Table 1: Summary of percutaneous devices.

DeviceStudyDesignNumber of patientsInclusion criteriaMean F/UResultsComments

LARIATLee et al. [39]Prospective82AF; C/I to warfarin or intolerance to warfarin or pts who have had an embolic event on whilst on warfarin3 months96% of patients with successful closure continued to have complete closure at 1 month(i) Requires both endocardial and epicardial access
(ii) Unsuitable in patients with possible pericardial adhesions
(e.g., prior history of coronary artery bypass surgery, valvular surgery, pericarditis, and chest radiotherapy)
(iii) Clinical trial data pending
(iv) FDA and CE mark
APPROVED for commercial use

WATCHMAN Reddy et al. (PROTECT AF) [33]RCT707Permanent or paroxysmal AF; CHADS2 ≥ 1; suitable for warfarin18 monthsProbability of noninferiority of the intervention was more than 99.9%(i) Efficacy demonstrated in
clinical trial
(ii) CE mark APPROVED for commercial use

AMPLATZER cardiac plugPark et al. [35]Registry141Permanent or paroxysmal AF24 hours after-implantationStroke 2.1% Device embolisation 1.4% Pericardial tamponade 3.5%(i) Clinical trial data pending
(ii) CE mark APPROVED for commercial use

AMPLATZER septal occluderMeier et al. [28]Prospective16Permanent or paroxysmal AF;
C/I to warfarin
4 monthsTIA/stroke 0%
Device embolisation 6.3%
(i) Not a dedicated LAA occluder
(ii) Has been superseded by the AMPLATZER Cardiac Plug for
LAA occlusion
(iii) Not in Commercial use

PLAATOOstermayer et al. [30]Prospective111Permanent nonrheumatic AF; patients at risk for stroke; C/I to warfarin10 monthsTIA/stroke 2.2%(i) No longer available for clinical use
Block et al. [31]Prospective64Permanent or paroxysmal AF; CHADS2 ≥ 2;
C/I to warfarin
5 yearsStroke: 3.8%

Coherex Wave Crest Muller (currently recruiting) [36]Prospective52- actively recruitingPermanent or paroxysmal nonvalvular AF; CHADS2 ≥ 1 Data available on 10 cases only, 1 embolic event(i) Retractable coils and anchors to enable optimal device positioning
(ii) Clinical trial data pending
(iii) Not in commercial use

C/I: contraindication and AF: atrial fibrillation.