Table 3: Comparison of the best solutions.

Solution approachesTotal cost ($)Route no.Average length per route (miles)Average frequency per route (trips/hour)Average computational time (seconds)

Saving heuristics [6]6824 161.0521.06
Displacement heuristics [14]6363180.8422.54
Basic TS [14]6355180.8522.18
TS with intensification [16]6371190.8022.7613.8
GA (in this paper) 6281 15 1.01 22.01 21.6