxis is not universally effective and may contribute to the selection of emerging, resistant pathogens. Here we present a rare case of invasive infection caused by Microascus trigonosporus species complex in a human, which developed during voriconazole prophylaxis in a lung transplant recipient. Nebulized liposomal amphotericin B was used in addition to systemic therapy in order to optimize antifungal drug exposure; this regimen appeared to reduce the patient’s fungal burden. Despite this apparent improvement, the patient’s pulmonary status progressively declined in the setting of multiple comorbidities, ultimately leading to respiratory failure and death. Kelly E. Schoeppler, Martin R. Zamora, Noelle M. Northcutt, Gerard R. Barber, Gayle O’Malley-Schroeder, and Dennis M. Lyu Copyright © 2015 Kelly E. Schoeppler et al. All rights reserved. Complete Absence of Iliac Arteries in the Left Hemipelvis in a Case of Deceased Donor Renal Transplantation Thu, 30 Apr 2015 08:57:45 +0000 Renal transplantation is an established method of treating end-stage renal failure. Whilst the majority of procedures follow a standard technique, vascular anomalies may pose intraoperative challenges and, therefore, careful preoperative assessment is warranted. We present a unique, complex case compounded by complete absence of iliac arteries in the left hemipelvis in association with double inferior vena cava in a young recipient. Ebrahim Palkhi, Samir Pathak, Lutz Hostert, Gareth Morris-Stiff, Jai V. Patel, and Niaz Ahmad Copyright © 2015 Ebrahim Palkhi et al. All rights reserved. Hafnia alvei Urosepsis in a Kidney Transplant Patient Wed, 15 Apr 2015 07:31:44 +0000 Hafnia alvei, a gram-negative facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, is a rare cause of infection in humans. We report on a renal transplant patient who developed H. alvei pyelonephritis and urosepsis. The source of infection remains enigmatic but is most likely the intestinal tract. Appropriate antibiotic therapy with cefepime followed by oral ciprofloxacin brought about rapid resolution of symptoms and complete recovery. H. alvei may cause severe infection in transplant patients without predisposing factors such as hospitalization, invasive procedures, or antibiotic treatment. Mario Stanic, Edgar Meusburger, Gabriele Hartmann, and Karl Lhotta Copyright © 2015 Mario Stanic et al. All rights reserved. Transurethral Incision of the Bladder Neck in a Woman with Primary Bladder Neck Obstruction after Kidney Transplantation Mon, 16 Mar 2015 09:10:28 +0000 Voiding dysfunction is frequently seen in the early posttransplant period. Among other causes, this condition can arise due to bladder outlet obstruction. Primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) is a possible but very rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction. We present the case of a 52-year-old woman who, after kidney transplantation, presented with PBNO. The diagnosis was established based on symptoms, uroflowmetry, and multichannel urodynamics with electromyography. The transurethral incision of the bladder neck was made at the 5- and 7-o’clock position. After the operation, the maximal flow rate was significantly increased, and postvoid residual urine was decreased compared to the preoperative findings. The patient was followed for 5 years, and her voiding improvement is persistent. This is the first reported case of PBNO treated with a transurethral incision of the bladder neck in a posttransplantation female patient. Dean Markić, Maksim Valenčić, Anton Maričić, Kristian Krpina, Dražen Rahelić, Juraj Ahel, Nino Rubinić, Lidija Orlić, and Sanjin Rački Copyright © 2015 Dean Markić et al. All rights reserved. Utilization of Intraoperative TEE to Assess Supraventricular Tachycardia-Inducing Right-Sided Cardiac Compression by the Liver, Post-Liver-Transplantation Status Thu, 12 Mar 2015 13:04:21 +0000 This unique and interesting case report involves a patient who recently underwent a combined liver and kidney transplant (due to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease) and subsequently suffered from episodes of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) secondary to the new liver graft compressing the right atrium and ventricle. After this was diagnosed, the patient underwent operative plication of the right hemidiaphragm. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography was used to demonstrate cardiac compression from the liver and demonstrate resolution of compression after plication of the hemidiaphragm. W. David Stoll, William R. Hand, Vinayak S. Rohan, Parker M. Gaddy, Scott T. Reeves, and Kenneth D. Chavin Copyright © 2015 W. David Stoll et al. All rights reserved. Unusual Fungal Infections in Renal Transplant Recipients Thu, 26 Feb 2015 11:50:36 +0000 Fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients. The causative agent and the risk factors differ depending on the period after the kidney transplant. Also the incidence varies according to the geographical area. We are reporting three cases of fungal infections in renal transplant recipients. Two of them have etiological agents which are common among immunosuppressed patients, but with an atypical clinical presentation, while one of them is a subcutaneous infection caused by a less frequent dematiaceous fungus, Aureobasidium pullulans. These cases highlight how a high index of clinical suspicion and prompt diagnosis is very much essential for better outcome. The emerging fungal infections and paucity of data regarding their management pose a challenge to the transplant physicians. Mahesh Eswarappa, P. Vijay Varma, Rakesh Madhyastha, Sujeeth Reddy, M. S. Gireesh, K. C. Gurudev, Vijaya V. Mysorekar, and Beena Hemanth Copyright © 2015 Mahesh Eswarappa et al. All rights reserved. De Novo Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Kidney Allograft 20 Years after Transplant Thu, 19 Feb 2015 12:53:17 +0000 Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in a kidney allograft is rare. We report the successful diagnosis and treatment of a de novo RCC in a nonfunctioning kidney transplant 20 years after engraftment. A 54-year-old man received a kidney transplant from his mother when he was 34 years old. After 10 years, chronic rejection resulted in graft failure, and the patient became hemodialysis-dependent. Intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms revealed a solid 13 mm tumor in the kidney graft. The tumor was confirmed on ultrasound examination. This tumor had not been detected on a surveillance noncontrast CT scan. Needle biopsy showed that the tumor was an RCC. Allograft nephrectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed that the tumor was a Fuhrman Grade 2 RCC. XY-fluorescence hybridization analysis of the RCC showed that the tumor cells were of donor origin. One year after the surgery, the patient is alive and has no evidence of tumor recurrence. Regardless of whether a kidney transplant is functioning, it should periodically be imaged for RCC throughout the recipient’s lifetime. In our experience, ultrasonography or CT with intravenous contrast is better than CT without contrast for the detection of tumor in a nonfunctioning kidney transplant. Masataka Banshodani, Hideki Kawanishi, Seiji Marubayashi, Sadanori Shintaku, Misaki Moriishi, Fumio Shimamoto, Shinichiro Tsuchiya, Kiyohiko Dohi, and Hideki Ohdan Copyright © 2015 Masataka Banshodani et al. All rights reserved. Acute Sickle Hepatic Crisis after Liver Transplantation in a Patient with Hb SC Disease Thu, 19 Feb 2015 11:54:06 +0000 Acute sickle hepatic crisis (ASHC) has been observed in approximately 10% of patients with sickle cell disease. It occurs predominantly in patients with homozygous (Hb SS) sickle cell anemia and to a lesser degree in patients with Hb SC disease, sickle cell trait, and Hb S beta thalassemia. Patients commonly present with jaundice, right upper quadrant pain, nausea, low-grade fever, tender hepatomegaly, and mild to moderate elevations in serum AST, ALT, and bilirubin. We describe the case of a patient with a history of hemoglobin SC disease and cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C presenting approximately 1 year after liver transplantation with an ASHC. The diagnosis was confirmed by liver biopsy. Our patient was treated with RBC exchange transfusions, IV hydration, and analgesia and made a complete recovery. Only a limited number of patients with sickle cell disease have received liver transplants, and, to our knowledge, this is the first case of ASHC after transplantation in a patient with Hb SC disease. J. H. Gillis, S. K. Satapathy, L. Parsa, P. B. Sylvestre, and N. Dbouk Copyright © 2015 J. H. Gillis et al. All rights reserved. Rupture of Renal Transplant Wed, 21 Jan 2015 13:36:02 +0000 Background. Rupture of renal allograft is a rare and serious complication of transplantation that is usually attributed to acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, or renal vein thrombosis. Case Presentation. LD, a 26-year-old male with established renal failure, underwent deceased donor transplantation using kidney from a 50-year-old donor with acute kidney injury (Cr 430 mmol/L). LD had a stormy posttransplant recovery and required exploration immediately for significant bleeding. On day three after transplant, he developed pain/graft swelling and another significant haemorrhage with cardiovascular compromise which did not respond to aggressive resuscitation. At reexploration, the renal allograft was found to have a longitudinal rupture and was removed. Histology showed features of type IIa Banff 97 acute vascular rejection, moderate arteriosclerosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Conclusion. Possible ways of avoiding allograft rupture include use of well-matched, good quality kidneys; reducing or managing risk factors that would predispose to delayed graft function; ensuring a technically satisfactory transplant procedure with short cold and warm ischemia times; and avoiding large donor-recipient age gradients. Shona Baker, Maria Popescu, and Jacob A. Akoh Copyright © 2015 Shona Baker et al. All rights reserved. Staged Hand-Assisted Bilateral Native Nephrectomy for Management of Posttransplant Polyuria in an Adult with Dent’s Disease Sun, 11 Jan 2015 14:04:27 +0000 Polyuria after kidney transplantation causes graft dysfunction and increased thrombotic risk. We present a case of a polyuric adult with Dent’s disease who underwent staged bilateral native nephrectomies, the first operation before transplant and the second four months after transplant. This led to improved allograft function maintained during four years of follow-up. The retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach was well tolerated and allowed continuation of peritoneal dialysis before transplantation. A staged approach helps regulate fluid balance perioperatively and may be tailored to individual need according to posttransplant urine output. This novel approach should be considered for polyuric patients with tubular dysfunction including Dent’s disease. Rosa M. Montero, Rachel Hilton, and Jonathon Olsburgh Copyright © 2015 Rosa M. Montero et al. All rights reserved. Delayed Gastric Emptying after Living Donor Hepatectomy for Liver Transplantation Thu, 25 Dec 2014 11:29:39 +0000 Delayed gastric emptying is a significant postoperative complication of living donor hepatectomy for liver transplantation and may require endoscopic or surgical intervention in severe cases. Although the mechanism of posthepatectomy delayed gastric emptying remains unknown, vagal nerve injury during intraoperative dissection and adhesion formation postoperatively between the stomach and cut liver surface are possible explanations. Here, we present the first reported case of delayed gastric emptying following fully laparoscopic hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation. Additionally, we also present a case in which symptoms developed after open right hepatectomy, but for which dissection for left hepatectomy was first performed. Through our experience and these two specific cases, we favor a neurovascular etiology for delayed gastric emptying after hepatectomy. Hanjay Wang, Adam D. Griesemer, Ronald F. Parsons, Jay A. Graham, Jean C. Emond, and Benjamin Samstein Copyright © 2014 Hanjay Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Symptomatic De Novo Pheochromocytoma 23 Years after Liver Transplantation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Sun, 14 Dec 2014 09:03:29 +0000 We report a case of subacute onset of headaches and tremors with a newly discovered adrenal pheochromocytoma 23 years after an orthotopic liver transplantation and provide a review of the scarce literature regarding endocrine malignancies in liver transplant recipients. We describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, and management. This is the second case report in the literature of a de novo pheochromocytoma after solid organ transplantation. It shows that new-onset common symptoms in transplant recipients are always challenging and deserve a very thorough work-up until the cause of the symptoms is elucidated. A broad differential diagnosis should always be included in the study of any abnormalities in this patient population. M. I. Montenovo, F. G. Jalikis, B. Hoch, and R. Bakthavatsalam Copyright © 2014 M. I. Montenovo et al. All rights reserved. Replacement of Vena Cava up to the Right Atrium during Living Donor Liver Transplantation for Echinococcus alveolaris Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Management of advanced stage of Echinococcus alveolaris is a very difficult procedure. Surgical treatment like resection and liver transplantation is accepted procedure nowadays. Here we presented a case report of Echinococcus alveolaris which invaded the inferior vena cava up to the right atrium and surrounding tissues. This patient underwent living donor liver transplantation with replacement of inferior vena cava up to the right atrium with cryopreserved cadaveric aortic graft. This procedure is very difficult but it is a life-saving chance for patients in advanced cases of Echinococcus alveolaris. Fahri Yetişir, S. Murad Dogan, Ruslan Mamedov, Cuneyt Kayaalp, and Sezayi Yilmaz Copyright © 2014 Fahri Yetişir et al. All rights reserved. Cardiac Failure after Liver Transplantation Requiring a Biventricular Assist Device Sun, 09 Nov 2014 09:15:40 +0000 Increased hepatic iron load in extrahepatic organs of cirrhotic patients with and without hereditary hemochromatosis portends a poorer long term prognosis after liver transplant. Hepatic as well as nonhepatic iron overload is associated with increased infectious and postoperative complications, including cardiac dysfunction. In this case report, we describe a cirrhotic patient with alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency and nonhereditary hemochromatosis (non-HFE) that developed cardiogenic shock requiring mechanical circulatory support for twenty days after liver transplant. Upon further investigation, she was found to have significant iron deposition in both the liver and heart biopsies. Her heart regained complete and sustained recovery following ten days of mechanical biventricular support. This case highlights the importance of preoperatively recognizing extrahepatic iron deposition in patients referred for liver transplantation irrespective of etiology of liver disease as this may prevent postoperative complications. Rita Jermyn, Eiei Soe, David D’Alessandro, Julia Shin, William Jakobleff, Daniel Schwartz, Milan Kinkhabwala, and Paul J. Gaglio Copyright © 2014 Rita Jermyn et al. All rights reserved. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Prostatic Abscess in a Liver Transplant Recipient Mon, 20 Oct 2014 11:26:18 +0000 Prostatic abscesses are usually related to gram-negative bacilli. However, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a substantial cause of prostatic abscesses in recent years. Herein, we report the case of a 31-year-old man with a history of orthotopic liver transplantation 10 years ago who presented with acute onset dysuria and abdominal pain and was diagnosed with a MRSA prostatic abscess. To our knowledge, this is the first case describing a prostatic abscess in a liver transplant recipient and the first reporting MRSA as the causative organism of a prostatic abscess in a solid organ transplant recipient. Tanima Jana, Jorge D. Machicado, Giovanni E. Davogustto, and Jen-Jung Pan Copyright © 2014 Tanima Jana et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Continuous Negative Pressure Wound Therapy for Abdominal Infected Lymphocele after Kidney Transplantation Wed, 08 Oct 2014 14:11:16 +0000 Lymphocele is a common complication after kidney transplantation. Although superinfection is a rare event, it generates a difficult management problem; generally, open surgical drainage is the preferred method of treatment but it may lead to complicated postoperative course and prolonged healing time. Negative pressure wound therapy showed promising outcomes in various surgical disciplines and settings. We present a case of an abdominal infected lymphocele after kidney transplantation managed with open surgery and negative pressure wound therapy. Marco Franchin, Matteo Tozzi, Gabriele Soldini, and Gabriele Piffaretti Copyright © 2014 Marco Franchin et al. All rights reserved. Early Introduction of Everolimus Immunosuppressive Regimen in Liver Transplantation with Extra-Anatomic Aortoiliac-Hepatic Arterial Graft Anastomosis Sun, 21 Sep 2014 05:47:52 +0000 Liver transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with acute and chronic end-stage liver disease, when no other medical treatment is possible. Despite high rates of 1- to 5-year survival, long-term adverse effects of immunosuppressant agents remain of major concern. Current research and clinical efforts are made to develop immunosuppressant agents that minimize adverse effects along with a low rate of graft rejection. Tailoring immunosuppressive therapy to individual patients by the use of proliferation signal inhibitors seems to be the best way to minimize toxicity and increase efficacy. Recently everolimus has been introduced in clinical practice; among its adverse effects an increased incidence of arterial graft thrombosis in renal transplants, vascular anastomosis leakage, impaired wound healing, and thrombotic microangiopathy have been reported. We present the case of a 54-year-old patient submitted to liver transplantation for end-stage liver disease treated by an extra-anatomic aortoiliac-hepatic arterial graft anastomosis and early postoperative introduction of everolimus for acute renal failure. Postoperative period was characterized by two abdominal collections and reactivation of cytomegalovirus infection that were treated by percutaneous drainage and antiviral therapy, respectively; the patient is well after 8-month followup with patency of the arterial conduit and no leakage. Emanuele Felli, Giovanni Vennarecci, Marco Colasanti, Roberto Santoro, Edoardo de Werra, Andrea Scotti, Mirco Burocchi, Giovanni B. Levi Sandri, Alessandra Campanelli, Pasquale Lepiane, and Giuseppe M. Ettorre Copyright © 2014 Emanuele Felli et al. All rights reserved. Diffuse Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma Developed in a Patient with Hepatitis C Cirrhosis Mon, 08 Sep 2014 05:39:54 +0000 Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) is an infrequent vascular tumor of endothelial origin that primarily occurs in women in the mid-fifth decade of life without underlying chronic liver disease or cirrhosis. Liver transplant should be the first-line of therapy in patients with large or diffuse unresectable tumors even in the presence of metastatic disease due to the favorable long-term outcome. We report the case of a 48-year-old female who complained of abdominal pain and weight loss. She has a history of cirrhosis secondary to chronic hepatitis C (HCV) and was treated with interferon and ribavirin with sustained virological response. Her work-up revealed multiple confluent infiltrating bilobar liver masses diagnosed as HEHE. She underwent a successful liver transplant without evidence of recurrent HCV infection. She developed cervical spine (C4-C6) HEHE metastases 4 years after transplant. She underwent surgical resection and local radiotherapy after resection with good clinical response. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of HEHE that developed in a patient with HCV cirrhosis successfully treated with antiviral therapy before transplant and liver transplant with good allograft function without evidence of recurrent liver tumor or HCV infection but developed metastases to the cervical spine 4 years after transplant. Pedro W. Baron, Thomas Amankonah, Robert F. Cubas, Arputharaj H. Kore, Arvand Elihu, Michael E. de Vera, and Mia C. N. Perez Copyright © 2014 Pedro W. Baron et al. All rights reserved.