Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Canine Bilateral Conjunctivo-Palpebral Dermoid: Description of Two Clinical Cases and Discussion of the Relevance of the Terminology Mon, 23 Mar 2015 14:18:47 +0000 Two young dogs were presented for the evaluation of an abnormally haired appearance of both eyes since adoption. In one dog, the lesions were symmetrical and appeared as disorganized skin tissue located on the cutaneous aspect of the lateral portion of both lower eyelids, and continuing to the palpebral and the bulbar conjunctiva, thus forming continuous lesions. In the other dog, a similar lesion was present in the right eye (OD), but the lesion of the left eye (OS) was of discontinuous, disorganized skin tissue located midway on the lower eyelid and on the lateral bulbar conjunctiva. The lesions were surgically removed and routinely processed for histopathological analysis. Definitive diagnosis was conjunctivo-palpebral dermoids for each dog. Dermoids are usually considered to be choristoma (normal tissue in an abnormal location) when they are located on the ocular surface (cornea and/or conjunctiva) and as hamartoma when located on the palpebral skin. The lesion presentation in these two dogs reveals that names of “choristoma” alone or “hamartoma” alone are not accurate to depict the continuous, composite, conjunctivo-palpebral dermoids. These cases suggest that choristoma and hamartoma might develop subsequently from the same abnormal event during the embryonic development, which means that the lesion location might be the only difference between the two terms. O. Balland, I. Raymond, I. Mathieson, P. F. Isard, Emilie Vidémont-Drevon, and T. Dulaurent Copyright © 2015 O. Balland et al. All rights reserved. Elevated Testosterone and Progestin Concentrations in a Spayed Female Rabbit with an Adrenal Cortical Adenoma Mon, 08 Dec 2014 13:20:51 +0000 This case was described briefly in a recent book chapter (Lennox AM, Fecteau KA: 2014, Endocrine disease. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine, eds. Meredith A, Lord B, pp 274–276. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, UK). In the previous description, the tumor was described as a pheochromocytoma; however, further evaluation suggested that it more closely resembled an adrenal cortical adenoma. A 10-year-old, spayed female rabbit was presented for a behavior change of 8 months’ duration. The rabbit was inappropriately urinating and defecating, as well as demonstrating aggressive behaviors such as chasing, biting, and mounting various objects. The rabbit had elevated progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and testosterone concentrations, and ultrasound examination of the abdomen showed a round, homogenous nodule measuring 1.1 × 0.8 × 0.9 cm in the region of the left adrenal gland. Necropsy revealed a unilateral adrenal cortical adenoma. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first complete description of a female rabbit with an adrenal cortical adenoma documented in the literature. Katherine Baine, Kim Newkirk, Kellie A. Fecteau, and Marcy J. Souza Copyright © 2014 Katherine Baine et al. All rights reserved. Hippocampal Necrosis in a Cat from Australia Mon, 08 Dec 2014 09:01:41 +0000 This paper reports findings from a feline case of hippocampal necrosis. A seven-year-old neutered female cat was seen with a history of behavioural change followed by complex focal seizures. The cat was severely pyrexic on presentation and anisocoria was present. It was treated with cooling, intravenous fluid, and phenobarbitone administration which was later changed to levetiracetam. An MRI was performed and revealed findings of a hypointense T1 and hyperintense T2 signal in the hippocampus and inferior temporal gyrus with mild gadolinium uptake, findings which were consistent with previous cases of hippocampal necrosis. The cat was witnessed to vomit and aspirate 24 hours after diagnosis leading to cardiac arrest and death. Postmortem examination revealed a subacute degenerative encephalopathy involving the hippocampus. Carl Adagra and Susan Amanda Piripi Copyright © 2014 Carl Adagra and Susan Amanda Piripi. All rights reserved. Peritoneal Effusion in a Dog due to Babesia gibsoni Infection Tue, 02 Dec 2014 13:06:38 +0000 A five-year-old male Labrador was presented to Teaching Veterinary Clinics of GADVASU with a primary complaint of distended abdomen, fever, and anorexia. The dog was found to be dull with elevated rectal temperature (104°F), heart rate (148 per minute), and respiration rate (58 per minute). Blood smear examination and PCR assay revealed that dog was positive for Babesia gibsoni. Elevated bilirubin, alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total leucocyte count, hypoalbuminaemia, and hypoproteinaemia were haematobiochemical alterations. Radiography and ultrasonography showed ground glass appearance and anechoic area of abdomen, respectively. Suresh Gonde, Sushma Chhabra, L. D. Singla, and B. K. Bansal Copyright © 2014 Suresh Gonde et al. All rights reserved. Presumptive Ischemic Brain Infarction in a Dog with Evans’ Syndrome Sun, 23 Nov 2014 12:48:12 +0000 A ten-year-old neutered female mixed breed dog was referred for pale mucous membrane and acute onset of right prosencephalic clinical signs. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive for right middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke. Based on cell blood count, serum biochemistry and serologic tests and flow cytometric detection of anti-platelets and anti-red blood cells antibodies, a diagnosis of immunomediated haemolytic anemia associated with thrombocytopenia of suspected immunomediated origin was done. Immunosuppresive therapy with prednisone was started and the dog clinically recovered. Two months later complete normalization of CBC and serum biochemistry was documented. The dog remained stable for 7 months without therapy; then she relapsed. CBC revealed mild regenerative anemia with spherocytosis and thrombocytopenia. A conclusive Evans’ syndrome diagnosis was done and prednisone and cyclosporine treatment led to normalization of physical and CBC parameters. The dog is still alive at the time the paper submitted. Possible thrombotic etiopathogenetic mechanisms are illustrated in the paper and the authors suggest introducing Evans’ syndrome in the differential diagnosis list for brain ischemic stroke in dogs. Angelo Pasquale Giannuzzi, Antonio De Simone, Mario Ricciardi, and Floriana Gernone Copyright © 2014 Angelo Pasquale Giannuzzi et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Complete Rectal Prolapse in an In-Gilt Thu, 13 Nov 2014 09:54:19 +0000 A seven-month-old in-gilt was presented with an intractable rectal prolapse. The prolapsed rectum was swollen, necrotic, and ulcerated. The pig was apparently healthy and had been ingesting high fibre feed materials, with little water. The pig was anaesthetized with 1.1 mg/kg body weight of xylazine and 10 mg/kg body weight of ketamine administered intramuscularly and intravenously, respectively. The prolapse was removed by placing a stay suture distal to the necrotic tissue and excising the tissue close to the apparently healthy part. A rectopexy was also performed. The pig was placed on prophylactic antibiotics and discharged. Njoku Uchechukwu Njoku, Kelechi Theresa Jeremiah, Rock Odimma Ukaha, and Chioma Frances Orajaka Copyright © 2014 Njoku Uchechukwu Njoku et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Newcastle Disease Virus in Red-Headed Lovebird in Sudan Thu, 30 Oct 2014 07:33:54 +0000 Two diseased red-headed lovebirds were presented for diagnosis to the Department of Avian Diseases and Diagnosis, Veterinary Research Institute, aged 37 days and 4 years. The symptoms were dyspnea, cyanosis of the comb, diarrhea, and fever. Postmortem lesions included pale liver and bloody enteritis. Newcastle disease virus was isolated from lungs, trachea, and intestines following inoculation in the allantoic cavity of 10-day-old fertile eggs; the NDV was identified by the means of HA&HI tests using specific NDV antisera (Lasota strain). The isolate agglutinated equine RBCs but failed to agglutinate sheep and bovine RBCs. The pathogenicity of the NDV isolate was studied, the mean death time was 96 hours, and the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) value was 0.9, indicating the isolate of lentogenic type. Egbal Sidahmed Abdelrahim and Jedda Elhag Copyright © 2014 Egbal Sidahmed Abdelrahim and Jedda Elhag. All rights reserved. Bilateral Telencephalic Gliomatosis Cerebri in a Dog Sun, 19 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 An 8-year-old intact male Lagotto Romagnolo was presented with forebrain signs. Neuroanatomic localization was diffuse prosencephalon. MRI revealed diffuse, bilateral, and symmetric T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities in the parieto-occipital white matter and corpus callosum. No mass effect or contrast enhancement was noted. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid revealed normal protein content and mild mononuclear pleocytosis. Atypical cells were not identified. 15 days later because of the worsening of clinical condition the patient was euthanized upon owner’s request. Neuropathological investigations were consistent with gliomatosis cerebri (GC). Such an unusual imaging pattern appeared similar to some cases of human GC and to a previous reported case in a dog, suggesting a possible repeatable imaging findings for this rare brain neoplasm. GC should be included in the MRI differentials for diffuse bilateral white matter signal changes and specific MRI findings described in this report may help in reaching a presumptive diagnosis of this tumor. Mario Ricciardi, Antonio De Simone, Pasquale Giannuzzi, Maria Teresa Mandara, Alice Reginato, and Floriana Gernone Copyright © 2014 Mario Ricciardi et al. All rights reserved. Canine Oral Eosinophilic Granuloma Treated with Electrochemotherapy Thu, 16 Oct 2014 07:59:16 +0000 A case of a canine oral eosinophilic granuloma in a 14-year-old female crossbred is described. The dog was presented with a history of ptyalism, halitosis, local pain, decreased appetite, and blood staining noted on food and water bowls. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical examinations, abdominal ultrasonography, and 3-view chest radiographs were performed, and no metastases were found. Histopathologic examination of two 6 mm punch biopsies from the oral lesion revealed the presence of eosinophilic granulomatous lesions in the submucosa. After treatment with corticosteroids and wide spectrum antibiotics no significant changes in clinical signs and lesion size were observed. Electrochemotherapy (ECT), a novel tumor treatment routinely used for cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors in human patients in the European Union since 2006, was used to treat the eosinophilic granuloma. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia, followed by intravenous administration of bleomycin. Six weeks after treatment a complete response with disappearance of the mass and improvement of clinical signs were observed. Matías Nicolás Tellado, Sebastián Diego Michinski, Nahuel Olaiz, Felipe Maglietti, and Guillermo Marshall Copyright © 2014 Matías Nicolás Tellado et al. All rights reserved. Histomorphologic and Immunohistochemical Characterization of a Cardiac Purkinjeoma in a Bearded Seal (Erignathus barbatus) Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:21:57 +0000 The most common cardiac tumors of heart muscle are rhabdomyomas, solitary or multiple benign tumors of striated muscle origin. While cardiac rhabdomyomas are well described in human medical literature, limited information depicting the occurrence of cardiac rhabdomyomas in veterinary species exists. A case of multiple firm white nonencapsulated nodules in the heart of a bearded seal is described. Microscopic findings included cytoplasmic vacuolization with formation of spider cells, glycogen vacuoles, and striated myofibrils. These cells expressed immunoreactivity for neuron-specific enolase and protein gene product 9.5, a marker for neuronal tissue and Purkinje fiber cells. Immunoreactivity for protein gene product 9.5 along with other microscopic findings substantiates Purkinje fiber cell origin of the cardiac rhabdomyoma in the bearded seal and use of the term purkinjeoma to describe this lesion. G. Krafsur, E. J. Ehrhart, J. Ramos-Vara, G. Mason, F. Sarren, B. Adams, C. Hanns, T. Spraker, and C. Duncan Copyright © 2014 G. Krafsur et al. All rights reserved. Diagnosis, Surgical Treatment, Recovery, and Eventual Necropsy of a Leopard (Panthera pardus) with Thyroid Carcinoma Tue, 26 Aug 2014 12:31:57 +0000 An 18-year-old, male, castrated, captive-born leopard (Panthera pardus) presented to Colorado State University’s Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a two-week history of regurgitation. Thoracic radiographs and ultrasound revealed a well-differentiated cranioventral mediastinal mass measuring 7.5 × 10 × 5.5 cm, impinging the esophagus. A sternotomy followed by mass excision was performed. The mass was diagnosed as an ectopic thyroid carcinoma. The leopard recovered from surgery with minimal complications and returned to near-normal activity levels for just under 6 months before rapidly declining. He had an acute onset of severe dyspnea and lethargy and was euthanized. On postmortem examination the tumor was found to involve the lung, liver, thyroid, parietal pleura, bronchial lymph nodes, and the internal intercostal muscles. This case report describes the history, diagnosis, surgical treatment, postoperative care, and recovery as well as the eventual decline, euthanasia, and necropsy of a leopard with thyroid carcinoma. When compared to thyroid carcinomas of domestic animals, the leopard’s disease process more closely resembles the disease process seen in domestic canines compared to domestic cats. Ashley Malmlov, Terry Campbell, Eric Monnet, Craig Miller, Becca Miceli, and Colleen Duncan Copyright © 2014 Ashley Malmlov et al. All rights reserved. Leishmania sp. Amastigotes Identification in Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor Sun, 24 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with Leishmania chagasi being the etiological agent of canine visceral leishmaniasis in South America. Canine venereal tumor is a transplantable round cell tumor of histiocytic origin which is mostly observed in sexually active male and female intact dogs. It has been shown that Leishmania amastigotes have higher tropism for the canine male genital tract tissues and venereal leishmaniasis transmission has been documented in dogs but, to date, a canine venereal tumor-dependent transmission route has not been fully demonstrated. In this report, a 10-year-old, mixed breed, intact female dog presented a vaginal venereal transmissible tumor but no other clinical abnormalities otherwise. Unexpectedly, tumor tissue imprint smears examination revealed Leishmania sp. amastigotes within infiltrating macrophages. In addition to the cytological direct identification, the protozoan was confirmed within the neoplastic tissue by means of immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. This report illustrates an asymptomatic Leishmania sp. infection that may have started on or from the canine venereal tumor tissue, the latter option further supporting previous evidence of such an alternative vector-independent route of transmission for canine visceral leishmaniasis in areas where these diseases coexist. Vinicius Soares Carreira, Heitor Flávio Ferrari, Ingeborg Maria Langohr, Charles Mackenzie, Luiz Carlos Montezzo, Edson Taira, Lucile Maria Floeter-Winter, and Maria Cecília Rui Luvizotto Copyright © 2014 Vinicius Soares Carreira et al. All rights reserved. Failure of Miltefosine Treatment in Two Dogs with Natural Leishmania infantum Infection Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:20:47 +0000 Two dogs, with naturally acquired canine leishmaniasis, were treated orally with miltefosine (2 mg/kg q 24 hr) and allopurinol (10 mg/kg q 12 hr) for 28 days. Both dogs showed good initial response to therapy, with reduction in clinical signs and improvement of clinicopathological changes. However, in both dogs, clinical and clinicopathological abnormalities recurred 150 days after initial treatment and a second course of miltefosine and allopurinol was administered. One dog failed to respond to the 2nd cycle of miltefosine treatment and the other dog responded initially but suffered an early relapse. Treatment with meglumine antimoniate (100 mg/kg q 24 hr for a minimum of 4 weeks) was then started in both dogs. Both dogs showed rapid clinical and clinicopathological improvement and to date they have not received further treatment for 420 and 270 days, respectively. In view of the low number of antileishmanial drugs available and the fact that some of these are used in human as well as veterinary medicine, it is of paramount importance that drug resistance is monitored and documented. Daniela Proverbio, Eva Spada, Giada Bagnagatti De Giorgi, and Roberta Perego Copyright © 2014 Daniela Proverbio et al. All rights reserved. Mitral Valve Replacement with a Mechanical Valve for Severe Mitral Regurgitation in a Small Dog Wed, 06 Aug 2014 11:04:40 +0000 A seven-year-old Shih Tzu with refractory repeated pulmonary edema and syncope was presented for surgical operation. From the results of cardiovascular examinations, the dog was diagnosed as severe mitral regurgitation (ACVIM consensus class D) and mild tricuspid regurgitation. The dog first underwent surgery with mitral valve plasty; however, the results were unsatisfactory due to severe damage of the whole mitral valve. The operation was quickly changed to mitral valve replacement using a mechanical valve (19 mm). The dog survived surgery and lived for 2 years and one month after operation using long-term anticoagulant (warfarin) therapy in spite of several thrombosis-related events. Daisuke Taguchi, Isamu Kanemoto, Satoko Yokoyama, Masashi Mizuno, and Makoto Washizu Copyright © 2014 Daisuke Taguchi et al. All rights reserved. A 7-Year-Old Extrauterine Pregnancy in a Cat Wed, 23 Jul 2014 07:16:38 +0000 This paper describes a 7-year-old extrauterine pregnancy in a spayed cat. Three extrauterine fetuses were accidentally found in the abdomen of a 12-year-old domestic short hair cat that had ovariohysterectomy about 7 years before. The animal was under evaluation for a recent history of increased thirst, urination, and poor appetite. Biochemical analysis revealed high plasmatic levels of urea, creatinine, and phosphorus consistent with renal insufficiency. X-ray plates showed three calcified fetuses in the abdomen, apparently unrelated to the reported clinical signs. Despite intensive therapy, the cat died one day later. At necropsy, ovaries and uterus were not found but the presence of three well-developed, mummified, and mineralized fetuses loosely attached to the omentum was evident. Careful dissection of fetuses confirmed the diagnosis of extrauterine pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a 7-year lasting ectopic pregnancy in an ovariohysterectomized cat. The absence of related clinical signs seems to confirm that such conditions are compatible with a normal healthy life. Agata Osenko and Walter Tarello Copyright © 2014 Agata Osenko and Walter Tarello. All rights reserved. Unicameral Bone Cyst in the Proximal Humerus with Secondary Infection in an 18-Month-Old Foal Tue, 22 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 An 18-month-old warmblood filly was 4/5 lame on the front right limb at referral and showed severe swelling of the right shoulder region and pain during manipulation of the shoulder region. Radiography revealed a roundish 5 × 7 cm radiolucent area with defined borders within the greater tubercle and the presence of a fracture of the lateral tubercle associated with the cyst. Cellular blood count was 27,500 WBC/μL and serum biochemical analyses revealed fibrinogen of 855 mg/dL. The fractured bone was removed surgically; the cyst debrided and filled with autologous cancellous bone graft. Three and five weeks after surgery the filly was reoperated on because of an osseous sequestrum and a periostal defect on the distal dorsolateral aspect of the pastern of the right hind limb and a septic synovitis of the DFTS of the left hind limb. Fifteen month after surgery the filly was not lame and was introduced to training. Unicameral bone cysts (UBC) are well described lesions, often associated to pathologic fracture in the proximal humerus of children but, until present, no scientific report exists of UBC in the foal. The prompt surgical management had a favorable outcome. Maria C. Fugazzola, Christoph Klaus, and Christoph Lischer Copyright © 2014 Maria C. Fugazzola et al. All rights reserved. Development of Some Organs Derived from the Three Embryonic Germ Layer in a Degus Ectopic Pregnancy and Presence of a Cytotrophoblast That Mimics Human Chorionic Placenta Wed, 16 Jul 2014 12:07:33 +0000 This report describes a case of abdominal pregnancy in an adult female degu from which we recovered two large tissular masses from the peritoneal cavity. The bigger one showed a number of thin vascular connections to the serosa layer of the small intestine. It was also directly connected to the smaller mass by a thin membranous process. The surface of the bigger mass facing the small intestine wall showed the presence of chorionic villous that resembled a villous human chorionic placenta, rather than the hemomonochorial labyrinthine placenta, characteristic of this species. This unusual finding leads us to postulate that in the degu’s uterus the cytotrophoblast is exposed to a number of factors that will activate cascades of cellular and molecular events that ultimately will be signaling the cytotrophoblast to develop into a labyrinthine hemomonochorial placenta. In absence of the proper uterine environment, as is the case of the abdominal pregnancy in the peritoneal cavity reported here, the lack of signaling will lead the cytotrophoblast to develop into a villous chorionic placenta, similar to that observed in human. C. Bosco, E. Díaz, J. González, and R. Gutierrez Copyright © 2014 C. Bosco et al. All rights reserved. Dermatitis due to Mixed Demodex and Sarcoptes Mites in Dogs Mon, 14 Jul 2014 12:40:43 +0000 In dogs, dermatitis due to mixed mite infestation is rare. During the five-year period of study, two dogs were identified suffering from dermatitis due to mixed Demodex and Sarcoptes mites. Upon clinical examination dogs had primary and secondary skin lesions on face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex and Sarcoptes mites. Both dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin at 100 to 400 μg/kg body weight as incremental doses, external application of amitraz and supportive treatments with topical antimicrobial shampoo. After completion of forty-two days of therapy, dogs were recovered from the dermatitis. B. Sudhakara Reddy, K. Nalini Kumari, S. Sivajothi, and R. Venkatasivakumar Copyright © 2014 B. Sudhakara Reddy et al. All rights reserved. Stress Induced Acral Lick Dermatitis in a Domestic Rabbit: A Case Report Wed, 09 Jul 2014 10:20:52 +0000 This case report describes acral lick dermatitis in a six-month-old domestic rabbit, which presented with the complaint of excessive licking of the carpus of left forelimb. Clinical examination showed a single well demarcated, oval, alopecic, ulcerated lesion with peripheral hyperpigmentation and thickening at the carpus of left forelimb. Rabbit was successfully managed with oral fluoxetine and topical application of ointment containing fluocinolone acetonide in 0.025% concentration along with intralesional injection of hydrocortisone of 0.15 mL diluted in normal saline at two sites of a lesion at interval of one week. In addition to medical therapy, hard plastic cat ball, some baby toys, and gnawing sticks were kept with rabbit as a method of environmental enrichment with the purpose of mental stimulation. Mukesh Srivastava, Anil Ahuja, S. Kachhawaha, N. K Singh, Ankita Sharma, and J. P. Kachhawa Copyright © 2014 Mukesh Srivastava et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Disseminated Mycobacterium avium Infection in a Dog in Greece Wed, 09 Jul 2014 07:42:04 +0000 A Basset Hound dog was presented with anorexia, fever, diarrhea, significant level of splenomegaly, and enlargement of mesenteric and superficial lymph nodes. Cytology of fine-needle-aspiration material, obtained from popliteal lymph node, revealed macrophages with intracytoplasmic, nonstaining, slender, rod-like structures, indicative of mycobacteria. Bacterial culture of lymph node aspirated material produced a colony which by means of molecular techniques (PCR amplification and hybridization of PCR products) was subsequently identified as Mycobacterium avium. This is the first report of disseminated M. avium infection in a dog in Greece. V. Kontos, E. I. Papadogiannakis, G. Mantziaras, M. Styliara, and S. Kanavaki Copyright © 2014 V. Kontos et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Bilateral Auricular Chondritis in a Heifer Sun, 06 Jul 2014 06:57:56 +0000 Auricular chondritis is an extremely rare condition in cattle and other domestic animals. A 13-month-old Jersey heifer was presented with cutaneous papillomatosis and bilaterally droopy ears. Histopathology revealed bilateral auricular chondritis characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and extensive destruction and fibrosis of the auricular cartilage. Hibret A. Adissu, John D. Baird, and Geoffrey A. Wood Copyright © 2014 Hibret A. Adissu et al. All rights reserved. CT Scan Features of Presumptive Haemorrhagic Stroke in a Dog with Cushing’s Disease Thu, 03 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A 9-year-old, intact male, Brie’s shepherd dog, with a 10-day history of depression and tachypnoea developed signs of central neurological dysfunction. 16 Multislice Computed Tomography (CT) pre- and postcontrast studies of the brain revealed a single intra-axial homogeneous well-circumscribed hyperattenuating (+/− 62 HU) and noncontrast-enhancing area, 5 mm in diameter, in the caudal part of the mesencephalon. This finding was highly suggestive of a haemorrhagic event. A pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) was identified and is considered likely to be the underlying cause. A repeat CT scan examination, 2 months later, showed almost complete resolution of the brain lesion. The present case describes a solitary 5 mm diameter lesion: the result of intracranial haemorrhage in a dog with presumed PDH. A. Liotta, R. Cavrenne, D. Peeters, J. Manens, and G. Bolen Copyright © 2014 A. Liotta et al. All rights reserved. Caudal Elbow Luxation in a Dog Managed by Temporary Transarticular External Skeletal Fixation Mon, 23 Jun 2014 12:02:24 +0000 This case report details a caudal unilateral traumatic elbow luxation in a 4-year-old male neutered Labrador following a road traffic trauma. This is a highly unusual injury in the dog. The pathogenesis and successful treatment by closed reduction followed by stabilisation with a temporary transarticular external skeletal fixator are discussed. The dog was assessed at 4 weeks and 6 months after surgery. Findings at 6 months after treatment demonstrated a normal gait with no pain or crepitation. A mild amount of soft tissue thickening around the elbow was noted. The range of motion of the elbow was limited to 45 degrees of flexion and 150 degrees of extension. This is the first case of a traumatic caudal luxation of the elbow in a dog described in the English veterinary literature and the first report of successful management of an elbow luxation in a dog by closed reduction and temporary transarticular fixation. K. Hamilton, S. Langley-Hobbs, C. Warren-Smith, and K. Parsons Copyright © 2014 K. Hamilton et al. All rights reserved. Isolation of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Biovar equi from a Horse in Central Iowa Mon, 16 Jun 2014 08:54:21 +0000 Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi is the causative agent of “pigeon fever,” or “dryland distemper” in horses. The agent is typically identified in the Western United States but has recently been identified in Canada; it has not previously been documented as cause of infection in horses in Iowa. This report describes the clinical findings of two horses in Iowa that presented with pectoral abscessation, confirmed in one to be C. pseudotuberculosis biovar equi. Kate L. Hepworth-Warren, Beatrice T. Sponseller, David M. Wong, and Joann M. Kinyon Copyright © 2014 Kate L. Hepworth-Warren et al. All rights reserved. Persistent Hypercalcemia and Hyperparathyroidism in a Horse Thu, 12 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A 27-year-old, American Quarter Horse gelding was evaluated for anorexia, lethargy, a swelling on the right, cranial aspect of the neck, and signs of esophageal obstruction. Serum biochemical analyses revealed hypophosphatemia, total and ionized hypercalcemia, and hemoconcentration. Sonographic examination of the neck revealed a 1.7 cm diameter mass within the right lobe of the thyroid. The serum concentration of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) was increased. The right lobe of the thyroid was excised with the horse sedated. The mass within that lobe was determined, by histological examination, to be a parathyroid adenoma. Despite excision of the mass, serial blood analyses revealed persistent hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and increased iPTH. Anorexia and lethargy resolved, and follow-up communication with the owner and referring veterinarian one year later indicated that the horse was clinically stable. Claudia Cruz Villagrán, Nicholas Frank, James Schumacher, and Danielle Reel Copyright © 2014 Claudia Cruz Villagrán et al. All rights reserved. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor Associated with Carboplatin in Treatment of Metastatic Nasal Carcinoma in Dog Wed, 12 Feb 2014 09:51:41 +0000 A 10-year-old, intact male, pinscher was presented with unilateral bloodstained nasal discharge, sneezing, dyspnea, zygomatic arch deformity, submandibular lymph node increase, blindness in right eye, and exophthalmia. After clinical examination, it was found that the animal presented with upper respiratory tract dyspnea origin, possibly caused by an obstructive process. Complete blood count (CBC), ocular ultrasonography, thoracic radiographs, mandibular lymph node, and nasal sinus fine needle aspiration were performed. The right mandibular lymph node excisional biopsy was conducted and a tumor sample was obtained through the nasal fistula at hard palate. The material was processed, paraffin embedded, sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), vimentin, and COX-2 was performed. After histopathological evaluation nasal carcinoma diagnosis was obtained. Chemotherapy was established with carboplatin 300 mg/m2 intravenously—four cycles with intervals of 21 days—and firocoxib 5 mg/kg orally every 24 hours for 7 months. After 7 months the treatment started, the animal presented with ataxia, vocalization, hyperesthesia, and anorexia. Due the clinical condition presented, the animal owner opted for performing euthanasia. The chemotherapy protocol was effective causing the disease stagnation, minimizing the clinical signs, and extending patient survival and quality of life. Carlos Eduardo Fonseca-Alves, Aline Gonçalves Corrêa, Fabiana Elias, and Sabryna Gouveia Calazans Copyright © 2014 Carlos Eduardo Fonseca-Alves et al. All rights reserved. Anesthetic and Airways Management of a Dog with Severe Tracheal Collapse during Intraluminal Stent Placement Mon, 30 Dec 2013 11:31:03 +0000 This case report describes the anesthetic and airways management of a dog affected by 4th degree tracheal collapse and undergoing endoscope-guided intraluminal stent placement. After premedication with acepromazine and butorphanol, general anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with intravenous propofol and butorphanol in constant rate infusion. During intraluminal stent placement, oxygen was supplemented by means of a simple and inexpensive handmade device, namely, a ureteral catheter inserted into the trachea and connected to an oxygen source, which allowed for the maintenance of airways’ patency and adequate patient’s oxygenation, without decreasing visibility in the surgical field or interfering with the procedure. The use of the technique described in the present paper was the main determinant of the successful anesthetic management and may be proposed for similar critical cases in which surgical manipulation of the tracheal lumen, which may potentially result in hypoxia by compromising airways patency, is required. M. Argano, K. Gendron, U. Rytz, and C. Adami Copyright © 2013 M. Argano et al. All rights reserved. Ventricular Habronemiasis in Aviary Passerines Sun, 22 Dec 2013 09:59:58 +0000 A variety of Habronematidae parasites (order Spirurida) have been described as occasional parasites of avian species; however, reports on passerines are relatively uncommon. From 2007 to 2008, 11 passerine deaths at The North Carolina Zoological Park in Asheboro, NC, USA, were associated with ventricular habronemiasis, which was determined to be the cause of death or a major contributing factor in 10 of the 11 individuals. The number and species affected were 5 Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea), 2 Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus), 2 Golden-headed Manakin (Pipra erythrocephala), 1 Blue-grey Tanager (Thraupis episcopus), and 1 Emerald Starling (Coccycolius iris). Affected animals displayed nonspecific clinical signs or were found dead. The ventricular nematodes were consistent in morphology with Procyrnea sp. Koilin fragmentation with secondary bacterial and fungal infections was the most frequently observed pathologic lesion. Secondary visceral amyloidosis, attributed to chronic inflammation associated with nematodiasis, was present in 4 individuals. An insect intermediate host is suspected but was not identified. Native passerine species within or around the aviary may be serving as sylvatic hosts. Jennifer N. Niemuth, Joni V. Allgood, James R. Flowers, Ryan S. De Voe, and Brigid V. Troan Copyright © 2013 Jennifer N. Niemuth et al. All rights reserved. Apocrine Sweat Gland Ductal Adenoma with Sebaceous Differentiation in a Dog Wed, 18 Dec 2013 14:46:08 +0000 A 7-year-old male, Border Collie, developed a firm mass, measuring approximately 1 cm in diameter, in the left buccal skin. Histologically, the mass was composed of ductal structures lined by bilayered luminal epithelial and basaloid tumor cells along with a few nests of sebaceous cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the luminal epithelial tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK, CAM5.2) and CK19 but not for CK14 or p63. In contrast, the basaloid tumor cells were positive for CK14, p63, and αSMA but not for CK19 or CAM5.2. CK8 expression was observed in both luminal epithelial and basaloid tumor cells. The tumor cells with sebaceous differentiation were positive for CK14 but not for the other markers. This is the first case of an apocrine sweat gland ductal adenoma with sebaceous differentiation occurring in the buccal skin of a dog. Masaki Michishita, Junki Yasui, Rei Nakahira, Hisashi Yoshimura, and Kimimasa Takahashi Copyright © 2013 Masaki Michishita et al. All rights reserved. Vacuum-Assisted Closure Combined with a Myocutaneous Flap in the Management of Osteomyelitis in a Dog Wed, 11 Dec 2013 08:39:00 +0000 Case Description. A 2.5-year-old female spayed mixed breed dog presented to the Teaching Hospital for draining tracts on the left medial aspect of the tibia. Two years prior to presentation, the patient sustained a left tibial fracture, which was repaired with an intramedullary (IM) pin and two cerclage wires. Multiple antimicrobials were utilized during this time. Clinical Findings. Radiographs were consistent with left tibial osteomyelitis. The implant was removed and the wound was debrided. Treatment and Outcome. A bone window on the medial aspect of the tibia was created in order to facilitate implant removal. The wound and associated bone window were treated with vacuum assisted closure (VAC) in preparation for reconstructive surgery. Adjunctive VAC therapy was utilized following the caudal sartorius myocutaneous flap. Complications following this surgery included distal flap necrosis and donor site dehiscence. Clinical Relevance. This presents a difficult case of canine osteomyelitis with subsequent wound care in which VAC and a myocutaneous flap were useful adjunctive treatments for osteomyelitis. This is the first report of VAC in the management of canine osteomyelitis and management with a myocutaneous flap. Jeremy L. Shomper, Julia V. Coutin, and Otto I. Lanz Copyright © 2013 Jeremy L. Shomper et al. All rights reserved.