Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Exertional Myopathy in a Juvenile Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Entangled in a Large Mesh Gillnet Tue, 29 Sep 2015 13:04:14 +0000 A juvenile female green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) was found entangled in a large mesh gillnet in Pamlico Sound, NC, and was weak upon presentation for treatment. Blood gas analysis revealed severe metabolic acidosis and hyperlactatemia. Plasma biochemistry analysis showed elevated aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, marked hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperkalemia. Death occurred within 24 hours of presentation despite treatment with intravenous and subcutaneous fluids and sodium bicarbonate. Necropsy revealed multifocal to diffuse pallor of the superficial and deep pectoral muscles. Mild, multifocal, and acute myofiber necrosis was identified by histopathological examination. While histological changes in the examined muscle were modest, the acid-base, mineral, and electrolyte abnormalities were sufficiently severe to contribute to this animal’s mortality. Exertional myopathy in reptiles has not been well characterized. Sea turtle mortality resulting from forced submergence has been attributed to blood gas derangements and seawater aspiration; however, exertional myopathy may also be an important contributing factor. If possible, sea turtles subjected to incidental capture and entanglement that exhibit weakness or dull mentation should be clinically evaluated prior to release to minimize the risk of delayed mortality. Treatment with appropriate fluid therapy and supportive care may mitigate the effects of exertional myopathy in some cases. Brianne E. Phillips, Sarah A. Cannizzo, Matthew H. Godfrey, Brian A. Stacy, and Craig A. Harms Copyright © 2015 Brianne E. Phillips et al. All rights reserved. First Report of Psoriatic-Like Dermatitis and Arthritis in a 4-Year-Old Female Spayed Pug Mix Sun, 20 Sep 2015 09:54:41 +0000 Psoriasis manifests as chronic dermatitis and arthritis (PsA) in people. Psoriasis with concurrent PsA is characterized by erythematous, silvery, scaly plaques, especially on the extremities, and concurrent arthritis with enthesitis, tenosynovitis, and dactylitis. To date, no such disease has spontaneously occurred in domestic animals. This case report aims to describe the clinical, radiographic, and histologic appearance of a psoriasis-like dermatitis and psoriatic-like arthritis in a dog. A 4-year-old female spayed pug mix presented for the evaluation of chronic history of hyperkeratotic footpads and deforming arthritis. After ruling out other differential diagnoses and based on the similarity of clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings to human psoriasis and PsA, a tentative diagnosis of psoriasis-like disease was made. Treatment was begun to control pain (tramadol, gabapentin, and carprofen) and psoriatic dermatitis (clobetasol propionate 0.05%, calcipotriene 0.005%, and urea 40% ointment twice daily). Dramatic positive response to treatment was achieved confirming the tentative diagnosis. This case may provide preliminary evidence for the existence of a psoriasis-like condition in dogs and may elucidate treatment options in otherwise refractory cases of chronic dermatitis and polyarthropathy in dogs. Stephanie A. Regan, Rosanna Marsella, and Ibrahim Ozmen Copyright © 2015 Stephanie A. Regan et al. All rights reserved. Surgical Removal of a Canine Aortic Thromboembolism Secondary to Pancreatitis Tue, 08 Sep 2015 07:09:27 +0000 A 7-year-old castrated male Pomeranian was evaluated on emergency for diagnostic work-up and treatment for acute nonpainful paraparesis. The neurologic examination suggested a L4-S3 myelopathy, but physical examination revealed lack of femoral pulses and rectal hypothermia, as well as a grade II/VI systolic heart murmur, so ischemic neuromyopathy was suspected. Clinicopathologic analysis revealed increased muscle enzymes and proteinuria. Abdominal ultrasonography confirmed aortic thromboembolism (ATE), and surgical histopathology diagnosed necrotizing pancreatitis. Surgical aortic thrombectomy was performed, and antithrombotic therapy was instituted. Pancreatitis was treated supportively. The dog was discharged to the owners after 10 days of hospitalization. Recheck examination 6 weeks after initial presentation revealed a normal neurologic examination and normal femoral pulses. The patient has had no further bouts of pancreatitis and remains neurologically normal 5 years after initial presentation. Canine ATE is relatively rare compared to the feline counterpart. Directed therapy for feline ATE is often not recommended, as underlying conditions are oftentimes ultimately fatal. Underlying etiologies for canine ATE include cardiovascular disease and endocrinopathies, but canine ATE secondary to pancreatitis has not yet been reported. Surgical removal of aortic thromboembolus should be considered as curative for pelvic limb dysfunction in the canine patient without a terminal underlying disease. Jill Narak, Emily C. Graff, Katrin Saile, and D. Michael Tillson Copyright © 2015 Jill Narak et al. All rights reserved. Rattlesnake Envenomation in Three Dairy Goats Sun, 02 Aug 2015 13:35:07 +0000 Cases of rattlesnake envenomation in dairy goats are lacking. These cases present three dairy goats presented to a veterinary referral hospital for envenomation of Northern Pacific Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus). Treatments and clinical characteristics reported are similar to those for llamas, alpacas, and horses. These cases suggest that quick treatment in the event of a bite may have a more favorable clinical response. Existing rattlesnake bite scoring systems applicable to other species may be applicable to goats, and existing respiratory pathology may predispose goats to a less favorable outcome. Joseph Smith, David Kovalik, and Anita Varga Copyright © 2015 Joseph Smith et al. All rights reserved. Nasal Adenocarcinoma in a Horse with Metastasis to Lung, Liver, and Bone and Review of Metastasis in Nine Horses with Sinonasal Tumors Thu, 30 Jul 2015 17:06:17 +0000 Sinonasal neoplasia metastasizing to distant organs is rare in horses. This case report describes the clinical and imaging findings of a horse with sinonasal neoplasia, which had metastasized to the lung, liver, and humerus. Additionally, the prevalence of sinonasal neoplasia and their incidence of distant metastasis among horses that presented to the Oregon State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (OSU-VTH) were estimated. Of 5,558 equine patients who presented to the OSU-VTH in the last nine years, 1.4% were diagnosed with sinonasal disease and 10.3% of these cases had sinonasal neoplasia with only one having confirmed distant metastasis. This case was an eleven-year-old quarter horse which was evaluated due to a history of a right forelimb lameness of three weeks duration. Two and a half months later he presented again, this time for unilateral epistaxis and persistent right forelimb lameness. Radiography of the right elbow noted an increasingly irregular, periosteal response and osteolytic lesion of the right distal humeral condyle. At the time of the second presentation, nasosinal endoscopy identified a lobulated mass in the region of the ethmoid turbinates. Histopathology of this mass revealed an adenocarcinoma of nasal origin with metastasis to the lung, liver, and right humerus. Ashley Hanna, Susanne M. Stieger-Vanegas, Jerry R. Heidel, Melissa Esser, John Schlipf, and Jacob Mecham Copyright © 2015 Ashley Hanna et al. All rights reserved. Maple Syrup Urine Disease in a Central Indiana Hereford Herd Mon, 27 Jul 2015 12:01:02 +0000 Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and further cases were identified in herd mates of a small Hereford herd in Indiana based on history, clinical signs, microscopic lesions, and biochemical and genetic testing. This aminoacidopathy has been diagnosed in polled Shorthorn, polled Hereford, and Hereford cattle in Australia, Uruguay, Argentina, and Canada and is the result of a mutation of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. The Indiana index calf case was confirmed by showing the classic accumulation of ketoacids in liver that results from a defect in the E1-alpha subunit (248 C/T haplotype) in the mitochondrial branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. The presence of the mutation was confirmed in the index case, the dam, and four related herd mates that represent the first confirmed cases of bovine MSUD mutation in United States cattle. Mark E. Robarge, Jonathan E. Beever, Stephen D. Lenz, Christopher J. Lynch, and William L. Wigle Copyright © 2015 Mark E. Robarge et al. All rights reserved. Surgical Treatment of a Chronic Brain Abscess and Growing Skull Fracture in a Dog Sun, 21 Jun 2015 09:49:29 +0000 A 2-year-old female spayed Miniature Dachshund was presented for seizures and right prosencephalic signs. A multiloculated, ring-enhancing mass in the right cerebrum associated with dilation of the right lateral ventricle and brain herniation was seen on magnetic resonance imaging. An irregular calvarial defect with smoothly scalloped edges was seen overlying the mass on computed tomography. The mass was removed via craniectomy and was diagnosed as a chronic brain abscess caused by Peptostreptococcus anaerobius. The patient was maintained on antibiotics for 12 weeks. Follow-up MRI performed 14 weeks after surgery confirmed complete removal of the abscess as well as a contrast-enhancing collection of extra-axial material consistent with a chronic subdural hematoma. The neurologic abnormalities, including seizures, have improved in the 44 months since surgery. Brain abscesses in dogs can have an insidious clinical course prior to causing serious neurologic deterioration. Ventricular entrapment by an intracranial mass can contribute to acute neurologic decline. If surgically accessible, outcome following removal of a brain abscess can be excellent; aerobic and anaerobic bacterial culture should be performed in these cases. Subdural hematoma can occur following removal of a large intracranial mass. Growing skull fractures can occur in dogs but may not require specific surgical considerations. Amy W. Hodshon, Jill Narak, Linden E. Craig, and Andrea Matthews Copyright © 2015 Amy W. Hodshon et al. All rights reserved. Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy in Two Red Wolf (Canis rufus) Pups Thu, 14 May 2015 13:35:58 +0000 A 6-month-old red wolf (Canis rufus) pup presented for evaluation of progressive thoracic and pelvic limb lameness, joint swelling, and decreased body condition. Radiographic evaluation revealed medullary sclerosis centered at the metaphyses of multiple long bones, well-defined irregular periosteal proliferation, and ill-defined lucent zones paralleling the physes, consistent with hypertrophic osteodystrophy (HOD). Biopsies of affected bone revealed medullary fibrosis and new bone formation. The pup improved following treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, opioids, and supportive care over the course of 4 weeks. Metaphyseal periosteal bone proliferation persisted until the animal was humanely euthanized several years later for poor quality of life associated with bilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture. A second red wolf pup of 4.5 months of age presented for evaluation of lethargy, kyphotic posture, and swollen carpal and tarsal joints. Radiographs revealed bilateral medullary sclerosis and smooth periosteal reaction affecting multiple long bones, suggestive of HOD. Further diagnostics were not pursued in this case to confirm the diagnosis, and the clinical signs persisted for 4 weeks. In light of these two case reports, HOD should be recognized as a developmental orthopedic disease in growing red wolves. Jenessa L. Gjeltema, Robert A. MacLean, Eli B. Cohen, and Ryan S. De Voe Copyright © 2015 Jenessa L. Gjeltema et al. All rights reserved. Abdominal Distension Associated with Luminal Fungi in the Intestines of Axolotl Larvae Tue, 12 May 2015 12:55:32 +0000 Axolotls show a remarkable regeneration capacity compared with higher vertebrates, regenerating missing appendages such as limbs and tail as well as other body parts (i.e., apex of the heart, forebrain, and jaw) after amputations which makes this animal a very interesting research model for tissue regeneration mechanisms. Larvae are individually housed in a 20% Holtfreter’s solution within clear plastic containers. The photoperiod light : darkness cycle is 12 : 12 h. Larvae with a total body length of less than 5 cm are fed once a day with large brine shrimp and blood worm. Albino larvae appeared to have a tendency to exhibit abdominal distention. No clinical signs of illness seemed to be associated with the condition; however, these animals exhibit a relatively slower growth rate. To better characterize this condition, we performed histological sectioning for cross sectional slide preparation on wild type and albino axolotl larvae following euthanasia. The only lesion seen in the albino larvae was a thickened gut wall and the presence of fungi within the intestines. We hypothesize that this may be due to a lower efficacy of the albino larvae’s immune system. Chiara Zullian, Aurore Dodelet-Devillers, Stéphane Roy, Pierre Hélie, and Pascal Vachon Copyright © 2015 Chiara Zullian et al. All rights reserved. Probable Pulmonary Blastomycosis in a Wild Coyote (Canis latrans) Wed, 06 May 2015 09:14:10 +0000 A female coyote (Canis latrans) was fatally injured by a vehicle on a road in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Because of deteriorating clinical signs, the animal was euthanized. Postmortem examination of the lungs showed numerous small multifocal white nodules (0.5–1 cm diameter) disseminated throughout. Histopathologic examination revealed multifocal coalescing granulomas with abundant macrophages, numerous neutrophils, fibroblasts, plasma cells, and lymphocytes. Abundant intracellular and extracellular thick-walled, refractile, spherical yeasts (10–15 μm) were observed within the granulomas. The yeasts were intensely PAS-positive, with granular protoplasm. Broad-based single budding yeasts were occasionally present. Based on the microscopic findings of the pulmonary lesions and the morphological features of the organism, a diagnosis of chronic pyogranulomatous pneumonia caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis was made. To our knowledge, the case described herein is the first report of pulmonary blastomycosis in a wild coyote. Luis E. Rodríguez-Tovar, Alicia M. Nevárez-Garza, Ricardo Vladimir Barajas-Juárez, Juan J. Zarate-Ramos, Rogelio A. Ledezma-Torres, and Armando Trejo-Chávez Copyright © 2015 Luis E. Rodríguez-Tovar et al. All rights reserved. Canine Bilateral Conjunctivo-Palpebral Dermoid: Description of Two Clinical Cases and Discussion of the Relevance of the Terminology Mon, 23 Mar 2015 14:18:47 +0000 Two young dogs were presented for the evaluation of an abnormally haired appearance of both eyes since adoption. In one dog, the lesions were symmetrical and appeared as disorganized skin tissue located on the cutaneous aspect of the lateral portion of both lower eyelids, and continuing to the palpebral and the bulbar conjunctiva, thus forming continuous lesions. In the other dog, a similar lesion was present in the right eye (OD), but the lesion of the left eye (OS) was of discontinuous, disorganized skin tissue located midway on the lower eyelid and on the lateral bulbar conjunctiva. The lesions were surgically removed and routinely processed for histopathological analysis. Definitive diagnosis was conjunctivo-palpebral dermoids for each dog. Dermoids are usually considered to be choristoma (normal tissue in an abnormal location) when they are located on the ocular surface (cornea and/or conjunctiva) and as hamartoma when located on the palpebral skin. The lesion presentation in these two dogs reveals that names of “choristoma” alone or “hamartoma” alone are not accurate to depict the continuous, composite, conjunctivo-palpebral dermoids. These cases suggest that choristoma and hamartoma might develop subsequently from the same abnormal event during the embryonic development, which means that the lesion location might be the only difference between the two terms. O. Balland, I. Raymond, I. Mathieson, P. F. Isard, Emilie Vidémont-Drevon, and T. Dulaurent Copyright © 2015 O. Balland et al. All rights reserved. Elevated Testosterone and Progestin Concentrations in a Spayed Female Rabbit with an Adrenal Cortical Adenoma Mon, 08 Dec 2014 13:20:51 +0000 This case was described briefly in a recent book chapter (Lennox AM, Fecteau KA: 2014, Endocrine disease. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine, eds. Meredith A, Lord B, pp 274–276. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, UK). In the previous description, the tumor was described as a pheochromocytoma; however, further evaluation suggested that it more closely resembled an adrenal cortical adenoma. A 10-year-old, spayed female rabbit was presented for a behavior change of 8 months’ duration. The rabbit was inappropriately urinating and defecating, as well as demonstrating aggressive behaviors such as chasing, biting, and mounting various objects. The rabbit had elevated progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and testosterone concentrations, and ultrasound examination of the abdomen showed a round, homogenous nodule measuring 1.1 × 0.8 × 0.9 cm in the region of the left adrenal gland. Necropsy revealed a unilateral adrenal cortical adenoma. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first complete description of a female rabbit with an adrenal cortical adenoma documented in the literature. Katherine Baine, Kim Newkirk, Kellie A. Fecteau, and Marcy J. Souza Copyright © 2014 Katherine Baine et al. All rights reserved. Hippocampal Necrosis in a Cat from Australia Mon, 08 Dec 2014 09:01:41 +0000 This paper reports findings from a feline case of hippocampal necrosis. A seven-year-old neutered female cat was seen with a history of behavioural change followed by complex focal seizures. The cat was severely pyrexic on presentation and anisocoria was present. It was treated with cooling, intravenous fluid, and phenobarbitone administration which was later changed to levetiracetam. An MRI was performed and revealed findings of a hypointense T1 and hyperintense T2 signal in the hippocampus and inferior temporal gyrus with mild gadolinium uptake, findings which were consistent with previous cases of hippocampal necrosis. The cat was witnessed to vomit and aspirate 24 hours after diagnosis leading to cardiac arrest and death. Postmortem examination revealed a subacute degenerative encephalopathy involving the hippocampus. Carl Adagra and Susan Amanda Piripi Copyright © 2014 Carl Adagra and Susan Amanda Piripi. All rights reserved. Peritoneal Effusion in a Dog due to Babesia gibsoni Infection Tue, 02 Dec 2014 13:06:38 +0000 A five-year-old male Labrador was presented to Teaching Veterinary Clinics of GADVASU with a primary complaint of distended abdomen, fever, and anorexia. The dog was found to be dull with elevated rectal temperature (104°F), heart rate (148 per minute), and respiration rate (58 per minute). Blood smear examination and PCR assay revealed that dog was positive for Babesia gibsoni. Elevated bilirubin, alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total leucocyte count, hypoalbuminaemia, and hypoproteinaemia were haematobiochemical alterations. Radiography and ultrasonography showed ground glass appearance and anechoic area of abdomen, respectively. Suresh Gonde, Sushma Chhabra, L. D. Singla, and B. K. Bansal Copyright © 2014 Suresh Gonde et al. All rights reserved. Presumptive Ischemic Brain Infarction in a Dog with Evans’ Syndrome Sun, 23 Nov 2014 12:48:12 +0000 A ten-year-old neutered female mixed breed dog was referred for pale mucous membrane and acute onset of right prosencephalic clinical signs. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive for right middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke. Based on cell blood count, serum biochemistry and serologic tests and flow cytometric detection of anti-platelets and anti-red blood cells antibodies, a diagnosis of immunomediated haemolytic anemia associated with thrombocytopenia of suspected immunomediated origin was done. Immunosuppresive therapy with prednisone was started and the dog clinically recovered. Two months later complete normalization of CBC and serum biochemistry was documented. The dog remained stable for 7 months without therapy; then she relapsed. CBC revealed mild regenerative anemia with spherocytosis and thrombocytopenia. A conclusive Evans’ syndrome diagnosis was done and prednisone and cyclosporine treatment led to normalization of physical and CBC parameters. The dog is still alive at the time the paper submitted. Possible thrombotic etiopathogenetic mechanisms are illustrated in the paper and the authors suggest introducing Evans’ syndrome in the differential diagnosis list for brain ischemic stroke in dogs. Angelo Pasquale Giannuzzi, Antonio De Simone, Mario Ricciardi, and Floriana Gernone Copyright © 2014 Angelo Pasquale Giannuzzi et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Complete Rectal Prolapse in an In-Gilt Thu, 13 Nov 2014 09:54:19 +0000 A seven-month-old in-gilt was presented with an intractable rectal prolapse. The prolapsed rectum was swollen, necrotic, and ulcerated. The pig was apparently healthy and had been ingesting high fibre feed materials, with little water. The pig was anaesthetized with 1.1 mg/kg body weight of xylazine and 10 mg/kg body weight of ketamine administered intramuscularly and intravenously, respectively. The prolapse was removed by placing a stay suture distal to the necrotic tissue and excising the tissue close to the apparently healthy part. A rectopexy was also performed. The pig was placed on prophylactic antibiotics and discharged. Njoku Uchechukwu Njoku, Kelechi Theresa Jeremiah, Rock Odimma Ukaha, and Chioma Frances Orajaka Copyright © 2014 Njoku Uchechukwu Njoku et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Newcastle Disease Virus in Red-Headed Lovebird in Sudan Thu, 30 Oct 2014 07:33:54 +0000 Two diseased red-headed lovebirds were presented for diagnosis to the Department of Avian Diseases and Diagnosis, Veterinary Research Institute, aged 37 days and 4 years. The symptoms were dyspnea, cyanosis of the comb, diarrhea, and fever. Postmortem lesions included pale liver and bloody enteritis. Newcastle disease virus was isolated from lungs, trachea, and intestines following inoculation in the allantoic cavity of 10-day-old fertile eggs; the NDV was identified by the means of HA&HI tests using specific NDV antisera (Lasota strain). The isolate agglutinated equine RBCs but failed to agglutinate sheep and bovine RBCs. The pathogenicity of the NDV isolate was studied, the mean death time was 96 hours, and the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) value was 0.9, indicating the isolate of lentogenic type. Egbal Sidahmed Abdelrahim and Jedda Elhag Copyright © 2014 Egbal Sidahmed Abdelrahim and Jedda Elhag. All rights reserved. Bilateral Telencephalic Gliomatosis Cerebri in a Dog Sun, 19 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 An 8-year-old intact male Lagotto Romagnolo was presented with forebrain signs. Neuroanatomic localization was diffuse prosencephalon. MRI revealed diffuse, bilateral, and symmetric T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities in the parieto-occipital white matter and corpus callosum. No mass effect or contrast enhancement was noted. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid revealed normal protein content and mild mononuclear pleocytosis. Atypical cells were not identified. 15 days later because of the worsening of clinical condition the patient was euthanized upon owner’s request. Neuropathological investigations were consistent with gliomatosis cerebri (GC). Such an unusual imaging pattern appeared similar to some cases of human GC and to a previous reported case in a dog, suggesting a possible repeatable imaging findings for this rare brain neoplasm. GC should be included in the MRI differentials for diffuse bilateral white matter signal changes and specific MRI findings described in this report may help in reaching a presumptive diagnosis of this tumor. Mario Ricciardi, Antonio De Simone, Pasquale Giannuzzi, Maria Teresa Mandara, Alice Reginato, and Floriana Gernone Copyright © 2014 Mario Ricciardi et al. All rights reserved. Canine Oral Eosinophilic Granuloma Treated with Electrochemotherapy Thu, 16 Oct 2014 07:59:16 +0000 A case of a canine oral eosinophilic granuloma in a 14-year-old female crossbred is described. The dog was presented with a history of ptyalism, halitosis, local pain, decreased appetite, and blood staining noted on food and water bowls. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical examinations, abdominal ultrasonography, and 3-view chest radiographs were performed, and no metastases were found. Histopathologic examination of two 6 mm punch biopsies from the oral lesion revealed the presence of eosinophilic granulomatous lesions in the submucosa. After treatment with corticosteroids and wide spectrum antibiotics no significant changes in clinical signs and lesion size were observed. Electrochemotherapy (ECT), a novel tumor treatment routinely used for cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors in human patients in the European Union since 2006, was used to treat the eosinophilic granuloma. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia, followed by intravenous administration of bleomycin. Six weeks after treatment a complete response with disappearance of the mass and improvement of clinical signs were observed. Matías Nicolás Tellado, Sebastián Diego Michinski, Nahuel Olaiz, Felipe Maglietti, and Guillermo Marshall Copyright © 2014 Matías Nicolás Tellado et al. All rights reserved. Histomorphologic and Immunohistochemical Characterization of a Cardiac Purkinjeoma in a Bearded Seal (Erignathus barbatus) Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:21:57 +0000 The most common cardiac tumors of heart muscle are rhabdomyomas, solitary or multiple benign tumors of striated muscle origin. While cardiac rhabdomyomas are well described in human medical literature, limited information depicting the occurrence of cardiac rhabdomyomas in veterinary species exists. A case of multiple firm white nonencapsulated nodules in the heart of a bearded seal is described. Microscopic findings included cytoplasmic vacuolization with formation of spider cells, glycogen vacuoles, and striated myofibrils. These cells expressed immunoreactivity for neuron-specific enolase and protein gene product 9.5, a marker for neuronal tissue and Purkinje fiber cells. Immunoreactivity for protein gene product 9.5 along with other microscopic findings substantiates Purkinje fiber cell origin of the cardiac rhabdomyoma in the bearded seal and use of the term purkinjeoma to describe this lesion. G. Krafsur, E. J. Ehrhart, J. Ramos-Vara, G. Mason, F. Sarren, B. Adams, C. Hanns, T. Spraker, and C. Duncan Copyright © 2014 G. Krafsur et al. All rights reserved. Diagnosis, Surgical Treatment, Recovery, and Eventual Necropsy of a Leopard (Panthera pardus) with Thyroid Carcinoma Tue, 26 Aug 2014 12:31:57 +0000 An 18-year-old, male, castrated, captive-born leopard (Panthera pardus) presented to Colorado State University’s Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a two-week history of regurgitation. Thoracic radiographs and ultrasound revealed a well-differentiated cranioventral mediastinal mass measuring 7.5 × 10 × 5.5 cm, impinging the esophagus. A sternotomy followed by mass excision was performed. The mass was diagnosed as an ectopic thyroid carcinoma. The leopard recovered from surgery with minimal complications and returned to near-normal activity levels for just under 6 months before rapidly declining. He had an acute onset of severe dyspnea and lethargy and was euthanized. On postmortem examination the tumor was found to involve the lung, liver, thyroid, parietal pleura, bronchial lymph nodes, and the internal intercostal muscles. This case report describes the history, diagnosis, surgical treatment, postoperative care, and recovery as well as the eventual decline, euthanasia, and necropsy of a leopard with thyroid carcinoma. When compared to thyroid carcinomas of domestic animals, the leopard’s disease process more closely resembles the disease process seen in domestic canines compared to domestic cats. Ashley Malmlov, Terry Campbell, Eric Monnet, Craig Miller, Becca Miceli, and Colleen Duncan Copyright © 2014 Ashley Malmlov et al. All rights reserved. Leishmania sp. Amastigotes Identification in Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor Sun, 24 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with Leishmania chagasi being the etiological agent of canine visceral leishmaniasis in South America. Canine venereal tumor is a transplantable round cell tumor of histiocytic origin which is mostly observed in sexually active male and female intact dogs. It has been shown that Leishmania amastigotes have higher tropism for the canine male genital tract tissues and venereal leishmaniasis transmission has been documented in dogs but, to date, a canine venereal tumor-dependent transmission route has not been fully demonstrated. In this report, a 10-year-old, mixed breed, intact female dog presented a vaginal venereal transmissible tumor but no other clinical abnormalities otherwise. Unexpectedly, tumor tissue imprint smears examination revealed Leishmania sp. amastigotes within infiltrating macrophages. In addition to the cytological direct identification, the protozoan was confirmed within the neoplastic tissue by means of immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. This report illustrates an asymptomatic Leishmania sp. infection that may have started on or from the canine venereal tumor tissue, the latter option further supporting previous evidence of such an alternative vector-independent route of transmission for canine visceral leishmaniasis in areas where these diseases coexist. Vinicius Soares Carreira, Heitor Flávio Ferrari, Ingeborg Maria Langohr, Charles Mackenzie, Luiz Carlos Montezzo, Edson Taira, Lucile Maria Floeter-Winter, and Maria Cecília Rui Luvizotto Copyright © 2014 Vinicius Soares Carreira et al. All rights reserved. Failure of Miltefosine Treatment in Two Dogs with Natural Leishmania infantum Infection Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:20:47 +0000 Two dogs, with naturally acquired canine leishmaniasis, were treated orally with miltefosine (2 mg/kg q 24 hr) and allopurinol (10 mg/kg q 12 hr) for 28 days. Both dogs showed good initial response to therapy, with reduction in clinical signs and improvement of clinicopathological changes. However, in both dogs, clinical and clinicopathological abnormalities recurred 150 days after initial treatment and a second course of miltefosine and allopurinol was administered. One dog failed to respond to the 2nd cycle of miltefosine treatment and the other dog responded initially but suffered an early relapse. Treatment with meglumine antimoniate (100 mg/kg q 24 hr for a minimum of 4 weeks) was then started in both dogs. Both dogs showed rapid clinical and clinicopathological improvement and to date they have not received further treatment for 420 and 270 days, respectively. In view of the low number of antileishmanial drugs available and the fact that some of these are used in human as well as veterinary medicine, it is of paramount importance that drug resistance is monitored and documented. Daniela Proverbio, Eva Spada, Giada Bagnagatti De Giorgi, and Roberta Perego Copyright © 2014 Daniela Proverbio et al. All rights reserved. Mitral Valve Replacement with a Mechanical Valve for Severe Mitral Regurgitation in a Small Dog Wed, 06 Aug 2014 11:04:40 +0000 A seven-year-old Shih Tzu with refractory repeated pulmonary edema and syncope was presented for surgical operation. From the results of cardiovascular examinations, the dog was diagnosed as severe mitral regurgitation (ACVIM consensus class D) and mild tricuspid regurgitation. The dog first underwent surgery with mitral valve plasty; however, the results were unsatisfactory due to severe damage of the whole mitral valve. The operation was quickly changed to mitral valve replacement using a mechanical valve (19 mm). The dog survived surgery and lived for 2 years and one month after operation using long-term anticoagulant (warfarin) therapy in spite of several thrombosis-related events. Daisuke Taguchi, Isamu Kanemoto, Satoko Yokoyama, Masashi Mizuno, and Makoto Washizu Copyright © 2014 Daisuke Taguchi et al. All rights reserved. A 7-Year-Old Extrauterine Pregnancy in a Cat Wed, 23 Jul 2014 07:16:38 +0000 This paper describes a 7-year-old extrauterine pregnancy in a spayed cat. Three extrauterine fetuses were accidentally found in the abdomen of a 12-year-old domestic short hair cat that had ovariohysterectomy about 7 years before. The animal was under evaluation for a recent history of increased thirst, urination, and poor appetite. Biochemical analysis revealed high plasmatic levels of urea, creatinine, and phosphorus consistent with renal insufficiency. X-ray plates showed three calcified fetuses in the abdomen, apparently unrelated to the reported clinical signs. Despite intensive therapy, the cat died one day later. At necropsy, ovaries and uterus were not found but the presence of three well-developed, mummified, and mineralized fetuses loosely attached to the omentum was evident. Careful dissection of fetuses confirmed the diagnosis of extrauterine pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a 7-year lasting ectopic pregnancy in an ovariohysterectomized cat. The absence of related clinical signs seems to confirm that such conditions are compatible with a normal healthy life. Agata Osenko and Walter Tarello Copyright © 2014 Agata Osenko and Walter Tarello. All rights reserved. Unicameral Bone Cyst in the Proximal Humerus with Secondary Infection in an 18-Month-Old Foal Tue, 22 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 An 18-month-old warmblood filly was 4/5 lame on the front right limb at referral and showed severe swelling of the right shoulder region and pain during manipulation of the shoulder region. Radiography revealed a roundish 5 × 7 cm radiolucent area with defined borders within the greater tubercle and the presence of a fracture of the lateral tubercle associated with the cyst. Cellular blood count was 27,500 WBC/μL and serum biochemical analyses revealed fibrinogen of 855 mg/dL. The fractured bone was removed surgically; the cyst debrided and filled with autologous cancellous bone graft. Three and five weeks after surgery the filly was reoperated on because of an osseous sequestrum and a periostal defect on the distal dorsolateral aspect of the pastern of the right hind limb and a septic synovitis of the DFTS of the left hind limb. Fifteen month after surgery the filly was not lame and was introduced to training. Unicameral bone cysts (UBC) are well described lesions, often associated to pathologic fracture in the proximal humerus of children but, until present, no scientific report exists of UBC in the foal. The prompt surgical management had a favorable outcome. Maria C. Fugazzola, Christoph Klaus, and Christoph Lischer Copyright © 2014 Maria C. Fugazzola et al. All rights reserved. Development of Some Organs Derived from the Three Embryonic Germ Layer in a Degus Ectopic Pregnancy and Presence of a Cytotrophoblast That Mimics Human Chorionic Placenta Wed, 16 Jul 2014 12:07:33 +0000 This report describes a case of abdominal pregnancy in an adult female degu from which we recovered two large tissular masses from the peritoneal cavity. The bigger one showed a number of thin vascular connections to the serosa layer of the small intestine. It was also directly connected to the smaller mass by a thin membranous process. The surface of the bigger mass facing the small intestine wall showed the presence of chorionic villous that resembled a villous human chorionic placenta, rather than the hemomonochorial labyrinthine placenta, characteristic of this species. This unusual finding leads us to postulate that in the degu’s uterus the cytotrophoblast is exposed to a number of factors that will activate cascades of cellular and molecular events that ultimately will be signaling the cytotrophoblast to develop into a labyrinthine hemomonochorial placenta. In absence of the proper uterine environment, as is the case of the abdominal pregnancy in the peritoneal cavity reported here, the lack of signaling will lead the cytotrophoblast to develop into a villous chorionic placenta, similar to that observed in human. C. Bosco, E. Díaz, J. González, and R. Gutierrez Copyright © 2014 C. Bosco et al. All rights reserved. Dermatitis due to Mixed Demodex and Sarcoptes Mites in Dogs Mon, 14 Jul 2014 12:40:43 +0000 In dogs, dermatitis due to mixed mite infestation is rare. During the five-year period of study, two dogs were identified suffering from dermatitis due to mixed Demodex and Sarcoptes mites. Upon clinical examination dogs had primary and secondary skin lesions on face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex and Sarcoptes mites. Both dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin at 100 to 400 μg/kg body weight as incremental doses, external application of amitraz and supportive treatments with topical antimicrobial shampoo. After completion of forty-two days of therapy, dogs were recovered from the dermatitis. B. Sudhakara Reddy, K. Nalini Kumari, S. Sivajothi, and R. Venkatasivakumar Copyright © 2014 B. Sudhakara Reddy et al. All rights reserved. Stress Induced Acral Lick Dermatitis in a Domestic Rabbit: A Case Report Wed, 09 Jul 2014 10:20:52 +0000 This case report describes acral lick dermatitis in a six-month-old domestic rabbit, which presented with the complaint of excessive licking of the carpus of left forelimb. Clinical examination showed a single well demarcated, oval, alopecic, ulcerated lesion with peripheral hyperpigmentation and thickening at the carpus of left forelimb. Rabbit was successfully managed with oral fluoxetine and topical application of ointment containing fluocinolone acetonide in 0.025% concentration along with intralesional injection of hydrocortisone of 0.15 mL diluted in normal saline at two sites of a lesion at interval of one week. In addition to medical therapy, hard plastic cat ball, some baby toys, and gnawing sticks were kept with rabbit as a method of environmental enrichment with the purpose of mental stimulation. Mukesh Srivastava, Anil Ahuja, S. Kachhawaha, N. K Singh, Ankita Sharma, and J. P. Kachhawa Copyright © 2014 Mukesh Srivastava et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Disseminated Mycobacterium avium Infection in a Dog in Greece Wed, 09 Jul 2014 07:42:04 +0000 A Basset Hound dog was presented with anorexia, fever, diarrhea, significant level of splenomegaly, and enlargement of mesenteric and superficial lymph nodes. Cytology of fine-needle-aspiration material, obtained from popliteal lymph node, revealed macrophages with intracytoplasmic, nonstaining, slender, rod-like structures, indicative of mycobacteria. Bacterial culture of lymph node aspirated material produced a colony which by means of molecular techniques (PCR amplification and hybridization of PCR products) was subsequently identified as Mycobacterium avium. This is the first report of disseminated M. avium infection in a dog in Greece. V. Kontos, E. I. Papadogiannakis, G. Mantziaras, M. Styliara, and S. Kanavaki Copyright © 2014 V. Kontos et al. All rights reserved.