Table 1: Studies identified in PUBMED, MEDLINE search.

StudySubjects(Control)YearCytokines measured%∆ VO2Mode of Exercise

Adamapoulos et al. [23]122001Soluble adhesion molecules13Home bike
Adamopoulos et al. [12]242002TNF-alpha, Interleukin-615Home bike
Conraads et al. [16]23 (12)2002TNF-alpha, Interleukin-67.5Bike and resistance training
Ferraz et al. [21]#30 (10)2004TNF-alpha, Interleukin-623Bike
Gielen et al. [2]20 (10)2003TNF-alpha, Interleukin-1, 6 and beta
In both serum and skeletal muscle
29Bike
Karavidas et al. [24]16 (8)2006TNF-alpha, Interleukin-6, 107.5*Electrical stimulation
Larsen et al. [22]#282001TNF-alpha, Interleukin-6,88*Aerobic endurance training and home bike
Larsen et al. [25]252008Plasma Chromogranin A (CgA)8*Aerobic endurance training and home bike
Laoutaris et al. [26]382007TNF-alpha, Interleukin-612Low versus high intensity inspiratory muscle training
LeMaitre et al. [17]#462004TNF-alpha, Interleukin-63Bike and electrical stimulation
Niebauer et al. [27]18 (9)2005TNF-alpha Interleukin-6, e-selectin11Bike
Smart [28]#222008TNF-alpha, Interleukin-6, brain natriurietic peptide (BNP)20Bike
Xu et al. [18]60 (28)2002TNF-alphaUnknownUnknown

*% change in 6-minute walk distance (Peak VO2 not measured). #Study used in this paper.