409478.fig.003a
(a) Sphere-2D
409478.fig.003b
(b) Sphere-20D
409478.fig.003c
(c) Rosenbrock-2D
409478.fig.003d
(d) Rosenbrock-20D
409478.fig.003e
(e) Rastrigin-2D
409478.fig.003f
(f) Rastrigin-20D
409478.fig.003g
(g) Ackley-2D
409478.fig.003h
(h) Ackley-20D
409478.fig.003i
(i) Griewank-2D
409478.fig.003j
(j) Griewank-20D
409478.fig.003k
(k) Schwefel2.22-2D
409478.fig.003l
(l) Schwefel2.22-20D
Figure 3: Convergence plots of BFOLS, BFO, PSO, and GA on functions  –  with dimensions of 2 and 20.