- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society

Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 192387, 6 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/192387

## Fuzzy Adaptive Prescribed Performance Control for MIMO Uncertain Chaotic Systems in Nonstrict Feedback Form

Department of Mathematics and Computational Science, Huainan Normal University, 238 Dongshan West Road, Huainan 232038, China

Received 22 January 2014; Revised 27 March 2014; Accepted 13 April 2014; Published 29 April 2014

Academic Editor: Wenwu Yu

Copyright © 2014 Yeguo Sun and Heng Liu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

This paper presents a fuzzy adaptive control method for MIMO uncertain chaotic systems in nonstrict feedback form, which is capable of guaranteeing the prescribed performance bounds. For the prescribed performance bounds, we mean that the tracking error should converge to a predefined arbitrarily small set, with convergence rate no more than a prescribed value. A novel output error transformation is introduced to transform the original constrained system into an equivalent unconstrained one, and it is proved that the stabilization of the unconstrained system is sufficient to solve the problem. Based on the error transformation technique, a fuzzy adaptive controller is designed for the unconstrained system. For updating the parameters of the fuzzy logic systems, a proportional-integral adaptation law is proposed. Finally, an illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

#### 1. Introduction

Chaotic systems have complex dynamical behaviors that possess some special features such as having bounded trajectories in the phase space with positive leading Lyapunov exponent and being extremely sensitive to small variations of initial conditions. Nowadays, chaos has lots of useful applications in information processing, secure communication, biological engineering, lasers, chemical processing, and many other areas [1–3]. However, chaotic behavior can also result in destructive effects; therefore, the undesired chaotic phenomenon needs to be suppressed. The problem of chaos control was firstly studied by Ghezzi and Piccardi [4]. Since then, several control techniques have been successfully applied for the control of chaotic systems, including PID control, observer-based control, adaptive feedback control, sliding mode control, adaptive fuzzy control, and adaptive backstepping control [5–7]. Most of the aforementioned methods have assumed that the model of the chaotic system is known. However, from the viewpoint of practice, most of the chaotic systems are disturbed by external disturbances and model uncertainties. It is worth mentioning that the existence of uncertainties may lead to notable performance degradations or even instability of the control system. So it is more advisable to take the effects of the system uncertainties and external disturbances into account.

Another important issue associated with the adaptive control of nonlinear system is tracking error performance. Traditionally, nonlinear adaptive control designs guarantee convergence of the tracking error to a residual set, whose size depends on explicit design parameters and some unknown bounded terms. However, on the one hand, no systematic procedure exists to accurately compute the required upper bounds. The problem has been relaxed for feedback linearizable systems in [8, 9]. On the other hand, performance issues on transient behavior (i.e., overshoot and undershoot convergence rate) are hard to be established analytically, even if the nonlinearities are completely known. In [10], norm of the tracking error which is derived to be a function of initial estimation errors and design parameters is studied. Contributions in guaranteeing prescribed transient and steady state output error bounds can be found in [11–15]. In [11, 12], the tracking error can converge to a neighborhood of prescribed radius , while, in [13], funnel control is established in the light of which the achieved transient behavior is governed by a dynamic gain involving the required transient response characteristics. In [14], a robust adaptive control scheme for SISO strict feedback nonlinear systems is proposed, which is capable of guaranteeing prescribed performance bounds. In [15], a universal prescribed performance controller is designed for cascade systems involving dynamic uncertainty, unknown nonlinearities, and exogenous disturbances.

To the best of our knowledge, there are few literatures dealing with the prescribed performance control problem for MIMO uncertain chaotic systems in nonstrict feedback form. Inspired by the works in [14, 15], we investigate the tracking control with guaranteed prescribed performance for MIMO uncertain chaotic systems. The unknown nonlinear functions are approximated by fuzzy logic systems. Compared with the related works, the main contributions are listed as follows. (1) The system we consider is not only MIMO but also in nonstrict feedback form. (2) An adaptation PI law based on -modification is proposed to update the fuzzy parameters. (3) External perturbations are considered in the system.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. The problem formulation and preliminaries are given in Section 2. The adaptive fuzzy control design with prescribed performance is proposed in Section 3. Section 4 provides a simulation example to illustrate the effectiveness of our results. Finally, Section 5 gives some concluding remarks.

#### 2. Problem Formulation and Preliminaries

Consider the following chaotic dynamic system: where is the system state vector which is assumed to be available for measurement. is the control input and , , are external perturbations. , , are unknown nonlinear functions, and , , are known constant control gains.

Denote Then, system (1) can be rewritten as

*Remark 1. *It should be noted that lots of chaotic systems can be described as the form of (3), such as Lorenz system, Chen system, unified chaotic system, multiscroll chaotic systems, Chua’s circuit, and many others.

The objective of this paper is to construct a fuzzy adaptive controller such that(P1)the system state tracks the reference signal , and all the signals in the closed-loop system remain bounded;(P2)the prescribed transient and steady state behavioral bounds on the tracking error , , are achieved.

To meet the objective, we make the following assumptions.

*Assumption 2. *The control gain matrix is positive definite.

*Assumption 3. *The desired trajectory is a known bounded differentiable function.

*Remark 4. *In fact, there are many physical systems, such as robotic systems and electrical machines, which satisfy Assumption 2. In addition, Assumption 3 is reasonable as well. Similar assumptions can be found in [2, 6, 16, 17].

##### 2.1. Description of the Fuzzy Logic System

The basic configuration of a fuzzy logic system consists of a fuzzifier, some fuzzy IF-THEN rules, a fuzzy inference engine, and a defuzzifier. The fuzzy inference engine uses the fuzzy IF-THEN rules to perform a mapping from an input vector to an output . The th fuzzy rule is written as where are fuzzy sets and is the fuzzy singleton for the output in the th rule. By using the singleton fuzzifier, product inference, and the center-average defuzzifier, the output of the fuzzy system can be expressed as follows: where is the degree of membership of to , is the number of fuzzy rules, is the adjustable parameter vector, and , where is the fuzzy basis function. It is assumed that fuzzy basis functions are selected so that there is always at least one active rule.

#### 3. Adaptive Fuzzy Control Design with Prescribed Performance

P2 is introduced in the analysis with the help of the performance function which translates the prescribed performance characteristics into tracking error constraints.

*Definition 5. *A smooth function is called a performance function if is decreasing and .

Hence, we can guarantee P2 by satisfying for all and is a performance function associated with the tracking error . The constant represents the maximum allowable size of the tracking error at the steady state, and the decreasing rate of the performance function represents a lower bound on the required speed of convergence of . The aforementioned statements are shown in Figure 1.

##### 3.1. Error Transformation

In order to meet the control objective, we introduce an error transformation technique, which can transform the original nonlinear system into an equivalent unconstrained system.

Define where are performance functions, are the transformed errors, and are smooth, strictly increasing functions and satisfy the following conditions: Obviously, if is bounded, we can obtain . Therefore, we have . That is to say, if are kept bounded, we can guarantee (7).

Note that are strictly increasing functions, and we have the following inverse transformation: Differentiating (10) with respect to time yields Let us define Then (11) can be rewritten as Let , , , . Then (13) can be written as the following compact form:

*Remark 6. *There exist smooth and strictly increasing functions which satisfy condition (9). For example, we can choose the function .

##### 3.2. Adaptive Fuzzy Control Design

Since the nonlinear function is unknown, we employ fuzzy systems to approximate it. By the fuzzy logic systems (5), the nonlinear function can be approximated as where is the th element of the nonlinear function . Let us define the ideal parameters of as Define the parameter estimation errors and the fuzzy approximation errors as follows: with . As in the literature [2], we can assume that the fuzzy approximation error is bounded for all ; that is, , where is unknown constant. Let , . Then we can get . From the above analysis, we have where . Then the controller can be constructed as with where with , , are free positive constants of the design. are the design parameters.

Multiplying to (14) and using (18)–(20), we obtain that In order to meet the control objective, and the fuzzy parameters are updated by with , and are design constants.

*Remark 7. *It should be noted that, compared with the related literatures, a new PI adaption law (22) is proposed in this paper. In (22), the term , which is borrowed from the -modification concept, has the task of keeping the parameter bounded, and are proportional terms which can make the fuzzy parameters a fast convergence.

Now we turn back to our original problem that designing a controller in the form of (19) such that P1 and P2 are satisfied. The solution of this problem is given by the following theorem.

Theorem 8. *Consider system (3). Suppose that Assumptions 2 and 3 are satisfied. Then controller (19) with the adaption law given by (22) can guarantee the transient and steady state tracking error behavioral bounds introduced by the performance function and the output transformation (10). Furthermore, the transformed system is sufficient to guarantee the prescribed performance.*

*Proof. *Consider the following Lyapunov function:
The time derivative of is given by
From (21) and (22), we have
By using the inequality , we have
Then we have

If we choose , then it yields that
Therefore, is always negative, which implies that and . Since keep bounded, we have . This completes the proof.

*Remark 9. *In order to avoid the algebraic loop problem in (22), the adaption law can be rewritten as

*Remark 10. *Compared with the results in [8, 9], the external perturbations are considered in the paper. Meanwhile, the system we considered is of nonstrict feedback form.

#### 4. Simulation Results

In this section, a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Let us consider the well-known Lü chaotic system which is known as a bridge between the Lorenz system and Chen system [18–20]: where For each variable of the inputs, we define seven Gaussian membership functions uniformly distributed on the interval . We choose the initial values of parameters of the fuzzy systems as , . The external disturbances are assumed to be . The initial values of the system are selected as . The desired trajectory is . The transient and steady state errors are prescribed through the performance functions , and the transformation functions are . The design parameters are chosen as follows: , , , , , .

The simulation results are shown in Figures 2 and 3, which show that the output tracking with prescribed performance has been achieved.

#### 5. Conclusion

This paper has proposed a robust adaptive fuzzy control method for uncertain chaotic systems with unknown disturbances, which is capable of guaranteeing a prescribed performance. By using prescribed performance functions, we transform the system into an equivalent one, and it is sufficient to guarantee ultimate boundedness property of the transformed output error and a uniform boundedness of other signals in the closed-loop system. Simulation results have shown the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

#### Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

#### Acknowledgment

This work was partly supported by the University Natural Science Foundation of Anhui Province no. KJ2013A239 and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funded Project no. 2014M550241.

#### References

- G. Chen and X. Dong,
*From Chaos to Order: Methodologies, Perspectives and Applications*, World Scientific, Singapore, 1998. View at MathSciNet - A. Boulkroune and M. M'saad, “A practical projective synchronization approach for uncertain chaotic systems with dead-zone input,”
*Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation*, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 4487–4500, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - H. Liu, H. J. Yu, and W. Xiang, “Adaptive fuzzy nonlinear inversion-based control for uncertain chaotic systems,”
*Chinese Physics B*, vol. 21, no. 12, Article ID 120505, 2012. - L. L. Ghezzi and C. Piccardi, “PID control of a chaotic systemml: an application to an epidemiological model,”
*Automatica*, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 181–191, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - M. Feki, “An adaptive feedback control of linearizable chaotic systems,”
*Chaos, Solitons and Fractals*, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 883–890, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - A. Boulkroune and M. M. ’Saad, “A fuzzy adaptive variable-structure control scheme for
uncertain chaotic MIMO systems with sector nonlinearities and dead-zones,”
*Expert Systems with Application*, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 14744–14750, 2011. - G. Ablay, “Sliding mode control of uncertain unified chaotic systems,”
*Nonlinear Analysis. Hybrid Systems*, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 531–535, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - H. Xu and P. A. Ioannou, “Robust adaptive control for a class of MIMO nonlinear systems with guaranteed error bounds,”
*IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control*, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 728–742, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - H. Xu and P. A. Ioannou, “A flat-zone modification for robust adaptive control of nonlinear output feedback systems with unknown high-frequency gains,”
*IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control*, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 358–363, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - C. P. Bechlioulis and G. A. Rovithakis, “Adaptive control with guaranteed transient and steady state tracking error bounds for strict feedback systems,”
*Automatica*, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 532–538, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - C. P. Bechlioulis and G. A. Rovithakis, “Robust partial-state feedback prescribed performance control of cascade systems with unknown nonlinearities,”
*IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control*, vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 2224–2230, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - J. Zhou, C. Wen, and Y. Zhang, “Adaptive backstepping control of a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with unknown backlash-like hysteresis,”
*IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control*, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1751–1757, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - Y. Xudong, “Universal $\lambda $-tracking for nonlinearly-perturbed systems without restrictions on the relative degree,”
*Automatica*, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 109–119, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - E. Bullinger and F. Allgöwer, “Adaptive $\lambda $-tracking for nonlinear higher relative degree systems,”
*Automatica*, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 1191–1200, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - A. Ilchmann and E. P. Ryan, “High-gain control without identification: a survey,”
*GAMM-Mitteilungen*, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 115–125, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - Y. P. Pan, Y. Zhou, T. R. Sun, and M. J. Er, “Composite adaptive fuzzy ${H}_{\infty}$ tracking control of uncertain nonlinear systems,”
*Neurocomputing*, vol. 99, pp. 15–24, 2013. - Y. P. Pan and M. J. Er, “Enhanced adaptive fuzzy control with optimal approximation error convergence,”
*IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems*, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1123–1132, 2013. - J. Lü, G. Chen, and D. Cheng, “A new chaotic system and beyond: the generalized Lorenz-like system,”
*International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos in Applied Sciences and Engineering*, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1507–1537, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - J. Lü, G. Chen, X. Yu, and H. Leung, “Design and analysis of multiscroll chaotic attractors from saturated function series,”
*IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems*, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 2476–2490, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - J. Luo and H. Liu, “Adaptive Fractional Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control for Multivariable Nonlinear Systems,”
*Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society*, vol. 2014, Article ID 541918, 10 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet