About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Cardiology Research and Practice
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 537101, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/537101
Research Article

Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Substance Use among University Students

1Department of Psychology, American University, Asbury Building, Washington, DC 20016-8062, USA
2Center for Natural Medicine and Prevention, Maharishi University of Management Research Institute, Maharishi Vedic City, IA 52556, USA
3Center for the Brain, Consciousness, and Cognition, 1000 North 4th Street, Fairfield, IA 52557, USA
4Maharishi University of Management Research Institute, Maharishi Vedic City, IA 52556, USA

Received 18 October 2010; Accepted 20 January 2011

Academic Editor: P. Holvoet

Copyright © 2011 David A. F. Haaga et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. W. Hingson, T. Heeren, R. C. Zakocs, A. Kopstein, and H. Wechsler, “Magnitude of alcohol-related mortality and morbidity among U.S. College students ages 18–24,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 136–144, 2002. View at Scopus
  2. I. Njølstad, E. Arnesen, and P. G. Lund-Larsen, “Smoking, serum lipids, blood pressure, and sex differences in myocardial infarction: a 12-year follow-up of the Finnmark study,” Circulation, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 450–456, 1996. View at Scopus
  3. B. D. Caudill, B. Luckey, S. B. Crosse, H. T. Blane, E. M. Ginexi, and B. Campbell, “Alcohol risk-reduction skills training in a national fraternity: a randomized intervention trial with longitudinal intent-to-treat analysis,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 399–409, 2007. View at Scopus
  4. C. N. Alexander, P. Robinson, and M. Rainforth, “Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: a review and statistical meta-analysis,” Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, vol. 11, no. 1-2, pp. 13–87, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. A. Hawkins, “Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in criminal rehabilitation and substance abuse recovery: a review of the research,” Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, vol. 36, pp. 47–65, 2003.
  6. T. I. Myers and E. J. Eisner, An Experimental Evaluation of the Effects of Karate and Meditation. Final Report for the U.S. Army Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Social Processes Technical Area, American Institutes for Research, Washington, DC, USA, 1974.
  7. A. J. Ottens, “The effect of Transcendental Meditation upon modifying the cigarette smoking habit,” The Journal of School Health, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 577–583, 1975. View at Scopus
  8. R. Roth, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi’s Transcendental Meditation: Revised & Updated Edition, Donald I. Fine, New York, NY, USA, 1994.
  9. Maharishi, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi on the Bhagavad Gita, Penguin, New York, NY, USA, 1969.
  10. F. Travis, “Pure consciousness: distinct phenomenological and physiological correlates of 'consciousness itself',” International Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 100, no. 1–4, pp. 77–89, 2000. View at Scopus
  11. F. Travis and R. K. Wallace, “Autonomic patterns during respiratory suspensions: possible markers of transcendental consciousness,” Psychophysiology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 39–46, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. Yamamoto, Y. Kitamura, N. Yamada, Y. Nakashima, and S. Kuroda, “Medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in the generation of alpha activity induced by Transcendental Meditation: a magnetoencephalographic study,” Acta Medica Okayama, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 51–58, 2006. View at Scopus
  13. F. Travis and R. K. Wallace, “Autonomic and eeg patterns during eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice: the basis for a neural model of tm practice,” Consciousness and Cognition, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 302–318, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. F. Travis, J. Tecce, A. Arenander, and R. K. Wallace, “Patterns of EEG coherence, power, and contingent negative variation characterize the integration of transcendental and waking states,” Biological Psychology, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 293–319, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Newberg, F. Travis, N. Wintering, S. Nidich, A. Alavi, and R. Schneider, “Cerebral glucose metabolic changes associated with Transcendental Meditation practice,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Neural Imaging, Miami, Fla, USA, August 2006.
  16. R. Jevning, R. K. Wallace, and M. Beidebach, “The physiology of meditation: a review. A wakeful hypometabolic integrated response,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 415–424, 1992. View at Scopus
  17. S. E. McCabe, M. Morales, J. A. Cranford, J. Delva, M. D. McPherson, and C. J. Boyd, “Race/ethnicity and gender differences in drug use and abuse among college students,” Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 75–95, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Z. A. T. Harrell and N. M. Karim, “Is gender relevant only for problem alcohol behaviors? An examination of correlates of alcohol use among college students,” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 359–365, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. S. Reinhardt, G. Bischof, J. Grothues, U. John, C. Meyer, and H. J. Rumpf, “Gender differences in the efficacy of brief interventions with a stepped care approach in general practice patients with alcohol-related disorders,” Alcohol and Alcoholism, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 334–340, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. P. M. O'Malley and L. D. Johnston, “Epidemiology of alcohol and other drug use among American college students,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Supplement, supplement 14, pp. 23–39, 2002.
  21. K. G. Walton, R. H. Schneider, and S. Nidich, “Review of controlled research on the Transcendental Meditation program and cardiovascular disease: risk factors, morbidity, mortality,” Cardiology in Review, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 262–266, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. W. J. Korotitsch and R. O. Nelson-Gray, “An overview of self-monitoring research in assessment and treatment,” Psychological Assessment, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 415–425, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. C. Sobell and M. B. Sobell, “Timeline follow-back: a technique for assessing self-reported alcohol consumption,” in Measuring Alcohol Consumption: Psychosocial and Biochemical Methods, R. Z. Litten and J. P. Allen, Eds., pp. 41–72, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, USA, 1992.
  24. W. R. Shadish, G. E. Matt, A. M. Navarro et al., “Evidence that therapy works in clinically representative conditions,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 355–365, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. M. Aron and A. Aron, “The patterns of reduction of drug and alcohol use among Transcendental Meditation participants,” Bulletin of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors, vol. 2, pp. 28–33, 1983.
  26. A. Royer, “The role of the Transcendental Meditation technique in promoting smoking cessation: a longitudinal study,” Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, vol. 11, no. 1-2, pp. 221–239, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. W. S. Slutske, “Alcohol use disorders among US college students and their non-college-attending peers,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 321–327, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus