% denotes the set of the particles of all SCs that particle is a member of |

% represents the corresponding fitness value of an array |

(1) **Function** comprehensive_learning () |

(2) **For** each particle |

(3) **For** each dimension % |

(4) * * |

(5) * ***For** each particle %*ps-*swarm size |

(6) **If **(*j* is the member in )&&/ |

(7) % denotes |

any particle’s *pbest * |

(8) % the particle ID |

(9) |

(10) **Next** *j * |

(11) % the dimension exemplar of the particle |

(12) **Next** *k * |

(13) Output |

(14) * ***Next** |

(15) |