Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor Associated with Carboplatin in Treatment of Metastatic Nasal Carcinoma in Dog Wed, 12 Feb 2014 09:51:41 +0000 A 10-year-old, intact male, pinscher was presented with unilateral bloodstained nasal discharge, sneezing, dyspnea, zygomatic arch deformity, submandibular lymph node increase, blindness in right eye, and exophthalmia. After clinical examination, it was found that the animal presented with upper respiratory tract dyspnea origin, possibly caused by an obstructive process. Complete blood count (CBC), ocular ultrasonography, thoracic radiographs, mandibular lymph node, and nasal sinus fine needle aspiration were performed. The right mandibular lymph node excisional biopsy was conducted and a tumor sample was obtained through the nasal fistula at hard palate. The material was processed, paraffin embedded, sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), vimentin, and COX-2 was performed. After histopathological evaluation nasal carcinoma diagnosis was obtained. Chemotherapy was established with carboplatin 300 mg/m2 intravenously—four cycles with intervals of 21 days—and firocoxib 5 mg/kg orally every 24 hours for 7 months. After 7 months the treatment started, the animal presented with ataxia, vocalization, hyperesthesia, and anorexia. Due the clinical condition presented, the animal owner opted for performing euthanasia. The chemotherapy protocol was effective causing the disease stagnation, minimizing the clinical signs, and extending patient survival and quality of life. Carlos Eduardo Fonseca-Alves, Aline Gonçalves Corrêa, Fabiana Elias, and Sabryna Gouveia Calazans Copyright © 2014 Carlos Eduardo Fonseca-Alves et al. All rights reserved. Anesthetic and Airways Management of a Dog with Severe Tracheal Collapse during Intraluminal Stent Placement Mon, 30 Dec 2013 11:31:03 +0000 This case report describes the anesthetic and airways management of a dog affected by 4th degree tracheal collapse and undergoing endoscope-guided intraluminal stent placement. After premedication with acepromazine and butorphanol, general anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with intravenous propofol and butorphanol in constant rate infusion. During intraluminal stent placement, oxygen was supplemented by means of a simple and inexpensive handmade device, namely, a ureteral catheter inserted into the trachea and connected to an oxygen source, which allowed for the maintenance of airways’ patency and adequate patient’s oxygenation, without decreasing visibility in the surgical field or interfering with the procedure. The use of the technique described in the present paper was the main determinant of the successful anesthetic management and may be proposed for similar critical cases in which surgical manipulation of the tracheal lumen, which may potentially result in hypoxia by compromising airways patency, is required. M. Argano, K. Gendron, U. Rytz, and C. Adami Copyright © 2013 M. Argano et al. All rights reserved. Ventricular Habronemiasis in Aviary Passerines Sun, 22 Dec 2013 09:59:58 +0000 A variety of Habronematidae parasites (order Spirurida) have been described as occasional parasites of avian species; however, reports on passerines are relatively uncommon. From 2007 to 2008, 11 passerine deaths at The North Carolina Zoological Park in Asheboro, NC, USA, were associated with ventricular habronemiasis, which was determined to be the cause of death or a major contributing factor in 10 of the 11 individuals. The number and species affected were 5 Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea), 2 Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus), 2 Golden-headed Manakin (Pipra erythrocephala), 1 Blue-grey Tanager (Thraupis episcopus), and 1 Emerald Starling (Coccycolius iris). Affected animals displayed nonspecific clinical signs or were found dead. The ventricular nematodes were consistent in morphology with Procyrnea sp. Koilin fragmentation with secondary bacterial and fungal infections was the most frequently observed pathologic lesion. Secondary visceral amyloidosis, attributed to chronic inflammation associated with nematodiasis, was present in 4 individuals. An insect intermediate host is suspected but was not identified. Native passerine species within or around the aviary may be serving as sylvatic hosts. Jennifer N. Niemuth, Joni V. Allgood, James R. Flowers, Ryan S. De Voe, and Brigid V. Troan Copyright © 2013 Jennifer N. Niemuth et al. All rights reserved. Apocrine Sweat Gland Ductal Adenoma with Sebaceous Differentiation in a Dog Wed, 18 Dec 2013 14:46:08 +0000 A 7-year-old male, Border Collie, developed a firm mass, measuring approximately 1 cm in diameter, in the left buccal skin. Histologically, the mass was composed of ductal structures lined by bilayered luminal epithelial and basaloid tumor cells along with a few nests of sebaceous cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the luminal epithelial tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK, CAM5.2) and CK19 but not for CK14 or p63. In contrast, the basaloid tumor cells were positive for CK14, p63, and αSMA but not for CK19 or CAM5.2. CK8 expression was observed in both luminal epithelial and basaloid tumor cells. The tumor cells with sebaceous differentiation were positive for CK14 but not for the other markers. This is the first case of an apocrine sweat gland ductal adenoma with sebaceous differentiation occurring in the buccal skin of a dog. Masaki Michishita, Junki Yasui, Rei Nakahira, Hisashi Yoshimura, and Kimimasa Takahashi Copyright © 2013 Masaki Michishita et al. All rights reserved. Vacuum-Assisted Closure Combined with a Myocutaneous Flap in the Management of Osteomyelitis in a Dog Wed, 11 Dec 2013 08:39:00 +0000 Case Description. A 2.5-year-old female spayed mixed breed dog presented to the Teaching Hospital for draining tracts on the left medial aspect of the tibia. Two years prior to presentation, the patient sustained a left tibial fracture, which was repaired with an intramedullary (IM) pin and two cerclage wires. Multiple antimicrobials were utilized during this time. Clinical Findings. Radiographs were consistent with left tibial osteomyelitis. The implant was removed and the wound was debrided. Treatment and Outcome. A bone window on the medial aspect of the tibia was created in order to facilitate implant removal. The wound and associated bone window were treated with vacuum assisted closure (VAC) in preparation for reconstructive surgery. Adjunctive VAC therapy was utilized following the caudal sartorius myocutaneous flap. Complications following this surgery included distal flap necrosis and donor site dehiscence. Clinical Relevance. This presents a difficult case of canine osteomyelitis with subsequent wound care in which VAC and a myocutaneous flap were useful adjunctive treatments for osteomyelitis. This is the first report of VAC in the management of canine osteomyelitis and management with a myocutaneous flap. Jeremy L. Shomper, Julia V. Coutin, and Otto I. Lanz Copyright © 2013 Jeremy L. Shomper et al. All rights reserved. Uveal Hematocysts in a Golden Retriever Dog Sun, 08 Dec 2013 16:26:23 +0000 Case Description. A 7-year-old neutered male golden retriever presented for examination 1 month following the observation of multifocal round brown structures in the anterior chamber of the left eye and similar, but blood-filled, structures in the right eye. Clinical Findings. Ophthalmic examination revealed bilateral iris hyperpigmentation, pigment deposition on the anterior lens capsule, and uveal cysts. The uveal cysts in the right eye were partially blood filled. Clinical findings were consistent with pigmentary uveitis of golden retrievers. Treatment and Outcome. The patient has been maintained on topical anti-inflammatories and no progression of the disease has occurred in eight months. Clinical Relevance. This paper emphasizes the importance of recognizing the unique clinical signs of pigmentary uveitis and highlights uveal hematocysts, a rare manifestation of the disease. Kyle L. Tofflemire, R. David Whitley, Gil Ben-Shlomo, and Rachel A. Allbaugh Copyright © 2013 Kyle L. Tofflemire et al. All rights reserved. Gastric Smooth Muscle Hamartomas Mimicking Polyps in a Dog: A Case Description and a Review of the Literature Mon, 23 Sep 2013 16:15:38 +0000 This report presents a case of two smooth muscle hamartomas of the stomach in a 10-year-old male Boxer. The clinical history of the animal was of chronic vomiting, weight loss, and intermittent gastric distension, and it died because of chronic and congestive heart failure. Gross, histology, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) exams were performed. On necropsy, in the pyloric region of the stomach, two closely related polypoid growths between 10 and 15 mm in diameter were identified. On the cut sections, both polyps presented white to gray color, with homogenous architecture and well-defined limits. The thickness of the submucosal layer was seen to be increased to 1 cm. No other gastric alterations were identified by the necropsy exam. Histologically, both masses growth consisted of hyperplastic glands lined by foveolar epithelium, arranged in a papillary or branching pattern, and supported by a core of well-vascularised and marked smooth muscle tissue interspersed between glands. No dysplastic cells and mitotic figures were observed in these lesions. Immunohistochemistry revealed a strong cytoplasm labelling for smooth muscle actin of the bundles around the mucosal glands. To our knowledge, this is the first report of smooth muscle hamartomas mimicking multiple gastric polyps in dogs. Marian A. Taulescu, Irina Amorim, Fatima Gärtner, Laura Fãrcaş, Mircea V. Mircean, and Cornel Cătoi Copyright © 2013 Marian A. Taulescu et al. All rights reserved. Two Cases of Lacaziosis in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Japan Thu, 12 Sep 2013 10:28:33 +0000 Lacaziosis, formerly called lobomycosis, caused by Lacazia loboi, is a zoonotic mycosis found in humans and dolphins and is endemic in the countries on the Atlantic Ocean. Although the Japanese coast is not considered an endemic area, photographic records of lacaziosis-like skin lesions were found in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that were migrating in the Goto Islands (Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan). We diagnosed 2 cases of lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins captured simultaneously at the same coast within Japanese territory on the basis of clinical characteristics, cytology, histopathology, immunological tests, and detection of partial sequences of a 43 kDa glycoprotein coding gene (gp43) with a nested-PCR system. The granulomatous skin lesions from the present cases were similar to those found in animals from endemic areas, containing multiple budding and chains of round yeast cells and positive in the immune-staining with anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis serum which is a fungal species related to L. loboi; however, the gp43 gene sequences derived from the present cases showed 94.1% homology to P. brasiliensis and 84.1% to L. loboi. We confirmed that the causative agent at the present cases was different genotype of L. loboi from Amazon area. Keiichi Ueda, Ayako Sano, Jyoji Yamate, Eiko Itano Nakagawa, Mitsuru Kuwamura, Takeshi Izawa, Miyuu Tanaka, Yuko Hasegawa, Hiroji Chibana, Yasuharu Izumisawa, Hirokazu Miyahara, and Senzo Uchida Copyright © 2013 Keiichi Ueda et al. All rights reserved. Rapid Evaluation of Mutant Exon-11 in c-kit in a Recurrent MCT Case Using CD117 Immunocytofluorescence, FACS-Cell Sorting, and PCR Tue, 10 Sep 2013 15:05:03 +0000 A 13-year-old, poodle-mixed, male dog was referred to the oncology unit in our faculty’s small animal teaching hospital with the problem of rapid recurrent MCT. The owner and the veterinarian would like to use a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) for the dog. Therefore, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was performed to collect the MCT cells and these cells were submitted to our laboratory for the detection of internal-tandem-duplicated (ITD) mutation of exon-11 in c-kit, prior to the treatment. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the use of combinatorial protocol for the rapid evaluation of ITD mutation in MCT cells harvested by FNA. However, there was no ITD-mutant exon-11 that had been observed in this case. Dettachai Ketpun, Achariya Sailasuta, Prapruddee Piyaviriyakul, Nattawat Onlamoon, and Kovit Pattanapanyasat Copyright © 2013 Dettachai Ketpun et al. All rights reserved. Addisonian Crisis due to Metastatic Adenocarcinoma in a Pygmy Goat Mon, 19 Aug 2013 09:57:37 +0000 A 15-year-old Pygmy doe was evaluated for acute onset of lethargy, anorexia, and weakness. Adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed based on physical exam findings, blood work abnormalities (hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, azotemia, and hypoglycemia), and lack of cortisol response to the ACTH stimulation test. Abdominal ultrasound exam revealed an intact urinary tract and multiple bilateral peri-renal masses. The doe was treated with intravenous fluid therapy aimed at correcting the electrolyte abnormalities and intravenous corticosteroids. She responded favorably to medical therapy in 24 hours, with dramatic improvement in attitude and appetite. Fluid therapy was discontinued, and the doe was discharged from the hospital on steroid supplementation. She deteriorated rapidly and died at home 36 hours after discharge. Necropsy results revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma originating from the uterus that infiltrated the urinary bladder, the region of the adrenal glands, the left and right renal lymph nodes, the left kidney, the caudal vena cava, the submandibular lymph nodes, the diaphragm, the lungs, and the omentum. Addison’s syndrome in ruminants should be considered as an uncommon sequel of intra-abdominal neoplastic processes. Nora Nogradi, Amanda L. Koehne, F. Charles Mohr, Sean D. Owens, and Meera C. Heller Copyright © 2013 Nora Nogradi et al. All rights reserved. Surgical Correction of Patellar Luxation in a Rabbit Wed, 07 Aug 2013 11:37:36 +0000 A two-and-a-half-year-old giant lop-eared rabbit, weighing 5.1 kg, presented with a one-month history of intermittent right hind limb lameness. The limb locked in extension during hopping. On examination, a grade-2 medial patellar luxation of the right hind was diagnosed, with associated stifle joint swelling. Radiographic findings of the right stifle comprised periarticular osteophyte formation consistent with mild degenerative joint disease and joint effusion. Surgical correction involving right trochlear wedge recession sulcoplasty and lateral imbrication was carried out to stabilise the patella in the trochlear groove. The right hind limb lameness resolved, and the patella was stable at a 6-month postoperative examination. One year postoperatively, the right patella was luxating again concurrent with bilateral stifle effusions. Euthanasia was performed twenty months after surgery due to recurrent lameness in the right hind limb. J. Riggs and S. J. Langley-Hobbs Copyright © 2013 J. Riggs and S. J. Langley-Hobbs. All rights reserved. Algal Meningoencephalitis due to Prototheca spp. in a Dog Tue, 30 Jul 2013 08:32:10 +0000 A 6-year-old Boxer was examined because of progressive neurologic signs, with severe hindlimb ataxia and head tilt on presentation. There was no history of diarrhea or vomiting. MRI of the brain revealed multifocal ill-defined T1-enhancing lesions affecting the cerebrum, brainstem, and cervical meninges, without associated mass effect. Meningoencephalitis was considered the most likely diagnosis. Multiple algae were observed on the cytology of the CSF and were most consistent with Prototheca spp. Antiprotozoal treatment was denied by the owners, and 5 weeks after diagnosis, the dog was euthanized due to progression of the neurologic deficits, and a necropsy was performed. Histological changes in the brain were compatible with severe multifocal protothecal meningoencephalitis. The specific Prototheca species was not identified. The gastrointestinal tract was unremarkable on histology. According to this report, Prototheca spp. should be included in the differentials for neurological deficits even in the absence of gastrointestinal signs. Alexandre Le Roux, Sanjeev Gumber, Rudy W. Bauer, Nathalie Rademacher, and Lorrie Gaschen Copyright © 2013 Alexandre Le Roux et al. All rights reserved. Congenital Liver Cyst in a Neonatal Calf Wed, 24 Jul 2013 08:37:08 +0000 Congenital serous cysts attached to the liver capsule are usually small and multiple, but can be solitary, grow extremely large, and become symptomatic. They are considered rare incidental findings during laparotomies or necropsies and thier occurrence is well described in the human literature, with limited reports from the veterinary literature. This report describes the ante-mortem diagnosis and successful surgical removal of a large congenital liver cyst in a neonatal calf. Nora Nogradi, Meera C. Heller, and Betsy Vaughan Copyright © 2013 Nora Nogradi et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Contagious Ecthyma (Orf Virus) in a Nonmanipulated Laboratory Dorset Sheep (Ovis aries) Wed, 10 Jul 2013 09:47:39 +0000 An approximately 5-month-old laboratory wether, originating from a local vendor with a closed flock and maintained on a preventative medicine plan, presented with a continuum of lesions from hemorrhagic papules, vesicles, and pustules, to multifocal necrotic scabs at the commissure of the lips, medial canthus of the left eye, and distal prepuce. A presumptive diagnosis of Orf virus (ORFV) was made and the sheep was euthanized. A full necropsy was performed, and histopathological evaluation of affected tissues revealed multifocal-to-coalescing necrotizing and proliferative cheilitis and dermatitis with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Electron microscopy findings revealed degenerate keratinocytes containing numerous typical 200–300 nm wide cytoplasmic parapoxvirus virions, confirming the diagnosis of ORFV. We believe that this animal developed a clinical case of ORFV either due to an adverse reaction to an ORFV vaccine, or this animal had a case of preexisting ORFV which manifested after arrival at our facility. Gwynne E. Kinley, Connie W. Schmitt, and Julie Stephens-Devalle Copyright © 2013 Gwynne E. Kinley et al. All rights reserved. Aniridia in Two Related Tennessee Walking Horses Wed, 26 Jun 2013 12:06:01 +0000 Aniridia in horses is rare and has previously been reported to be genetically transmitted in Belgian horses and Quarter horses. This paper describes the defect in 2 related Tennessee Walking horses, with special reference to new findings regarding the molecular genetics of ocular development and how they might relate to equine aniridia. In addition to aniridia, these 2 horses possessed additional ocular abnormalities including cataracts and dermoid lesions. Euthanasia was elected, and the eyes were examined histologically. Iris hypoplasia, atypical dermoids, and cataracts were confirmed in both horses. Due to the heritability of aniridia in horses, breeding of affected animals is not recommended. Karen A. McCormick, Daniel Ward, and Kimberly M. Newkirk Copyright © 2013 Karen A. McCormick et al. All rights reserved. Rabies in Two Bison from Colorado Tue, 11 Jun 2013 13:15:11 +0000 Two adult female bison, housed in an outdoor research facility and observed daily, died suddenly three days apart. Minimal coordination and behavioral changes were observed in one animal the evening before being found in a moribund state. Malignant catarrhal fever was suspected in both bison due to a recent confirmed MCF case with similar course. The cause of death was not apparent from necropsy, but brains of both animals were strongly positive for rabies virus antigen by fluorescent antibody and/or immunohistochemical tests. Minimal to mild encephalitis with Negri bodies was observed on histopathology. The bison were located in an area that had not been endemic for skunk rabies; however, a case of rabies in a skunk had been discovered 1.6 km north of the bison paddock two months prior to the bison cases. Jack C. Rhyan, Hana Van Campen, Matt McCollum, Pauline Nol, Rolan Davis, Jennifer P. Barfield, and Mo Salman Copyright © 2013 Jack C. Rhyan et al. All rights reserved. Scleral Rupture Secondary to Idiopathic Non-Necrotizing Scleritis in a Dog Wed, 05 Jun 2013 16:01:35 +0000 Background. Canine granulomatous scleritis is an uncommon disease that can be classified as necrotizing or non-necrotizing. Clinical signs associated with scleritis are typically severe, resulting in pain and loss of vision, and response to treatment is often poor. Necrotizing scleritis has been previously associated with scleral rupture. Case Presentation. A 10-year-old male castrated Chihuahua was presented for periocular pain, tissue swelling adjacent to the limbus superiorly, chemosis, mild corneal edema and neovascularization adjacent to the superotemporal limbus in the right eye. The left eye was within clinically normal limits. Surgical exploration of the right eye revealed a scleral rupture at the inferonasal aspect of the globe. Histopathology revealed a non-necrotizing granulomatous scleritis with no infectious organisms visualized. Infectious disease testing and special histopathologic staining did not reveal an underlying infectious etiology. Conclusion. Granulomatous scleritis is a painful and vision-threatening disease that needs to be treated early and aggressively in order to avoid loss of vision or loss of the eye. Globe rupture secondary to severe non-necrotizing scleritis is an uncommon, but detrimental, clinical manifestation of this disease. This is the first case report of scleral rupture secondary to severe non-necrotizing scleritis and therefore represents a unique and interesting disease manifestation. Lori J. Best, Shelley J. Newman, Daniel A. Ward, and Diane V. H. Hendrix Copyright © 2013 Lori J. Best et al. All rights reserved. Anesthetic Overdose Leading to Cardiac Arrest Diagnosed by End-Tidal Inhalant Concentration Analysis in a Dog Wed, 05 Jun 2013 11:49:13 +0000 A 5-year-old male-castrated Cocker Spaniel presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Georgia for a total ear canal ablation. Premedication was with carprofen 2.2 mg/kg SQ, hydromorphone 0.1 mg/kg IM, diazepam 0.2 mg/kg IM, and glycopyrrolate 0.01 mg/kg IM. The patient was induced with lidocaine 2 mg/kg IV and etomidate 1 mg/kg IV and maintained with sevoflurane and a constant rate infusion consisting of lidocaine 0.05 mg/kg/min. Before surgery start, the patient’s systolic arterial blood pressure was 110 mmHg, heart rate (HR) was 85 beats/min, respiratory rate was 8 breaths/min, end-tidal sevoflurane concentration was 3.2%, and end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) was 23 mmHg. As a scrub was being performed, the patient’s HR abruptly dropped to 20 beats/min over the course of 2 minutes. His ETCO2 simultaneously decreased to 16 mmHg. At this time, cardiopulmonary arrest was diagnosed. After two minutes of resuscitation, a spontaneous heart beat was obtained and the patient was successfully recovered and discharged without further incident. The cardiac arrest in this case is most likely attributable to an overdose of inhalant anesthesia, which was diagnosed by an anesthetic inhalant concentration monitor. A gas analyzer may be a helpful contribution to the small animal practitioner, particularly those performing more lengthy or complex procedures. Erik Hofmeister Copyright © 2013 Erik Hofmeister. All rights reserved. Canine Choroid Plexus Tumor with Intracranial Dissemination Presenting as Multiple Cystic Lesions Wed, 29 May 2013 14:15:20 +0000 A Miniature Pinscher developed acute blindness and behavioral changes. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), there were multiple small intra-axial cystic lesions, and primary differential diagnoses included primary or metastatic neoplasia and neurocysticercosis. These cystic lesions were subsequently diagnosed histopathologically as disseminated choroid plexus carcinoma. This is only the second documented description of this diagnosis in a dog, but both patients had very similar MRI findings. This patient adds to the literature about the MRI characteristics of choroid plexus tumors and indicates that choroid plexus tumor should be considered as a possible cause of small multifocal intra-axial cystic brain lesions in dogs, regardless of whether a primary intraventricular lesion is visible. Trisha J. Oura, Peter J. Early, Samuel H. Jennings, Melissa J. Lewis, Jeremy R. Tobias, and Donald E. Thrall Copyright © 2013 Trisha J. Oura et al. All rights reserved. Mesothelioma in Two Nondomestic Felids: North American Cougar (Felis concolor) and Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Sun, 26 May 2013 10:53:49 +0000 A 15-year-old male North American cougar (Felis concolor) presented with a 2-day history of anorexia, restlessness, and dyspnea. White blood cell count ( cells/μL) and absolute segmented neutrophil count ( cells/μL) were increased, and BUN (143 mg/dL), creatinine (6.3 mg/dL), and phosphorus (8.5 mg/dL) concentrations indicated chronic renal disease. Thoracic radiographs showed severe pleural and pericardial effusion. During attempts to remove the fluid, cardiac tamponade developed and the cat died. At necropsy, nodular masses decorated the pericardium at the level of the base of the heart. The final microscopic diagnosis was mesothelioma of the pericardium, tunica adventitia of the main pulmonary artery, left auricle epicardium, and left ventricular epicardium. A 15-year-old female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) was evaluated for acute respiratory distress. The white blood cell count ( cells/μL) and absolute segmented neutrophil count ( cells/μL) were increased. Radiographically pleural effusion and a cranial thoracic mass were seen. The cheetah was euthanized, and a gross diagnosis of disseminated pleural mesothelioma with thoracic effusion was made. Histologically, pleural mesothelioma was confirmed with local invasion of the lung and pulmonary arterial emboli and infarction. In both cases, a diagnosis of mesothelioma was made based on cellular morphology, microscopic architecture, and neoplastic cell coexpression of cytokeratin and vimentin. Amanda Whiton, Juergen Schumacher, Erika E. Evans, Janelle M. Novak, Amanda Crews, Edward Ramsay, and Robert Donnell Copyright © 2013 Amanda Whiton et al. All rights reserved. Rabies in a Vaccinated 9-Month-Old German Shepherd Dog, Akure, 2010: A Case Report Thu, 02 May 2013 09:06:23 +0000 After the onset of symptoms, the clinical course of rabies is almost invariably fatal. Rabies has traditionally been associated with dogs more than any other animal, and in parts of the world where domestic animal control and vaccination programs are limited, dogs remain the most important reservoir of the disease. We report a case of canine rabies in a vaccinated 9-month-old German shepherd female dog. The presenting clinical sign was jaw muscle paralysis with a hanging bronze color like tongue without salivation. Following encephalectomy, a rabies positive diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescent antibody technique at the Rabies Laboratory, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom. The epidemiology of the rabies case is not understood. This case is of public health significance because of the at-risk population including animal health care service provider and animals. The following were recommended, (a) a reinvigorated control measure that includes the awareness program on prevention, responsible dog ownership with dog registration at veterinary hospitals, and registered veterinary clinics by the government and (b) a yearly rabies vaccination campaign that must be improved through the veterinary public health and other health departments collaborating. A. M. Qasim, A. A. Obadua, P. A. Okewole, I. S. Tekki, and O. S. Omoleye Copyright © 2013 A. M. Qasim et al. All rights reserved. Metastasis of a Prostatic Carcinoma along an Omental Graft in a Dog Wed, 10 Apr 2013 14:47:07 +0000 An 11-year-old male American Bulldog was presented for hematuria and tenesmus. It had been treated for chronic bacterial prostatitis with abscessation two years earlier and underwent castration and a prostatic omentalization procedure. There was no histologic evidence of prostatic neoplasia at that time. On physical examination, an enlarged prostate was found by rectal palpation, and it was characterized with ultrasonography and computed tomography. Surgical biopsies were obtained, and histopathology identified prostatic adenocarcinoma. It received carprofen and mitoxantrone chemotherapy in addition to palliative radiation therapy; it was euthanized six weeks later due to a progression of clinical signs. Necropsy findings included marked localized expansion of the prostatic tumor and dissemination of prostatic carcinoma cells throughout the peritoneal cavity along the omental graft with infiltration onto the serosal surfaces of most abdominal viscera and fat. This case represents a previously unreported potential complication of the omentalization procedure wherein carcinoma cells from a prostatic tumor that independently arose after omentalization may have metastasized along the surgically created omental graft. Terry M. Jacobs, Bruce R. Hoppe, Cathy E. Poehlmann, Marie E. Pinkerton, and Milan Milovancev Copyright © 2013 Terry M. Jacobs et al. All rights reserved. A Leydig Cell Tumour in a Cat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Findings Tue, 09 Apr 2013 11:59:56 +0000 A 13-year-old intact male cat was submitted to castration after the finding of the enlargement of the right testis during the clinical visit. Macroscopically, a nodule of 2 cm of diameter was observed on the cut surface of the enlarged testis. Histologically, the nodule was composed by polyhedral to elongated cells with a large, eosinophilic, and vacuolated cytoplasm and small, round, and dark nuclei. These cells were arranged in acinar structures and solid sheets. The tumour was diagnosed as a Leydig cell tumour. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that neoplastic cells were vimentin, calretinin, and melan-A positive, whereas a lack of immunoreactivity to cytokeratins confirmed the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a feline Leydig cells tumour without any concurrent testicular neoplasm or in a nonretained testis. Pietro Asproni, Francesca Millanta, Davide Lorenzi, and Alessandro Poli Copyright © 2013 Pietro Asproni et al. All rights reserved. Unilateral Subconjunctival and Retrobulbar Hemorrhage Secondary to Brodifacoum Toxicity in a Dog Tue, 26 Mar 2013 15:06:02 +0000 An 8-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog was presented for an acute onset of bleeding around the left eye. Mild exophthalmos and massive subconjunctival hemorrhage on the globe and nictitating membrane were present in the left eye. Retrobulbar hemorrhage was suspected, and pain was implied on opening of the mouth because the patient resisted and vocalized. No other abnormalities were found on ophthalmic or physical examination. Further questioning of the owner confirmed potential brodifacoum ingestion, and prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time were both markedly elevated. Treatment with oral vitamin K1 was implemented, and the subconjunctival hemorrhage was significantly improved within a few days of instituting treatment. All clinical signs of coagulopathy were completely resolved within 4 weeks of presentation. Coagulopathy secondary to brodifacoum ingestion can manifest as severe unilateral bulbar and nictitating membrane subconjunctival hemorrhage and exophthalmos due to retrobulbar hemorrhage without other clinical signs. Sonia E. Kuhn and Diane V. H. Hendrix Copyright © 2013 Sonia E. Kuhn and Diane V. H. Hendrix. All rights reserved. The Use of a Cutting Balloon for Dilation of a Fibrous Esophageal Stricture in a Cat Wed, 13 Feb 2013 18:12:43 +0000 Esophageal strictures are uncommon in cats with causes including medications, ingestion of caustic substances, or gastroesophageal reflux under anesthesia. Bougienage and balloon dilation are the main treatments for strictures but have variable success rates. This paper describes the novel use of a cutting balloon for dilation of a fibrous stricture in a cat that was previously refractory to treatment with traditional balloon dilation. Alexander E. Gallagher and Andrew J. Specht Copyright © 2013 Alexander E. Gallagher and Andrew J. Specht. All rights reserved. Incidental Intracranial Aneurysm in a Dog Detected by 16-Multidetector Row Computed Tomography Angiography Thu, 07 Feb 2013 10:11:11 +0000 This paper describes a small intracranial aneurysm incidentally found in a 24-month-old Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever evaluated for a recent history of lethargy, fever, and cervical pain. The clinicopathological analysis revealed leukocytosis, and increased haptoglobin and C-reactive protein consistent with severe flogistic process. Nonenhanced computed tomography of the brain and cervical spine showed a diffuse encephalopathy and moderate cervical syringohydromyelia. Computed tomography angiography series of the brain showed a small saccular dilation at the joining point of the two rostral cerebral arteries consistent with a small aneurysm. Cerebrospinal fluid examination led to the final diagnosis of aseptic meningitis. The dog was discharge with a long-term corticosteroid therapy for the meningitis. At two-month follow-up evaluation, the cerebrospinal fluid examination was normal and the computed tomography of the brain showed no abnormalities except for the stable aneurysm. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a spontaneous cerebral aneurysm in dogs and serves to broaden the spectrum of cerebrovascular diseases in this species. Giovanna Bertolini Copyright © 2013 Giovanna Bertolini. All rights reserved. Successful Long-Term Use of Itraconazole for the Treatment of Aspergillus Diskospondylitis in a Dog Sun, 20 Jan 2013 15:18:48 +0000 A 5-year-old spayed female German shepherd dog was admitted with a history of generalized stiffness. Neurologic examination revealed mild paraparesis with multifocal spinal pain. Spinal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging revealed diskospondylitis at L6-7 and multiple sites throughout the thoracolumbar spine. Biopsy of the intervertebral disk at L6-7 revealed a positive culture for Aspergillus species, and the dog was placed on itraconazole indefinitely. Clinical signs were significantly improved after two weeks of itraconazole. The dog was reevaluated 8 years later for unrelated reasons. No spinal pain was detected. Spinal radiographs revealed a fused L6-7 disk space and collapsed and sclerotic disk spaces at multiple sites. Itraconazole was tolerated by the dog with normal yearly liver enzyme values. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful long-term use of itraconazole for the treatment of Aspergillus diskospondylitis in a dog. Emiko Van Wie, Annie V. Chen, Stephanie A. Thomovsky, and Russell L. Tucker Copyright © 2013 Emiko Van Wie et al. All rights reserved. Klossiella equi Infection in an Immunosuppressed Horse: Evidence of Long-Term Infection Thu, 06 Dec 2012 13:57:54 +0000 A 13-year-old quarter horse gelding presented with a history of hematuria of approximately 1-year duration, anemia, weight loss over the previous six months, and bilateral nasal discharge of 2-week duration. It was determined that hematuria was most likely caused by the coccidian parasite Klossiella equi. Additional case workup suggested a diagnosis of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. Confirmatory testing was declined by the owners and the horse was discharged on medical therapy. Despite initial improvement after discharge, the horse developed unresolving sinusitis approximately 1 year later and was euthanized. Necropsy confirmed the presence of an adenoma of the pars intermedia of the pituitary gland, supporting the initial diagnosis. Additional findings included multiple developmental stages of K. equi present in the kidneys. This finding demonstrates infections with K. equi can be chronic in nature and supports the association of increased severity of klossiellosis and impaired immune function. Lora R. Ballweber, Deanna Dailey, and Gabriele Landolt Copyright © 2012 Lora R. Ballweber et al. All rights reserved. Followup of a Dog with an Intraocular Silicone Prosthesis Combined with an Extraocular Glass Prosthesis Thu, 11 Oct 2012 15:44:41 +0000 Because of unpredictable corneal changes, evisceration and implantation of a silicone prosthesis does not always lead to a satisfying cosmetic result. This paper describes the use of an intraocular silicone prosthesis in combination with an extraocular glass prosthesis and shows a followup of two and a half years in a nonexperimental study. An intraocular silicone prosthesis was implanted after evisceration of the left eye in a five-month-old Bernese mountain dog. A glass prosthesis was fitted four weeks after evisceration. Two and a half years after the operation, the dog is in good health and free of medication. No short-term or long-term complications were seen. The owners do not have trouble with handling the glass prosthesis. The combination of both prostheses shows a perfect solution to retrieve a normal looking and moving eye after evisceration. Gwendolyna Romkes and Johanna Corinna Eule Copyright © 2012 Gwendolyna Romkes and Johanna Corinna Eule. All rights reserved. A Case of Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma in a Ewe Sun, 30 Sep 2012 08:18:53 +0000 An approximately 2-year-old open Suffolk ewe presented to the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Health Complex for evaluation of a left nasal mass. An ultrasound-guided aspirate and core biopsies were performed. An epithelial neoplasia with mild mixed inflammation (neutrophils and plasma cells) was diagnosed on cytology and confirmed on histopathology. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and transmission electron microscopy were also performed. IHC and RT-PCR identified the presence of enzootic nasal tumor virus and confirmed the final diagnosis of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma. Devorah Marks Stowe, Kevin L. Anderson, James S. Guy, Keith E. Linder, and Carol B. Grindem Copyright © 2012 Devorah Marks Stowe et al. All rights reserved.