358930.fig.001a
(a)
358930.fig.001b
(b)
358930.fig.001c
(c)
358930.fig.001d
(d)
Figure 1: Time series of system (11) when . (a) , without taking any pest-management strategy; (b) , with spraying pesticide (or harvesting) only; (c) , with releasing of predator (natural enemy) only; (d) , with taking integrated pest-management strategy.