Table 1: Properties of the test function.

Function nameExpressionSearch rangeOptimization value

Sphere function

Rosenbrock function

Ackley function
      

Griewank function
   

Rastrigin function

Noncontinuous Rastrigin function
     .

Schwefel function

Weierstrass function
     ,
   

Rotated Ackley function −32.768,
      

Rotated Griewank function
   

Rotated Rastrigin function

Rotated noncontinuous Rastrigin function
  
  

Rotated Schwefel function
    ,
   

Rotated Weierstrass function
    
   

Hybrid composition function 1 (CF 1) marked as in the CEC2005 benchmark problem set [24] and is composed of ten sphere functions Min(CF1) = 0

Hybrid composition function 2 (CF2) marked as in the CEC2005 benchmark problem set [24] and is composed of two rotated Rastrigin functions, two rotated Weierstrass functions, two rotated Griewank functions, two rotated Ackley functions, and two sphere functions. Min(CF2) = 0