**begin** |

Objective function |

Generate initial population of host nests |

**while **() or (stop criterion) |

* *Get a cuckoo randomly/generate a solution by Lévy flights and evaluate its quality fitness |

* *Choose a nest among (say, ) randomly |

* ***if **(), |

* *Replace by the new solution () |

* ***end** |

* *A fraction () of worse nests is abandoned and new ones/solutions are built/generated |

* *Keep best solutions (or nests with quality solutions) |

* *Rank the solutions and find the current best |

**end while** |

Postprocess results and visualization |

**end** |