Table 3: Dimension, search space, and global optimum of the test functions.

Test functions and formulas Global optimum ( ) search Space

Unrotated functionSphere 30[0,0,…,0]0[−100,100]30
Rosenbrock 30[1,1,…,1]0[−2.048,2.048]30
Ackley 30 [0,0,…,0] 0 [−32.768,32.768]30
     
Griewanks 30[0,0,…,0]0[−600,600]30
Rastrigin 30[0,0,…,0]0[−5.12,5.12]30
Rastrigin-noncont 30[0,0,…,0]0[−5.12,5.12]30

Rotated functionAckley 30[0,0,…,0]0[−32.768,32.768]30
Rastrigin 30[0,0,…,0]0[−5.12,5.12]30
Rastrigin-noncont 30[0,0,…,0]0[−5.12,5.12]30
Rosenbrock 30[0,0,…,0]0[−2.048,2.048]30