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Cardiology Research and Practice
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 754181, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/754181
Clinical Study

Eicosapentaenoic Acid Supplementation Changes Fatty Acid Composition and Corrects Endothelial Dysfunction in Hyperlipidemic Patients

1Second Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Hematology and Rheumatology, University of the Ryukyus Graduate School of Medicine, Okinawa 903-0215, Japan
2Diabetes and Life-Style Related Disease Center, Tomishiro Chuo Hospital, Okinawa 901-0243, Japan
3Department of Cardio-Diabetes Medicine, The University of Tokushima Graduate School of Health Biosciences, 3-18-15 Kuramoto, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan
4Cardiovascular Division, Naha City Hospital, Okinawa 902-8511, Japan
5Cardiovascular Division, Tomishiro Chuo Hospital, Okinawa 901-0243, Japan
6Cardiovascular Division, Shonan Hospital, Okinawa 904-0034, Japan
7Heart Center, Wajiro Hospital, Fukuoka 811-0213, Japan
8Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of the Ryukyus Graduate School of Medicine, Okinawa 903-0215, Japan
9Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The University of Tokushima Graduate School of Health Biosciences, 3-18-15 Kuramoto, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan

Received 31 July 2012; Accepted 11 September 2012

Academic Editor: Chim Choy Lang

Copyright © 2012 Ken Yamakawa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We investigated the effects of purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on vascular endothelial function and free fatty acid composition in Japanese hyperlipidemic subjects. In subjects with hyperlipidemia (total cholesterol  mg/dL and/or triglycerides  mg/dL), lipid profile and forearm blood flow (FBF) during reactive hyperemia were determined before and 3 months after supplementation with 1800 mg/day EPA. Peak FBF during reactive hyperemia was lower in the hyperlipidemic group than the normolipidemic group. EPA supplementation did not change serum levels of total, HDL, or LDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins, remnant-like particle (RLP) cholesterol, RLP triglycerides, or malondialdehyde-modified LDL cholesterol. EPA supplementation did not change total free fatty acid levels in serum, but changed the fatty acid composition, with increased EPA and decreased linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation recovered peak FBF after 3 months. Peak FBF recovery was correlated positively with EPA and EPA/arachidonic acid levels and correlated inversely with dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation restores endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in hyperlipidemic patients despite having no effect on serum cholesterol and triglyceride patterns. These results suggest that EPA supplementation may improve vascular function at least partly via changes in fatty acid composition.