936024.fig.002a
(a)
936024.fig.002b
(b)
936024.fig.002c
(c)
936024.fig.002d
(d)
Figure 2: The dynamic behavior of the microorganism-free equilibrium with the parameters , , , , , , and . (a) Time series of the substrate concentration. (b) Time series of the microorganism extinction. (c) Time series of the effort loss. (d) Phase space trajectories of the microorganism-free equilibrium.