begin
 Objective function
 Generate initial population of host nests
while  ( ) or (stop criterion)
  Get a cuckoo randomly/generate a solution by Lévy flights and evaluate its quality fitness
  Choose a nest among (say, ) randomly
  if   ( ),
   Replace by the new solution ( )
  end
  A fraction ( ) of worse nests is abandoned and new ones/solutions are built/generated
  Keep best solutions (or nests with quality solutions)
  Rank the solutions and find the current best
end  while
 Postprocess results and visualization
end
Algorithm 1: The pseudocode of the applied cuckoo search algorithm.