936024.fig.003a
(a)
936024.fig.003b
(b)
936024.fig.003c
(c)
936024.fig.003d
(d)
Figure 3: The dynamic behavior of the effort-free equilibrium with the parameters , , , , , , and . (a) Time series of the substrate concentration. (b) Time series of the microorganism concentration. (c) Time series of the effort loss. (d) Phase space trajectories of the effort-free equilibrium.